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Vol. XII 

January, 1941 
On the Cover 

No. 12 

Orson Welles, in the title role of "Citizen Kane." making a political address. 
See also pages 4, 5, 6 and 7. 


Montage — Page 3 

Co-operative Research Lab — Page 8 
Four Lears in an Ice House — Page 11 
Cameraman in the Air, Morris — Page 17 
Columbia's Quake, Rosen — Page 21 


"Liquid Sunshine,'" Mortensen — Page 2 

"Citizen Kane," Kahle — Pages 4, 5, 6, 7 

"I Wanted Wings," Lobben and Morris — Pages 14, 15, 16 


16 mm Department — Page 22 
Television — Page 23 
Tradewinds — Page 25 
Patents — Page 26 
They Say — Page 27 

Editor, Herbekt Allek 

Business Manager, Helen Boyce. Art Editor, John Corydon Hill. 

Contributing Editors: D. K. Allison, George Hurrell, J. N. A. Hawkins, Roman 
Freulich, Ernest Bachrach, Alvin Wyckoff, William V. Draper, Fred Gately, 
George Scheibe. 

Copyright, 1941, by Local 659, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada. 

Entered as Second Class matter, Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

International Photographer, as the monthly official publication of International Pho 
tographers, Local 659, of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, not only 
represents the entire personnel of photographers engaged in professional produc- 
tion of motion pictures in the United States and Canada, but also serves technicians 
in the studios and theatres, who are members of the International Alliance, as well 
as executives and creative artists of the production community and executives and 
engineers of the manufacturing organizations serving the motion picture industry. 
International Photographer assumes no responsibility for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts or material. 

Subscription Rates: U.S.A., $2.50; Canada-Foreign, $3.00 per year. Single Copy, 25 cents. 
Australian Representative: McGill's News Agency, Melbourne. 

Office of Publication: 6461 Sunset Blvd. (Los Angeles P. 0.), Hollywood, California 

Telephone: Hillside 9189 
Publication Date: 5th of Each Month 





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By William Mortensen 



The studied carelessness of effect, told in 
a few feet of film, must be carefully exact. 

Montage! A little known but lusty infant 
imong the sundry arts whose final assem- 
)ly is the motion picture production. Little 
;nown. but growing fast. Paced by its own 
nner fire "tempo," it has seemingly at one 
troke surged to a position of major influ- 
■nce as a tool for telling the picture story. 

Define montage? No. As well define an 
a mood, induced by the in- 
creates impressions — 


angible. Montage 

noods. Through its devious mechanics the 

nontage says, "It is Spring!"; "This is a 

onely house!"; or "This man drinks too 

nuch and is unkind to old ladies and little 


Montage mounts its impressions with 
consummate cunning. The impact of its 
inferences are at once studied and careless, 
never to be analyzed, yet instantly under- 
stood. Tempo is the life and blood of mon- 
tage. Whole chapters of a novel may tell 
of the boyhood struggles of a leading 
character. Montage says it in eighty cryp- 
tic feet. When, in a picture, a montage 
impression has passed, an audience must 
know and understand its message as thor- 
oughly as the one created in a novel. 

So montage, with all its studied careless- 
ness of effect, has in its practice and 
achievement of this effect all the craft and 


phoToqRApkERs of tIie nucIe 


The Artist in all times has been sub- 
ected to various limitations. He is limited 
>y the peculiarities of his medium and the 
naterials he works with. He is limited by 
economic stringency and social prejudice, 
rhese are time-honored limitations. Oddest 
)f all, perhaps, and most annoying, is the 
imitation of the contemporary photogra- 
pher by postal regulations. 

Our postal regulations are sometimes 
strange. Some of the strangest are those 
in the use of the nude in photography. 
Under them, a nude is very apt to be 
udged ipso facto obscene — no matter what 
ts aesthetic worth. At the same time, a 
lude rendered in any other medium re- 
ceives the official blessing — no matter what 
is aesthetic worth — because it is "Art." 
\11 of which points to very confused think- 
ng among those who make the rulings. 

For their predicament, the photogra- 
ahers themselves are not wholly without 
jlame. For, by bad taste, by offensive 
iteralness, by vulgarity, and by occasional 
lownright lewdness, a few thoughtless and 
gnorant photographers have brought re- 

proach upon sincere workers in this deli- 
cate and difficult field of pictorialism. But 
to base official rulings upon these offensive 
performances, and upon these alone, is ob- 
viously absurd — just as it would be absurd 
to judge the moral worth of English po- 
etry by the specimens that sometimes ap- 
pear on the walls of public lavatories. 

The photography of the nude must not 
be attempted frivolously, or in any mood 
of casual experimentation. The nude is 
the most difficult of all things to do in 
photography. Despite all your care, not 
more than one exposure in a thousand 
will be worth saving. Yet it is a labor 
worth while; for the human body, rightly 
comprehended, expresses the essence of 
all plastic form, of all beauty. 

Data on the Picture 

Leica camera, 50 mm Summitar lens; 
Agfa Finegrain Plenachrome, without fil- 
ter; developed in DK 20; printed on De- 
fender I 22, with Powder and Abrasion. 

precision of a musical composition. 
"Tempo" is the uncompromising master 
who remorselessly dictates every device 
and part of montage. Do the years pass? 
They fly like a shower of leaves! Does the 
locale change? Before you the world spins 
to a new continent! Is it spring, and does 
"our hero" lazily catch fish? It is and he 
does — in seven feet! Tempo — simplicity 
— mood - - symbolism — action - - im- 
pact — montage! 

Naturally, for this complex medium, 
new methods, new conceptions have been 
imperative. Gone quickly were the first 
faltering steps of assembling cuts from the 
production itself. At best the message was 
muddled, halting and of dubious value. 
Montage must be made for its own pur- 
pose, carefully, exactly. 

Today a script scene says: "Montage. 
Purpose: Boy and girl thrown more con- 
stantly together develop love to the point 
of marriage. Cut to ..." A large order! 
A story in itself. And, as is learned, the 
picture is long so it must be told in fifty 
feet of film. At the beginning of this mon- 
tage a boy has just met a girl. At the end 
of this montage the audience must feel 
that it is high time he slipped the ring on 
the proper finger! 

At Warner Bros, the problem is attacked 
in the most advanced manner. The Special 
Effects department has as one of its busiest 
divisions the montage unit. This unit is a 
miniature production company in itself. 
Director Donald Siegel includes in his 
crew his editor, James Leicester; his assist- 
ant Fred Tyler; prop man "Pat" Patter- 
son. Head einematographer Robert Burks 
has in his crew; second man Archie Dal- 
zell, assistant James Bell. 

Siegel, Burks and Leicester form the 
council of war on the planning of the me- 
chanics of the montage "productions." 
When the precedure has been set, these 
scenes are released in script form, budg- 
eted and scheduled as carefully as any part 
of the main picture. 

Of especial interest in the shooting of 
montage are the problems of the cinema- 
tographer. During the course of one scene 
he may be faced with the shooting of min- 
iatures, projection process, split-stages, 
straight production sets and even highly 
mechanical inserts. Robert Burks through 
his 12 years of experience in all branches 
(Continued on page 13) 

'Citizen Kane," Orson Welles' RKO Production. 


Intkhnationai. Photographer for January, 1941 

Four Top Pictures Off Stage Shots 

By Alexander Kahle 

Candid studies of Welles reading the script, study- 
ing the set-up and finally issuing instruction how 
he wants a scene played. Stills hy Alexander Kahle. 

International Photographer for January. 1941 

weIIes AiNd tNe cameraman 

Kahle has been a still photographer for about 
seventeen years, and during that time he has con- 
stantly studied the art of making stills. He has 
advanced with the times instead of standing still. 
Entirely unaware that we were making notes dur- 
ing his conversation, we pass along some of it 
which we feel sure will be of interest to our 

"Some shots have no effect unless they convey 
the idea of the size of the room. If the room is 
huge, that impression should be found on the 
print. Show ceilings whenever possible. 

"Very often straight shots are not half as effec- 
tive as they would have been if shot at an angle. 
When I started at Fox six years ago shooting at 
an angle they feared the worst. Since that time 
the angles have found favor. 

"Take for instance a drunken man. Shot 
straight-on it doesn't convey nearly the idea that 
it would if shot at an angle. I have observed in 
some stills that the drunk just looks as if he were 
in pain. Suppose the inebriated one is shown 
asleep at a table. A straight shot would indicate 
him merely sleeping, but if taken at an angle, 
one is sure of his condition. 

"I am a firm believer whenever possible in 
getting the camera low and shooting up. This 
is especially effective if the subject happens to 
be gazing upward. 

"Before shooting I decide what I want to 
emphasize and then concentrate on doing just 
that. Perhaps it is only a gesture, or a facial 
expression. By placing my camera at a low 
angle it is possible to make the person to be 
emphasized appear larger than the others. Some- 
times a shadow three times as large as the sub- 
ject will convey just the desired effect." 


When I heard I was to make the stills 
for Orson Welles' first RKO picture the 
assignment was more than welcome. I 
had heard of his plans to film Conrad's 
tropical tale, "Heart of Darkness" and of 
his theories for that picture which, as you 
will immediately see, were of tremendous 
interest to any photographer. Welles 
wanted to make the camera tell the story, 
be the principal character, as a matter of 
fact. This presented highly fascinating 
technical problems to the cameramen and 
it was a disappointment when he was un- 
able for various reasons to make the film. 

However, work on "Citizen Kane" 
turned out to be just as interesting, since 
Welles and Gregg Toland, his cameraman, 
are nothing if not experimental. The pic- 
ture represents to some extent, a develop- 
ment and extension of the beautiful camera 
work Toland did in "The Long Voyage 
Home," with certain amendments by 

The two saw eye to eye from the first 
and the initial days of shooting represented 
a series of experiments. Welles, for in- 
stance, put ceilings on every set, had the 

By Alexander Kahle 

characters occasionally look right into the 
camera and generally violated all the 
cliches of Hollywood photography. The 
ceilings on the sets aided the intensity of 
the scenes enormusly and, combined with 
Welles' and Toland's penchant for a very 
tight composition, resulted in the use of 
the camera as an adjunct to the creation 
of mood and feeling. Not just the recorder 
of events. 

But the biggest and most startling thing 
about the photography is the use of the 
new coated lenses and an effort, com- 
pletely successful, to keep the whole area 
of the screen in sharp focus at all times. 
There are no blurred foregrounds or back- 
grounds and some of the shots traversed 
two full sound stages, about two hundred 
feet from lenses to back of the set. 

The tremendous depth of field, the ceil- 
ings and the general effort to make the 
settings look completely natural, (great 
attention paid to shadow detail ) made 
necessary a new attitude toward lighting. 
It is too common for Hollywood product 
to look completely washed out, with every- 
thing having equal values in the lighting. 
It is not noticed particularly but that is 
because the audiences have become so used 
to it that it has become a convention. Like 
the two dimensional screen. The Welles- 
Toland lighting is as near to three dimen- 
sion photography as you can come with 
the materials at hand. 

The particular virtues of the sharp focus 
and naturalistic lighting are that they will 
not be noticed at all by the non-camera 
minded audience. They will do their work 
as an aid to photography without making 
themselves apparent. The sharp focus, of 
course, puts a new responsibility on every- 
one concerned with the scresn. You can- 
not just go out and shoot the usual script 
with the Welles-Toland method. The script 
must be written with the process in mind 
and the director must make the actors com- 
port themselves with the thought that now 
the film audience will have the same priv- 
ilege of looking at any part of the screen, 
as in the theater where if the leading man 
is a bore you can watch the pretty maid 
in the background. This is not to indicate 
that the closeup has been done away with. 


Directing, Awaiting the 
Action, on Snow Set. 

Welles has simply added one more thing 
to the art. He uses every trick in the hag. 
There is a good deal of special effect work, 
by Vern Walker and his crew and it should 
be stated that Toland's veteran crew ( the) 
have been with him for years) were able 
to get what he wanted with a minimum of 
time. The camera operator was Bert Ship- 
man: assistant cameramen. Eddie Garvin 
and Ledge Haddock: head electrician, 
W. T. McClellan: the grip. Ralph Hogge. 

"Citizen Kane" was more than a pleas- 
ure to shoot. In the first place, of course, 
there was Welles, who is an enormously 
engaging and cooperative subject. He never 
let down for a minute and was practically 
always doing something worth a picture. 
Then the story of "Citizen Kane." with its 
110 settings, lasting through one man's 
lifetime, presented endless backgrounds 
for stills. Welles, who carried his charac- 
ter from the age of twenty-five to seventy- 
five, wore a series of amazing costumes. 
His face and figure, also altered, and he 
never looked the same from day to day. 
It got so after a while that he wouldn't 
get past the gate man on his own face. 

"Citizen Kane" is the story of a million- 
aire whose ambition wrecks his life. As a 
young man he buys a New York news- 
paper and marries a prominent young 
debutante. He runs for governor and his 
wife leaves him when a political opponent 
exposes the fact that he is living with 
another woman. 

Defeated, but not broken, Kane marries 
his mistress, | and though she has small 
talent he decides to train her so she will 
become a famous singer. He goes so far 
as to build an opera house for her. 

Her debut as a singer is a rank failure 
and the newspaper critics do not soften 
the blow in their columns. 

Despite the tremendous home and lux- 
uries he has bestowed upon her. his lack 
of love and understanding have made her 
unhappy and she leaves him — alone, with 
all ambitions shattered. 

Bombs Destroy Camera Eqpt. 

German bombs dropped recently around 
a 20th Century Fox film crew working in 
Wales, Director William Wyler learned 
today in a cable from Frances T. Harley, 
studio production chieftain in London. 

The crew was filming background shots 
at the time for Darryl F. Zanuck's produc- 
tion of "How Green Was My Valley," the 
Richard Llewellvn best seller about the 
Welsh coal mines. 

The cameramen took to cover at the lust 
air raid alarm. When they returned after 
tin- all clear signal, they found their 
equipment destroyed. 

Harley advised the studio thai the cam- 
eramen would continue working in Wales 
for the next four weeks in spite of the 


LAboRATORy Needed 

"There is an urgent need for an experi- 
mental studio or laboratory, co-operatively 
owned by all the producing companies, 
where special effects men could work and 
try out in advance new devices and ideas 
in their highly specialized field." 

This is Larry Butler's conclusion after a 
lifetime in the business. His views on the 
problems of the trick and special effects 
man are simple and to the point. 

"It is unfair to expect a producer to be 
more than ordinarily sympathetic to the 
problems of special effects. Most of the 
time, experiments have to be made at the 
producer's risk. 

"This is why I feel there would be so 
much time and money saved bv having this 
sort of research lab where we could con- 
duct experiments in printing and develop- 
ing between pictures. Where we could ex- 
change ideas for the good of the business. 
Where we could try out innovations with- 
out the risk of holding up production." 

After five years in England working at 
th Q Denham Studios of London Films for 
Alexander Korda, Larry Butler returned to 
Hollywood, where he is now working stren- 
uously on the unusually large number of 
special effects required for "Lady Hamil- 
ton." His first job here was to complete 
work already started in London on "The 
Thief of Bagdad." This picture was in 
the nature of a Roman holiday for a spe- 
cial effects expert. 

The flying horse, the magic carpet, the 
spider and his web, the Genii and his 
materialization from thin air. the world- 

wide soaring of the Genii, a score of other 
minor effects, and all in Technicolor, with 
most of the job done in war-time — well. 
Larry was surely glad to get back to the 
peace and calm of Hollywood last June. 

He sums up this "Thief of Bagdad" as- 
signment as chiefly "making, or trying to 
make, traveling mattes work." Larry is a 
firm believer in this technique. 

"There are only two ways of handling 
film for special effects. Double printing or 
double exposing. It seems to me that trav- 
eling mattes have been too long neglected. 

"I had a good chance of seeing whether 
I was reasonably right in this assumption 
on 'The Thief of Bagdad' job. Time was 
always an element. So decisions had to be 
made quickly and the results had to prove 
the experiment." 

There is no office marked "Lawrence 
Butler" at the Korda studios, although 
they tried their best to furnish him with 
one. He can usuallv be found anywhere 
between the prop department, the lab, this, 
miniature stage, the process department 
and the tank. 

When he was in London, he inherited a 
5ne suite of offices, complete with leather - 
covered chairs, a battery of telephones, a 
swell mahogany desk, and a good-looking 
secretary. He never used any of them. 
There was too much to do, working with 
eager but plodding mechanics, technicians 
earnest and ambitious but in many cases 
inexperienced compared to the Hollywood 

Thoughtfully he says, "Five years in 


Traveling matte set-up. 
International Photographer for January, 1941 

England taught me tolerance and patience 
— that the other guy often has an angle 
and often is right. And that being right 
or wrong is in many cases just a matter 
of the point of view. 

"You see, there are not the number of 
skilled studio mechanics and expert studio 
technicians in the English studios as com- 
pared with Hollywood. But they are eager. 
They work their heads off to get a thing 
done. They are enthusiastic and they put 
everything they've got into helping you. 
Of course, there is afternoon tea and other 
old British customs and the weather often 
drives you nuts. When you pray for an 
hour of sunshine and all you get is rain, 
rain, rain, or days of fog and skies of 
heavy, gloomy clouds. 

"The machine shops at Denham were 
swell. Those chaps were fine craftsmen 
and wonderful machinists. In converting 
optical printers, used for black and white 
work, to color, we had to develop a lot of 
gadgets and many problems had to be 

"I think the most difficult re-adjustment 
to be made while working in England is 
to realize that you are in a different coun- 
try, yes, in a foreign country, where cus- 
toms and manners and ideas are different 
than your own. 

"Because the language presents no dif- 
ference, you are inclined to expect the same 
reactions as you would get at home or in 
Hollywood. And you get a lot of dis- 
appointments. So there has to be give and 
take, adaptability all around, and you have 
just got to be patient and tolerant. There 
are two men I think the world of, Vincent 
Korda and Bill Menzies. They are wonder- 
ful, tops to work with. And I could never 
have a better boss than Alexander Korda. 
They made my job at Denham smoother. 
Alex Korda has a complete understanding 

and appreciation of the problems of spe- 
cial effects. His encouragement means 
everything in getting a job successfully 

Larry is very emphatic that no trick de- 
partment is better than the art director who 
conceives the ideas. 

Special effects can take those ideas and 
get them on the screen. If the art director 
is "trick minded," has imagination and 
vision, the job of the special effects depart- 
ment is so much easier. Vincent Korda, 
Larry maintains, has that kind of mind. 
Nothing is impossible, if you have the 
time, the men, and the machines to do 
the job. 

Machines and machine shops have al- 
ways been important to Larry Butler. Com- 
ing to Burbank as a kid from Ohio, he 
went to Burbank High and was flunked 
out because he spent all his time at the 
school machine shop instead of at his 
studies. His teacher at this shop was one 
Ernzer, a man who loved his work, and 
tried to teach young Larry everything he 
knew. He had a lot to do with his pupils 

He gave the young hopeful every en- 
couragement with the result that Larry got 
his first job with DeMille, casting dishes 
for the Last Supper in C. B.'s "King of 

While working on "Hell's Angels," he 
got his first training on miniatures with 
Roy Davidson. Then on Frank Capra's 
"Dirigible," he learned his job thoroughly 
from Ned Mann. From each expert, he 
added to his knowledge of his job. 

He joined Ned Mann as first assistant 
when Ned went to London, and their first 
challenge was "Things to Come," one of 
the biggest jobs ever tackled by special 
effects and trick departments. 

When Ned Mann returned to Hollywood 

two years ago, Larry stayed on to head 
the department until last June. This young 
wizard has a simple philosophy regarding 
his job. "Once in a while you can pull a 
shot out of the bag, for buttons. Generally 
every shot has its price tag." 

He insists that the use of traveling mattes 
must be developed. "The Thief of Bag- 
dad" proves their practicability. A differ- 
ently designed printer and more control in 
developing are needed. Processing and de- 
veloping of film have not kept pace with 
the industry's needs, he feels. Each optical 
department should have its own developing 
and printing lab. 

Too much experimental work has to be 
done right on the job. Were there an ex- 
perimental or research lab available to the 
industry's special effects workers, time and 
money could be saved. Ideas could be 
pooled for the good of the business. There 
are few trade secrets today. More impor- 
tant is cooperation. A new technique of 
developing is needed, Larry thinks. 

"I am not criticizing the lab work. It 
is excellent. But for traveling mattes, 
there have to be improvements. Perhaps by 
using a new type of developing machine 
whereby the developer, fixer and washer 
are applied to the film instead of the film 
to them. Perhaps loop machines may go 
into disuse. A system of constant and con- 
trolled agitation in a drum type of ma- 
chine may solve the problem. 

"Image size and position can be changed 
in development. Film, as you know, can 
be exposed more accurately than you can 
develop it. Then the improvements must 
come in the technique of development." 

The problems he has encountered in 
"Lady Hamilton" confirm this. . . . Some- 
day there will be that experimental and 
research lab and then we shall see. 

Views of optical and projection printer. 


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JO International Photographer for January, 1941 


With the inception nearly four years ago 
of Hollywood's "Low Temperature Sound 
Stage," California Consumers Corporation, 
in keeping pace with the studios' demands, 
has made consistent improvements both in 
design and quantity of equipment for use 
in studio snow scenes. 

Expanding the number of complete 
snow machine units from a beginning of 
one unit, California Consumers Corpora- 
tion now has available on short notice 
seven units that can be brought into use 
at one time. Six of these snow machines 
are electrically driven; one is operated by 
a gasoline power unit. 

The introduction of Technicolor pic- 
tures to the Ice House created an immedi- 
ate need for greatly increased refrigera- 
tion capacity. Wholehearted acceptance 
of the Ice House by the studios brought 

about larger sets which in themselves re- 
quired increased capacity in refrigeration 
equipment. Modification of the Ice House, 
interior and exterior, was continually un- 
der way, in addition to the usual normal 
maintenance work that was continued, even 
during the periods the stage was unoc- 

During its brief period of operation, the 
Ice House or equipment has been used in 
nearly all pictures that have elaborate 
snow scenes, and hundreds of studio tech- 
nicians have shivered in its arctic temper- 
atures that are controlled at will. 

In the studios' use of the Ice House, 
many of the technicians and members of 
the cast have been guests of the Los An- 
geles Ic3 and Cold Storage division 
(across the street from the Stage), visit- 
ing the sub-zero freezing; rooms where 

hundreds of tons of frozen fish, armored 
with a coating of ice, are stacked like cord- 

With the introduction to the Ice House 
of Paramount's Technicolor production 
"Untamed" many changes were necessi- 
tated due to the enormous increase of car- 
bon arc illumination required for Techni- 
color work. In close cooperation with 
Paramount's Technical Engineer, Mr. A. C. 
Zoulis, the Engineering Department of the 
California Consumers Corporation finally 
arrived at the conclusion that nearly 650 
tons of refrigeration would be required to 
offset the lamp load of approximately 
17,000 amperes. These 650 tons of refrig- 
eration were needed to chill approximately 
65,000 cubic feet per minute of fresh air 
required to replace the foul air contam- 
( Continued on page 26) 

Forming an iceberg in studios with the use of real snow. 






* * * 35MM * * * 16 MM *** 




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provided in New York also. 

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speedflash shots 

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The Kalart Sistogun is a compact, precision 
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/>«•/»». /-i 





Intkknational Photographer for January, 1941 



(Continued from page 3) 

of Special Effects work is peculiarly and 
happily fitted to cope with all of the con- 
stantly arising problems of novel effects 
and scenes. His crew with Dalzell and 
Bell have been assigned to him for like 
reasons of greatly varied experience. 

Director Siegel and Cinematographer 
Burks like to point with satisfaction to 
ringing the bell successfully in such pic- 
tures for Warner Bros, as: "All This and 
Heaven Too," '"Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bul- 
let," "The Fighting 69th," "My Love Came 
Back," "Sea Hawk," "They Drive Bv 
Night," "Til We Meet Again" and "The 

Lady with Red Hair." Part of their satis- 
faction which is particularly gratifying is 
the fact that their technique has been 
clever enough to conceal to any but the 
initiated that in these pictures there is any 
such thing as a montage! 

Watson Booklet 

Burke & James announce that the new 
Watson Booklet, just off the press, is avail- 
able free to readers of International Pho- 
tographer. Address Burke & James, 223 
W. Madison St., Chicago. 


• In the last issue of International 
Photographer an article headed "Special 
Effects at R.K.O." should have been headed 
"Cosgrove Special Effects Department of 
David 0. Selznick Productions." 

This department, under the technical 
supervision of Clarence Slifer, has been 
responsible for all of the fine Technicolor 
and black and white special effects on pro- 
ductions, "Gone with the Wind," "Rebec- 
ca," "A Star is Born," "Garden of Allah. 
"Tom Sawyer," "Prisoner of Zenda," etc. 

Much of the equipment developed for 
these productions has been accepted by 
many of the various studios. At the pres- 
ent time the department is engaged in sev- 
eral new ideas which should revolutionize 
the Special Effects field. 

This still by Elmer Fryer shows the crew in operation shooting James Cagney in Warner Bros. Pro- 
duction, "Strawberry Blonde." Standing, left to right: Dick Williams, sound man; "Red" Breen, 
stand-in; Robert Burke, first cameraman; W. G. Buster, grip, and James Cagney. Seated, left to 
right: Donald Siegel, montage director; Arch Dalzell, operating cameraman ; James Bell, assistant 
cameraman ; Pat Patterson, prop man; Robert Le?. Sound Mixer. 


"I Wanted Wings," Paramount Production. 

Showing the camel 
formation of planei 



iv it work as well as 
efnited States Army. 


5 ' 


►' V 



."> **■ 

» lfc___» ' 

' 3 

"I Wanted Wings". Willi the exception of the lower left these stills were made 
by Tommy Morris with a Leica Camera. Lower left showing Leo Tover, first 
cameraman; Ernie Laszlo, second and Frank Burgess, assistant; by Ken Lobben. 


International Photographer for January. 1941 


By Tommy Morris 

If anyone ever steps up and offers you an 
opportunity to handle a camera in an air 
picture — my advice, which usually isn't 
worth much, is to jump at the chance. 

I'm speaking from experience this time, 
for only recently I was fortunate enough 
to be included in the large camera crew 
which went to Texas to film Paramount's 
"I Wanted Wings." It was a lot of work, 
of course, but an experience and a thrill 
that was well worth having. 

"I Wanted Wings'' is the story of the 
training of air cadets for the American Air 
Corps. We were quartered in San Antonio, 
for both Randolph and Kelly Fields, the 
primary and finishing instruction bases, are 
located near that city. 

Ray Milland, Brian Donlevy, William 
Holden, Veronica Lake, Constance Moore 
and Wayne Morris play the principal roles, 
with Mitchell Leisen directing. In all, 
there were about 140 persons in the troupe. 

We had our headquarters in the St. An- 
thony Hotel, and had excellent accommo- 
dations and meals. The entire location was 
handled perfectly. A production office was 
set up at the hotel, and all arrangements 
were conducted in the same manner as they 
are at the studio. Whenever we wanted 
anything, or needed something done, we 
merely called this production office, in- 
stead of trying to locate a business man- 
ager or assistant director. It saved time 
for everyone. 

Our camera crew was an extensive one, 
with plenty of work for everyone con- 
cerned. The first unit was headed by Leo 
Tover, with Ernie Laszlo, Otto Pierce, 
Frank Burgess, Byron Seawright and 
Charles Russell. Loyal Griggs was in 
charge of the second unit and transparency 
backgrounds, aided by Arthur Lane, James 
Grant and S. A. Sanford. The air crew 
consisted of Elmer Dyer and myself, ably 
piloted by Paul Mantz, the noted flier. 
Kenny Lobben and Don English made up 
the still crew. 

An air picture naturally takes more 
equipment and planning than is normally 
used — much more than one would think. 
We had three special camera planes, for 
example, and two air cameras. 

One plane was a fast little Boeing, on 
which we fastened a stationary camera, 
either on a wing or in the landing gear. 
Paul lined his windshield up as a finder, 
and operated the camera from a switch 
in the cockpit. 

He was welcome to those shots, by the 
way, for they were all fast dives, follow 
shots and forced landings. 

The other two planes were a high-wing 
Vega for side and down angles, and a low- 
wing Orion for shooting up at formations 
from underneath. 

The Vega was used most, as the majority 
of the shots we made were down or at an 
angle out the side. Mantz built a sliding 
camera mount which fitted in the doorway. 
By moving it out we were able to shoot 
nearly straight forward or backward. To 
reload all we had to do was to slide the 
camera into the cabin, out of the slip 
stream. The force of the slip stream, at 
250 miles an hour, is tremendous. It is 
so strong that it can break a man's arm 
should he be so incautious as to suddenly 
thrust an arm into the open air. 

On some days we went on four hour 
flights, and would reload six or eight 
times in the air. The sliding mount proved 
itself of immeasurable value in this point 
alone. But we did discover we should be 
careful. One day we forgot to lock the 
mount, and when Paul went into a steep 
bank, the camera slid out to the end of the 
track and nearly took Elmer with it. 

As mentioned, we used two cameras on 
the job. One was Dyer's Akeley, for fast- 
panning action shots, and the other his 
special rack-over Bell & Howell for plates. 

I'd like to say right here that a lot of 
credit should go to Paul Mantz. What a 
flier he is! I'd be willing to go up in any- 
thing he could get off the ground. We 
had a few trips in pretty rough weather 
and wondered if the plane would hold to- 
gether, but we always got home all right. 
Paul has a great mechanic, too, in Jim 
Barton, who always had the planes in tip- 
top condition. In fact, his only advice to 
us was: "As long as I stay in the cockpit, 
boys, you stick with me. Don't bail out 
unless I do." He never did — so we didn't 

Elmer had a plenty tough job on the 
stick end of his camera against that fast 
air speed. It was no fun, as he was usually 
lying on his stomach fighting the wind and 
nearly being torn apart holding his cam- 
era in position. 

My job was to assist Elmer in the usual 
work — change filters, lenses, reload, keep 
records of jshots. In addition I wore a re- 
ceiving headset and talked with Mantz by 
microphone, relaying signals from Elmer 
regarding plane positions and speeds. 

Paul was in radio contact with the Army 
ships, so we managed to get some nice 
formation shots. 

The biggest thrill to me was hedge- 
hopping about ten feet off the ground, 
just skimnmg trees, barns, houses and 
fences. One day Mantz phoned back to us 
and said to look out the windows and hold 
our hats. We did — and he promptly flew 
right between two huge oak trees, sliding 
underneath the lowest branches by inches. 

Our greatest inconvenience was temper- 
ature. It usually was about 100 degrees 
or more on the ground, and 30 degrees 
(two below freezing) at 16,000 feet. We 
had to put on coveralls and jackets before 
each flight and got awfully hot if we didn't 
go up right away. Five minutes later we'd 
be in freezing temperatures. Sometimes 
we had to drop down to around 6000 feet, 
thaw out, then go back up again. One 
morning I got my face terribly sun and 
wind-burned, went aloft in the afternoon 
and got it frozen. The skin didn't peel off 
— it came off in chunks. 

Flying with the Army planes was a great 
thrill. We dodged in and out of forma- 
tions and covered all angles. For most 
shots we used either 18 or 36 ships because 
that number was enough to fill the screen 
for comparatively close shots. Our biggest 
day was a graduation of cadets from Kelly 
field, and we flew with 96 beautiful silver 
pursuit type of planes. 

The young men the army is training 
for air work are really magnificent. 
They're 100 per cent in physique, mental- 
ity and personality. They first get a four- 
week course in basic flying. They then are 
graduated, and move to Kelly field and are 
instructed in the use of a faster and better 
type of plane. After Kelly, the boys be- 
come officers and either go into the service 
or become instructors at the various C.A.A. 
fields throughout the country. 

From now on I'll never begrudge a 
single cent of taxes that goes towards this 
preparedness work. Just the sight of that 
graduation at Kelly Field was worth the 

For myself, I'm sorry I couldn't have 
gotten more Leica shots of my own. Usu- 
ally I was too busy with pencil and tele- 
phone, but I did manage to get a few. 
Those silver ships from Kelly, and the 
dark blue and yellow ones from Randolph 
are great subjects. 

Come to think of it, I wouldn't mind 
winning my wings myself. 


THE Kodak photographic paper mill — only 
one in the western hemisphere — turns out 
more than a hundred different brands of paper, 
all noted for their quality, uniformity, and ease 
of manipulation. And, counting various sizes, 
colors, weights, contrasts, and surfaces, Kodak 
is ready on short notice to ship any one of more 
than 60, 000 paper items. 

In this vast variety of products you are sure to 
find the right types of fine papers for all your 
needs. Among the most widely used are VITAVA 

PROJECTION — a fast enlarging medium, par- 
ticularly valuable for exhibition prints; VITAVA 
OPAL — a warm-toned material suitable for both 
enlarging and contact printing; KODALURE — 
for prints of exceptional, warm quality and depth 
from negatives of average contrast. 

For complete data on the characteristics, pur- 
poses, and manipulation of the papers men- 
tioned and others, write for the 48-page book- 
let, Eastman Photographic Papers (price, 1 5 cents). 
It's a dependable guide to best results. 



International Photograph kk for January, 1941 


Shooting backgrounds at World's Fair for "Mr. and Mrs. Smith," Alfred Hitchcock's new RKO picture. In the back seat are George 
Hcnners, first cameraman ; Bill Anzel, assistant (both of New York Local 644), and Vernon Walker, Process Department, RKO, Holly- 
wood. Owing to the narrow space between posts along the walks, a Crosley car was used as camera car. 


Camera crew on Columbia's "Penny 
Serenade." Reading left to right: 
Victor Seheurich, Jack Young, Tom 
Jackson, Lee Davis, Buddy Harris, 
Emil Oster (head of camera de- 
partment). Bill Jolley, Joe Walker, 
Fayte Brown, George Keller, Roy 
Babbitt, Bob Wasserman, Jack Rus- 
sell. James Goss; sitting in the fore- 
ground (holding hat) is Sam Rosen, 
author of the article on facing page, 
and George Stevens, director. Still 
by Irving Lippman. 

Scene after the "earthquake. 


Intkrnationai. Photographer for January, 194] 

coluivibiAs quaIie shakes eiqkr 

By Sam Rosen 

Apparently Hollywood can never be sat- 

It is a matter of record, if the seismo- 
graph at the California Institute of Tech- 
nology is to be believed, that Southern Cali- 
fornia receives its shares of earthquake 

But what did Hollywood do? It created 
its own earthquake for a breathless minute 
in a motion picture and one so violent that 
even Dame Nature must have blushed with 

Although the movie quake lasted for less 
than two minutes it was in the making for 
three weeks. It provides the dramatic mo- 
ment in Columbia's "Penny Serenade" 
when, in Tokyo, Cary Grant and Irene 
Dunne are planning the future of their 
unborn heir. But an earthquake strikes; 
Miss Dunne is crushed beneath the debris 
and the expected child never arrives. 

George Stevens, the producer-director, 
wanted his earthquake to be the most real- 
istic one ever filmed. For it, Columbia's 
Stage Eight, one of the largest, was con- 
verted into a Tokyo scene. Built entirely 
on movable stages, on iron wheels and 
steel rails, a two-story Japanese pavilion, 
completely furnished upstairs and down, 
filled the foreground. 

Beyond, through wide glass doors, were 
spacious Japanese gardens with rock foun- 
tain, bridged flowing brook and flower 
beds. Beyond the garden and the tall bam- 
boo fence and ornate gate was a full sized 
Tokyo street with buildings built to per- 
spective and the Tokyo skyline in the dis- 

Daily, for a week, technicians tested the 
earthquake set. For the actual filming, 
Stevens chose Saturday night for two rea- 
sons ... so that the tremendous racket 
would not interrupt other companies at 
work and to avoid visiting studio workers 
on the dangerous set. 

For five hours before the quake, Stevens 
rehearsed, checked and rechecked his de- 
struction crews. Surrounding him were 
Joseph Walker, head cameraman, and ten 
complete camera crews. The Operators 
were George Kelley, Victor Schuerick, Lee 
Davis, Dave Ragin, Jack Russell, Buddy 
Harris, Fayte Brown, Guy Wilkev and 
Jack Young. The Assistant Cameramen as- 
signed were Bill Jolley, Sam Rosen, Joe 
Citron, Jimmy Goss, Enzo Martinelli, Bob 
Wasserman, Irving Klein, Tom Jackson, 
Roy Babbitt and Jack Kenny. Each camera 
was focused on the vital points of the 
planned catastrophe and the camera mo- 
tors at various speeds. Van Pelt operated 

a motor driven Eyemo for real action stills 
and Irving Lippman shot the production 
stills. Emil Oster, head of Columbia's cam- 
era department, stood by to see that all 
cameras were mechanically fit. On a plat- 
form commanding the complete scene, the 
director sat before an illuminated master 
keyboard. On the keyboard were twelve 
red lights and electric switches. Each light 
and switch controlled many stations stra- 
tegically placed around the set, where fifty 
specialized Special Effect men supervised 
by Dave Vail awaited Stevens' red-light 

A final rehearsal was called, Stevens 
throwing his switches. No. 1 station — 
Steam hammer ready; No. 2 station — 
Steam winch ready; No. 3 station — Water 
gusher ready; No. 4 station — Falling build- 
ing ready; No. 5 station — Falling building 
and overhead dump table ready; No. 6 
station — Gas explosion in street ready; 
No. 7 station — Falling gate and garden 
wreckage ready. 

On down the list, with split second pre- 
cision, Stevens called the roll of his de- 
stroyers. The roof was ready to crash the 
glass doors. A two-foot square beam was 
poised to penetrate a wall. The second 
floor was ready to collapse and the stairs 
has been prepared to crumble. 

"Release safeties," Stevens called to his 

"Test cameras!" 

Briefly, the cameras rolled, the experts 
released the scores of safety devices for 
the falling debris, crumbling walls and 
floors. All persons except those absolutely 
necessary to film the quake were ordered 
from the stage. The cameras and camera- 

men were protected beneath a heavy wood- 
en canopy. 

Cameras were rolling for the take and 
chaos struck savagely. The steam hammer 
pounded the two-story house back and 
forth. The steam winch shook the out- 
side gardens and the street violently. In the 
garden the rock fountain crumbled, shoot- 
ing a great geyser of water over the tremb- 
ling set. 

In the background, a wall fell out of a 
building, baring its innards, spraying it 
with debris. Another building toppled . . . 
a cloud of dust arose. In the street, a gas 
main exploded, ignited and shot huge 
flames upwards. The garden gate fell, the 
roof of the pavilion plummetted down, 
shattering big window panes in the house. 

In the garden, Cary Grant was continu- 
ously being thrown off his feet. In the 
house a shrieking Irene Dunne clung to the 
palsied stairs. The garden gate collapsed. 
Water gushed from the garden brook. A 
huge beam was shot through the wooden 
wall. The ceiling collapsed and the two 
rooms of furniture shot downward. In 
the immediate foreground, a great mass of 
broken timber, balsa wood and bricks, shat- 
tered furniture and rubbish clattered onto 
the canopy over the cameras and bounced 

Less than two minutes later, a set that 
had taken three weeks to build was com- 
pletely demolished in one "TAKE." 

Director Stevens and Cameraman Joe 
Walker started over to the next set for the 
next day's work. 

It was just another days work in Holly- 

Landers Camera Rentals 


Blimps, Dollies, all Accessories 







Near Vine Street 





While Thinking about Mr. Unseld's 
article on Lens Perspective in this depart- 
ment last month, we began wondering 
whether we had not jumped a little ahead 
of ourselves. Frequently, in this and other 
technical fields ,we are prone to take many 
basic established facts for granted with- 
out understanding why they are basic facts, 
and to work on from there, often achieving 
a high degree of proficiency with a me- 
dium about which we are none too familiar 
from the "why" standpoint. 

Generally speaking, the amateur who is 
seriously interested in cinematography 
thinks of his lens as an integral and im- 
portant part of his camera and that is 
either good, bad, or indifferent, according 
to the price that he was able to pay for it 
and the job that it has to do. He devotes 
most of his time to doing those things. 
However, there is much to be said in favor 
of knowing why those things that take 
place do, aside from the feeling of per- 
sonal satisfaction that comes from know- 
ing the subject thoroughly. This can all 
be summed up in the statement that this 
knowledge removes the mystery of why any 
particular shot was a success or a failure 
due to optical reasons. 

This article does not pretend to remove 
all that mystery for the obvious reason 
that a subject of such scope could not be 
treated completely within these limits. It 
will, however, give a basic understanding 
of the principles involved that will form 
a foundation for further reading. 

Lens action is based on the principle in 
physics known as refraction. Reduced to 
everyday English, it is the bending of light 
rays. We are all familiar with the sight of 
a spoon in a glass of water or tea, where 
the spoon appears to be bent at the sur- 
face of the liquid. We have watched an 
object lying at the bottom of a shallow 
body of water and seen it change its shape 
— become elongated, shortened, or other- 
wise distorted — as the ripples of water 
flowed over it. And we have watched the 
"heat-waves" rising from the surface of 
the highway while driving along and seen 
the "ripples" make the distant objects ap- 
pear to be fluttering in the "waves." These 
are all everyday instances of refraction. 

Refraction takes place when a ray of 
light passes through one or more mediums 
of varying density, or when a medium of 
a single density varies in thickness and its 
surface beemnes curved. In the case of the 
water and I he spoon, the water is one me- 
dium and air the other, and obviously, 
they are of two different densities; hence 
we see the rays, or, in this case, the spoon 
bent at the point where the water or tea 
meets the air — the surface. In the case of 
the object lying on the bottom of the 
stream with ripples flowing over it, the 
object appears elongated or shortened by 

the ripples because of the curvatures pre- 
sented by the surface of the wave forms. 

In the case of the "heat-waves" rising 
from the surface of the road distorting 
familiar objects, the air itself will be the 
only medium, but will vary in density as 
it becomes alternately hotter and cooler 
according to the "waves" of heat coming 
up from the pavement. Since hot air ex- 
pands and cool air contracts, and as the 
air expands it occupies more space for 
the same actual amount of air, its density 
will decrease when it is heated and in- 
crease when cooled. It is this continuously 
changing density due to the "waves" of 
heat that will give the objects the appear- 
ance of fluttering, because the rays of 
light they are sending toward us are being 
bent by the changing density of the air. 

Basically, a lens works on the same gen- 
eral principle, although, strictly speaking, 
more like the second example given. Hav- 
ing a medium of constant density, glass, 
it is the curvature that it presents to a 
medium of second density, air, that brings 
about the bending of the rays. But here 
is where the similarity stops, because from 
here on everything is carefully planned to 
do a specific job. Instead of the rays be- 
ing bent in any which way that nature 
might find them, they are bent according 
to a definite formula, so planned that they 
will come to a point, or converge, a short 
distance behind the lens. The rays of light 
coming from any ordinary object travel in 
straight lines — parallel lines. The lens 
bends these straight lines, brings them to a 
point, known as the focal point (or just 
plain focus), and the distance behind the 
lens at which these rays come to the point 
is known as the focal length, a very im- 
portant measurement. The point at which 
the rays come to a focus is the point at 
which we will see clearly projected on to 
anything which we may wish to place in 
this particular position ( film, ground 
glass, paper, etc. ) , an image of whatever 
may happen to be in front of the lens. 

A lens of the type described is known 
as the simple meniscus lens. It is a single 
piece of glass with a convex curvature on 
both sides, or a double convex lens, and 
of the type generally found on box cam- 
eras, and is the simplest lens known. This 
lens has many defects, however, and is not 
generally useful for good photography be- 
cause of these defects, or aberrations. A 
lens of the simple meniscus type will not 
bring into focus at the same point on the 
film all objects which are in a straight line 
the same distance away from the lens, or 
camera. In other words, if our camera 
were placed fifteen feet away from a 
group of people in a straight line, all of 
these people would not be in focus on the 
film at the same time, even though they 
are all exactly fifteen feet from the camera. 

This defect is known as spherical aber- 
ration. Secondly, lines that would be 
straight in the scene would appear to be 
curved on the picture (curvature of the 
field ) . Another defect that would be found 
would be that objects possessing the usual 
colors would not have the different colors 
come to a focus at the same point on the 
film — this defect is chromatic aberration. 
And still another difficulty would be astig- 
matism, or the inability of the lens to 
bring horizontal and vertical lines into 
focus at the same time. 

To correct these difficulties the modern 
"anastigmat" lens is actually a system of 
three or more lenses, or components, with 
the simple meniscus as its basis. In word, 
the solution is a simple one: algebraically, 
a plus two and a minus two equals zero. 
In the simple meniscus lens, the defects are 
measured as a definite positive quantity, 
then these same defects are ground in the 
opposite direction into another lens, or 
as a negative quantity. In practice, this 
"corrective unit" consists of two lenses, 
or components, one of them a positive 
lens, and the other a negative one, so that 
their dioptic power (their power as a lens) 
is zero also, leaving the simple meniscus 
lens in the rear of the system to do all the 
actual work of focusing the rays to a point. 
In this manner we have the simple lens 
working unmodified or otherwise changed 
by the system in front of it, yet with its 
defects or aberrations eliminated by can- 
celling them out with the front compo- 

Scheibe's Hotspot Iris 

Projectionists who are employed in the 
transparency department find that they are 
bothered with the "hotspot", a flare of 
light on the screen that is the result of the 
arc in the center of the picture being hot- 
ter than on the sides of the picture. Many 
devices and methods have been tried to 
offset the "hotspot", but with the devel- 
opment of background projection effects 
a decade ago some cure was needed. I de- 
veloped what is known as the "Hotspot 


Scheibe's Hotspot Iris is adjustable in 
many ways. It is used on the projector to 
eliminate the "hotspot" in the center of 
the screen so it will photograph as evenly 
as the sides of the screen. The Hotspot 
Iris is moved toward and away from the 
projection lens until the hotspot is elim- 
inated from the screen. 

After the "hotspot" is eliminated the 
screen is photographed with the actors 
and actresse bet wen the camera and screen. 
Cameramen go out on location to photo- 
graph backgrounds for process work the 
world over and the Hotspot Iris aids mate- 
rially in making such efforts possible. 
The Hotspot Iris is made in 6" x 6" and 
8" x <>" with a blue or a neutral color 
in the center. About .50 neutral is the best 
color to use, though any desired color will 
he made. 


International Photographer for January, 1941 



Reprinted from the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, hy special permission. 

Summary — The Television Committee 
of the Society during the past year has car- 
ried out a considerable amount of work as 
listed : 

(1) Flicker and visual fatigue in tele- 
vision has been studied, a preliminary re- 
port on which work is presented herein. 

(2) A study of the most suitable type 
of film for television transmissions has 
been carried out, a report on which will be 
presented also. 

(3) More material has been added to 
a bibliography and glossary of terms in 
the field of television, which work was 
started more than a year ago and which 
still continues. 

Preliminary Report of the Sub- 
Committee on Flicker and 
Visual Fatigue 

General — Since early May of this year, 
a sub-committee has been actively studying 
the problem of frame frequency in tele- 
vision. In this assignment, it was instructed 
to correlate available information on the 
subject as affected by three major factors, 
namely: (1) Flicker. ,(2) Portrayal of mo- 
tion. (3) Visual fatigue. 

The need for such a fact-finding com- 
mittee has become more apparent within 
the past year and it was felt at the outset 
that the motion picture industry as a whole 
was peculiarly well situated to assist tele- 
vision in this work. Because of its familiar- 
ity with existing experience, the ability 
within its ranks, and ts tools for prosecut- 
ing new experimental work when the need 
for such work was determined, the Society 
of Motion Picture Engineers is in a par- 
ticularly favorable position to sponsor 
such work. 

The first task was to index and abstract 
as much of the existing literature as seem- 
ed pertinent and possible. Following this 
work, the gaps in existing knowledge 
would be more apparent and as the need 
for further work was apparent, experi- 
ments and means for performing them 
could be devised. 

This report covers the first part of this 

Bibliography — A list of the articles and 
books found to date relating to this sub- 
ject is appended. It is not hoped that this 
is complete and since it is only necessary 
that the information obtained be compre- 
hensive, pertinent, accurate, and descrip- 
tive of the essential facts, completeness in 
the bibliography was not considered vital. 
Summary of Findings — Since television 
observation, as a visual task, is not essen- 

tially different from motion picture ob- 
servation, it is possible to correlate data 
from the latter field for direct use in the 
former. One important element in such 
considerations is the average brightness 
level found in current practice. 


<j S so 

t in 

U <D 


a 40 

s 8 


--' D 

.8 1.2 

Log. I 



Fig. 1. Critical frequency vs. log intensity for 4 degrees 
diameter of stimulation area for 4 subjects (P. A. Snell, 
J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., May, 1933, p. 367). 

General experience shows that visual 
fatigue accompanies any prolonged visual 
task and since motion picture observation 
can be no exception to this, it is not to be 
expected that television observation will 
be an exception. Opthalmological re- 
search has revealed the importance of ob- 
ject brightness in the problem of visual 
fatigue; therefore, data on the present 
screen-brightness practice in the motion 
picture theater is of fundamental import- 
ance to the object of this work. The data 
submitted have a direct bearing on the 
television problem since some general 
knowledge obtained from practical or 
every-day experience is available to every- 

Field brightness 
ca1dle5 per s«. meter 

Fig. 2. Critical frequency vs. brightness for square 
wave — white light illumination cycle (Fig. 94, "Principles 
of Optics," Hardy and Perrin, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New 

one and correlated technical data are 
available to the specialist from the field 
of motion pictures. 

A survey made early in 1940 and cov- 
ering a group representative of the larger 
theaters in the United States (seating ca- 
pacity from 2300 to 3500) shows a range 
of central screen brightness of from 6 to 
10 foot-lamberts, as reported by Mr. A. C. 
Downes of the National Carbon Company. 
These measurements were made with the 
projector operating without film For the 
smaller theaters , which are in the vast ma- 
jority, it has been reported that a com- 
parative figure would be about 4Vij foot- 
lamberts under similar and favorable con- 

Since these figures are significant in the 
study of flicker and visual fatigue, they are 
included in this report in order that the 
present practice may be correlated with the 
optical requirements. Reports from for- 
eign sources indicate that brightness levels 
of the order of 10 foot-lamberts are being 
realized. This falls within the range of 
10-+-4 to 10 — 1 foot-lamberts which is the 
present SMPE Recommended Practice. 

Flicker — Since the visual apparatus does 
not respond instantly to a stimulus or to 
its removal, persistence of vision can pre- 
vent flicker from being observed. It has 
been shown that above the frequency at 
which flicker is not observable, the appar- 
ent brightness of an object viewed in in- 
terrupted illumination is the average 
brightness, provided the illumination is 
continued for more than 3 per cent of the 
cycle. It should be noted that under the 
most favorable conditions of brightness 
and flicker frequency, the least perceptible 
change in brightness is of the order of 1.5 
per cent. 

The sensitivity of the eye to flicker has 
been tested by numerous investigators who 
agree in general that the frequency at 
which the phenomenon disappears, called 
the critical frequency, is a linear function 
of the logarithm of the brightness within 
the range of present interest. Certain au- 
thors carefully specify a constant area of 
stimulation (see Figs. 1 and 2). 

At least one authority is convinced that 
flicker is still apparent on the screen and, 
furthermore, feels that present brightness 
levels are so low that a change in the di- 
rection of "easiest seeing" would result 
in still greater flicker. It seems, however, 
to have been generally granted that the 
flicker situation has been considerably im- 


The seriousness of flicker is due to the 
duration of the exposure when observing 
motion pictures of television programs. It 
has been found that at a constant average 
brightness the percentage duration of the 
light stimulus during the cycle affects the 
critical frequency (Fig. 3). 

The same authority states that the funda- 
mental component of the Fourier series 
expressing the stimulus for constant aver- 
age brightness exerts a major control on 
the critical frequency except when the 
stimulus is off for only small percentages 
of the cycle, in which case the perception, 
as well as the further depression of the 
critical frequency, is due to the higher 
order components. The critical frequen- 
cies were found to be lower when the sur- 
roundings were dark than when they were 
made equal in brightness to the field of 
the test and that results for a reduction 
of the field of test to 1/5 with surround- 
ings left equal to the previously employed 
field were than either. Differential sen- 
sitivity as measured by the inverse of 
the Weber Fechner fraction AB/B was 
found to be highest when the test field lay 
in surroundings of about its own bright- 
ness, the sensitivity being lower for dark- 
ened surroundings and considerably lower 
as the surroundings level was increased 
over that of the test field. These findings 
are said to be parallel to the relation be- 
tween sensitivity to brightness difference 
and comparative brightness conditions of 

the test field and surroundings. Other in- 
vestigators have reported similar findings 
and state that the sensitivity of the eye to 
flicker is increased when adapted to bright 
light as well as when the region around 
flickering area is illuminated. Maximum 
sensitivity occurs when the surrounding 
field is equal to the test field. The process 
of adaptation continues for as much as a 
half hour I see Fig. 4). 

It is reported that maximum sensitivity 
to flicker occurs at yellow in the spectrum, 
being less at either end. 

It has been found that the retina is not 
uniformly sensitive to flicker over its en- 
tire surface. The region within 10 degrees 
of the fovea demands the highest critical 
frequencies. Since this area is most com- 
monly needed for viewing motion picture 
and television programs it is indicated that 
results for this area should be satisfied in 
both fields. 

Flicker tests with a cathode-ray tube 
screen having an exponential decay curve 
falling to approximately 2 per cent in 
1/24 second have been reported in which 
the room lighting was about 1/10 foot- 
candle. At a screen brightness correspond- 
ing to 1 foot-lambert, the flicker was said 
to have been just noticeable at 38 frames 
per second, noticeable at 35 frames per 
second, and disagreeable at 28 frames per 
second. It was concluded from the curves 
shown and data presented that a satisfac- 
tory solution for reduction of the frame 

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Illumination over Cycle. 

Fig. 3. Variation of critical frequency with 
relative duration of illumination for spectral blue 
light in range where critical frequency does not 
change with intensity (P. W. Cobb, J. Opt. Soc. 
Amer., April, 1934, p. 107). 

frequency under 30 per second would not 
be found in an exponential light-output 
decay curve. 

It is important that effects such as this 
be reduced to a minimum. Standards of 
ideal performance should not be dictated 
by those best equipped visually, but the 
average of those with "impaired vision" 
must be seriously considered. 

It is apparent that frame frequency is 
not the only source of flicker either in the 
theater or on the television screen but 
since the work of this committee was pri- 
marily related to the effects of frame fre- 
quency upon certain phases of the tele- 
vision viewing problem, of which flicker 
was one, no attention has been given to 
collateral causes and effects of flicker in 
this field. It is assumed that those effects 
not being fundamentally subject to Stand- 
ards having the relationship of the "key 
and lock," could be considered in other 

The Portrayal of Motion — This problem 
has been the least satisfactorily treated, 
the literature being meager to the extent 
of almost non-existence. Resort has been 
taken to correspondence with the produ- 
cers of animated cartoons. Only a few re- 

^ A 



-2 -l.fc -.11 



Fig. 4. Wcber-Fechner fraction as a function of bright- 
ss (B. O'Brien and C. M. Tuttle, J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., 
1936, p. 577). 

plies have been received at this time. An- 
swers to this correspondence are still ex- 


Intkhnationai. Photographer for January, 1941 

pected but so far they do not contain full 
information of the kind sought. 

It is appreciated at the outset that in this 
regard television is at present under some 
handicap in relation to the motion picture. 
In motion picture production sequences 
having considerable action are taken by 
careful choice of the most favorable 
angles. This necessitates use of lenses 
which will cover a fair depth of field, the 
remaining inaccuracies being compensated 
for by the skill of the cameraman. In tele- 
vision, it has not been found possible as 
yet to use lenses of the same or equivalent 
depth of field; hence, it seems reasonable 
to assume that the cameraman will be 
forced to choose less favorable angles or 
risk inexact focus. If the former choice is 
made, the problem of adequate portrayal 
of motion becomes much more serious 
especially if the frame frequency is re- 

It was reported by J. A. Norling of 
Loucks and Norling Studios, from experi- 
ence in days of silent pictures when "pro- 
jected at 16 frames per second, which then 
was the theoretical projection speed, an 
animated cartoon thus made showed rather 
jumpy action but when the frame fre- 
quency was increased beyond 16 frames 
per second . . . this jumpy action became 
smoothed out." 

He continues, "I review these matters 
merely to add emphasis to the need for a 
higher picture frequency than the 8 to 12 
picture frequency employed in 2-frame ex- 
posures and with projection speeds of 16 
frames per second to 24 frames per sec- 

Commenting on the previous problem 
(flicker), it was further stated that, for 
light changes such as prduced by a shutter, 
for screen illuminations of as much as 12 
foot-candles (produced by no film in the 
projector ) , flicker is apparent at 96 pe- 
riods per second ( as obtained from a 3- 
bladed shutter) but the correspondent in- 
dicated that smooth motion and not flicker 
was the essential problem if reduction of 
frame frequency were considered. 

Mr. D. Fleischer of Fleischer Studios, 
Inc., stated, "In regard to cartoons, we 
have found the 24 per second frame fre- 
quency the most practical for our use and. 
as I believe animated cartoons will be an 
important factor in television, I hope that 
this will not change in their adaptation to 
this medium." 

Mr. W. E. Garity of the Walt Disney 
Productions stated that the number of 
drawings used depended on the speed of 
the motion being photographed and that 
"for slow movements, a drawing for every 
frame is necessary." 

The committee is still expecting more 
complete answers to its correspondence 
and hopes to amplify this section of its 
progress report when and if this informa- 
tion becomes available. 

Visual Fatigue — Visual fatigue is a tech- 
(Continued on page 28) 


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An ingenious swivel lens mount for all 
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The mount consists of a lens flange, 
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Agfa Darkroom Outfits 

Two new Darkroom Outfits designed for 
developing and printing requirements of 
amateur photographers have just been an- 
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developing and printing, differing from 
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of equipment. 

Both outfits are entirely made in U. S. A. 
and are obtainable through all regular 
photographic dealers, the No. 1A at $2.45 
list and the No. 2A at $4.95 list. 

New Leiea Booklets 

A new pamphlet has been issued by E. 
Leitz, Inc., which describes the popular 
Leitz VIII-S projector. Its various features 
are outlined and illustrated and in addi- 
tion, there is information on how to use 
the VIII-S for micro projection, stereo 
projection, automatic projection, etc. An- 
other Leitz pamphlet just off the press de- 
scribes the Models V and VI Synchronized 
Flash Units. 

The number of this pamphlet is 1284; 
the one on the VIII-S Projectors is 1285. 
Both may be had by writing to E. Leitz, 
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No. 2,219,987 — Multilayer Material 
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Appln. Dec. 3, 1938. In Great Britain 
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Color films having a plurality of emulsion 
layers with one or more of the layers con- 
taining dyes which are fast to ordinary 
photographic treating solutions. 
No. 2,223,525 — Film Magazine Light 
Trap. Charles Melvin Miller, assignor 
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A motion picture camera which has light 
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No. 2,224,163— Color Photography. Vir- 
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2,224,329 - - Color Photography. 

Gustav Wilmanns, Wilhelm Schneider, 
and Gerhard von Kitjawa, Germany, as- 
signors to General Aniline & Film Cor- 
poration. Appln. Oct. 28, 1937. In Ger- 
many Oct. 31, 1936. 1 claim. 
A method of producing color pictures by 
making an exposure on a multi-emulsion 
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No. 2,224,383 — Film Footage Indicator. 
Otto W. Githens, George Kende, and 
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No. 2,224,726 — Photographic Camera. 

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Appln. Aug. 25, 1938. 5 claims. 

A camera having a photocell control for 

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amount of radiant heat energy in the light. 

Ice House 

(Continued from page 11) 

inated by the gases of the many arc lamps. 
Roughly, 650 tons of refrigeration which 
would supply the entire needs of a small 
city for a long time, barely meet the re- 
quirements under the numerous arc lamps 
used in a shooting period of one day of 

An ideal setup for refrigerated air con- 
ditioning would be an empty cube or cyl- 
inder permitting an unobstructed flow of 
chilled air. 

We are certain that the readers of 
International Photographer are aware 
of how much free area there is on the 
average set, coupled with the large back- 
ground or cycloramas used to extend the 
horizon limitations of the sets, creating a 
genuine headache on air circulation. 
Forcing approximately 65,000 cubic feet 
per minute of fresh air, chilled to about 
20°F. or less at floor level, gives an idea 
of the heat generated by the arc lamps 
when you realize that the air escaping 
through the exhaust hatches in the ceiling 
has increased in temperature from 20° to 
70°F. Bodily discomfort has been a pri- 
mary consideration among the operating 


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International Photographer for January. 1941 

factors of the Ice House during the past 
four years. Paramount's Mr. A. C. Zoulis 
was insistent that during the prolonged 
stay of Paramount's "Untamed," comfort 
of the cast and technical crew was a ma- 
jor condition. This was amply provided 
for by construction of a large vestibule 
surrounding the doors of the Ice House, 
maintained at an intermediate temperature, 
which reduces to a large degree the bodily 
shock of temperature change, that on 
many occasions would amount to a 70° 
change in temperature. Again, the serving 
of hot chocolate, soup, and coffee through- 
out the working day compensated to a 
large degree the effects of an arctic tem- 
perature on workers accustomed to a 
tropical climate. 

In the four year period of operation 
studio prop departments have used in the 
Ice House nearly every form of wild life 
that would be found in a cold climate, 
and the bewilderment of these animals 
and their subsequent enjoyment of the 
snow and cold climatic conditions has 
been the cause of much merriment among 
the crews. 

Of course, snow fights and snow balling 
have not been neglected by the various 
personnel, and at times the barrage of 
snow balls equals the well-known Euro- 
pean "Blitzkreig." 

The activities of the Ice House Techni- 
cal Department have not been confied to 
the low-temperature stage proper, but 
have been in constant call to one or the 
other lots of the studios. Thousands of 
tons of ice have been used on the various 
studio lots, where practical snow greatly 
out-distances the older substitutes. Of 
course, it is advisable to continue using 
substitute snow on roof tops and window 
ledges or places where the problem of drip 
may be encountered, but where action is 
to take place, the using of a layer of prac- 
tical snow is far superior to any of the 
substitutes. Outdoor activities of the Ice 
House Equipment have been used with 
great success in pictures such as Para- 
mount's "Spawn of the North," where the 
glacier ice breakaways were done in min- 
iature and even though the miniature set 
was approximately 32 feet high, the fall- 
ing ice would actually have swamped a 
full sized boat through sheer weight. 
Other outdoor activities requiring snow 
have taken advantage of these unique 
services and have used practical snow suc- 
cessfully on ski jumps and for contrast 
exploitation stunts of our local Chamber 
of Commerce, that delights in advertising 
bathing beauties enjoying a shivery frolic 
in snow amid waving palm trees. 

In a summing up of the four-year period 
of the Ice House, and adjustant activities, 
the department handling the snow busi- 
ness, under the leadership of Nels H. Ros- 
berg, has enjoyed an active and varied 
existence with a closer understanding of 
the climatic problems of the studios. 

They sAy*" 

• Hill Skall's assignment as first camera- 
man on "Billy the Kid," MGM Production, 
coincides with Skall's perennial youthful- 
ness. Joining him are Charlie Boyle and 
Len Smith, first cameramen: Charles Sal- 
erno, second cameraman; Paul Hill and 
Duke Callahan, Technicolor technicians; 
Al Scheving, assistant; Al Bayliss, loader 
and Milton Brown, still cameraman. 

• Jack McHenry, Universal newsreeler, 
now the hushand of charming Anita 

• Mack Stengler working over at Dis- 
ney's, following Bert Glennon who com- 
pleted the assignment there. 

• Hal Mohr on Jimmie Roosevelt's "Pot 
of Gold." To be specific, he is shooting the 

• Roy Seawright and Bill Draper putting 
their heads together at Hal Roach Studios 
to give us another of those enjoyable 
"Topper" pictures. 

• Plaudits to cameraman Eddie Linden 
for giving so many of the boys a break 
on Korda's picture, "Lady Hamilton." 
Eddie tried to make it a cheerful Christ- 
mas for many of the brothers. 

• In from location on "The Outlaw," 
Hughes Production, are Lucien Ballard, 
Harry Newman, Harry Zech, first camera- 
men; Lloyd Ahern, Arthur Lane, Jeff 
Gibbons, William Knott, second camera- 
men; Al Smalley, T. F. Jackson, Paul 
Cable, Roy Ivey and Jimmie Murray, as- 

• Walter Bader, of whom very little is 
heard these days, is in charge of optical 
printing at National Screen Service. 

® Jack Thomas also is busily engaged 
optical printing at Universal. 

• President Gus Peterson on the go 
shooting "Picture People" for Pathe Pro- 
ductions, following his recent engagement 
with Jam Handy. 

© John Stumar back in harness at Col- 
umbia Studio. 

• John Burton of Schlesinger Studios, 
member of Local 659, is general super- 
visor of all productions at that studio. 
Burton has contributed much in the way 
of special title work to various major pro- 

• James Buchanan, Local 644, is now a 
full fledged major in the United States 
Signal Corps. 

• Harry Smith, Local 644, en route to 
South America for Pathe Productions. 

• Sam Greenwald, news reeler, in Mexico 
City shooting the Mexican president — with 

• Ray Fernstrom busy as a bee writing, 
supervising and photographing ad films, 
as he calls them. 


• Word from England through the Jour- 
nal of the Cine Technicians states that 
Leslie Rowson is in the R.A.F. 

• Harry Perry on his way to Haiti shoot- 
ing backgrounds for Paramount. 

• John Nicholaus assistant cameraman, is 
the son of John Nicholaus, head of the 
Lab Dept. at MGM. The latter's keen judg- 
ment of photography is acknowledged by 
all cameramen. 

• Camera Department at Columbia is 
proud of the fact that Joe Walker and Fayte 
Brown have been mentioned for the best 
photography on "Arizona." Harry Hallen- 
berger who also contributed much to the 
photography on that picture comes in for 
praise, although he is better known as a 
Paramount man. 

• Jack Anderson, assistant cameraman, 
who has not aged a day in the last ten 
years, still performs as male lead in Col- 
umbia Cubs Productions. 

• As the year draws to a close and we 
enter 1941, it is the wish and hope of all 
members of Local 659 that they will em- 
bark on a constructive program to assist 
and aid those who have been unfortunate 
in getting their due share of the work. We 
realize that being a cameraman surrounds 
itself with certain trials and tribulations 
over which there is no control. At the same 
time, when all join hands not only to guide 
a boat, but share room for those who are 
uncomfortably crowded, it makes for bet- 
ter feeling and understanding amongst 
those who are engaged in the same voca- 
tional enterprise. Perhaps the solution may 
not be found over night, but the willingness 
and urge of those who can help will sym- 
bolize a spirit of fellowship. The problem 
is: What can you do for your brother 
member and fellow-man; thus not to be- 
come estranged from the unfortunate. It is 
with Faith, Hope and Charity that good can 
be done for so many. We believe that mem- 
bers of Local 659 will intelligently con- 
tribute to and support such a program and 
we know that 194l will have this report to 
make to the year of 1942. 

S.M.P.E. Pacific Coast Election 

J. G. Frayne has been elected chairman 
of the Pacific Coast Section of the Society 
of Motion Picture Engineers for 1941, as- 
suming office January 1st. He succeeds 
Loren Ryder, who becomes member of the 
board of governors of the national SMPE 
group for 1941-42. C. W. Handley as- 
sumes post of secretary-treasurer of the 
local section, with F. J. Durst, Barton 
Kreuzer and S. P. Solow being elected to 
section board of managers for the next 
two years. 



(Continued from page 25) 

nical phrase employed to indicate that the 
apparatus of vision has sacrificed some of 
its reserve capacity for seeing (suffered a 
decline in activity) as a result of previous 
activity. It must be carefully distinguished 
from a physical fatigue. In the latter, 
consciousness of the fatigue is general, 
whereas in visual fatigue consciousness of 
the fatigue is rare and then generally ex 
ists due to an over-exercise of the function 
of vision. At such stages, it can be serious 
enough to cause injury to sight depending 
on the nature and cause. 

Motion picture and television obser- 
vation need not be more fatiguing in a 
visual sense than many other visual tasks, 
but their seriousness is due to the pro 
longed activity involved as well as the sur- 
rounding conditions. The accompanying 
visual fatigue is said to be largely retinal 
and not muscular. The "redeeming" fea- 
ture of the task when viewing motion pic- 
tures, according to one authority, lies in 
the use of "far vision." In home television, 
the vision is not so "far" but fortunately, 
it is not quite as "near" as when reading 
a book. In this regard, more information 
is needed to determine the effect of tele- 
vision observation on visual fatigue due 
to the distance function alone. 

The greatest difference in viewing tele- 
vision and motion pictures is in this res- 
pect, that most screens in theaters can be 
assumed to be at a distance of 20 feet or 
more from the viewer, which for all prac- 
tical purposes can be considered at infin- 
ity, at which point the normal eye is at rest. 
Whereas, with television, the object can 
be assumed to be from 6 to 8 feet from 
the eye, entailing an accommodative action 
and thus necessitating muscular accom- 
plishments for neither near nor far vision. 

Visual fatigue has been found to be oc- 
casioned by high degrees of contrast either 
between adjacent areas in the field of 
vision (even including the border of the 
screen ) or in time as would be the case 
due to flicker phenomena, the need to see 
finer detail, and illumination levels below 
those associated with "easiest seeing." It 
is said that the apparatus of vision at- 
tempts to compensate for any decreased 
efficiency and this effort is translated into 
visual fatigue or even pain and injury to 
the sight. 

One authority states that the present 
theater levels are far too low for "easiest 
seeing." If this is correct, television, which 
generally operates with an average screen 
brightness below that of large theaters, 
should devise and make experiments on 
the visual fatigue involved. 

While the level of theater screen bright- 
ness is probably actually below that for 
"easiest seeing," it is probable that the 
decreased need for discernment of fine de- 
tail — the fact that speech and action tell 
much of the story — reduces the burden, so 

that even at the present average level of 
screen brightness the work involved is not 
in excess in that for other every-day visual 
tasks of equal duration. Probably the 
same is true of television to a lesser degree 
due to other effects. Experimental evidence 
would be needed for confirmation. It 
would be complicated by the possible lati- 
tude and resolution of the medium. 

The resolution of fine detail is limited 
by visual acuity, which is simply 1 /angu- 
lar size. Greater brightness is required for 
greater visual acuity. Maximum sensitivity 
is reached only when the visual angle is 
not less than about 4 minutes. Continued 
use of the eyes to discern detail near the 
limit of visual acuity or near the limit of 
the Weber-Fechner fraction for brightness 
difference results in visual fatigue. 

Screen surroundings which are less 
than about 1/100 of the field brightness 
have been proved to be detrimental, caus- 
ing visual fatigue. In theaters, a border 
brightness between 0.05 and 0.2 foot-lam- 
bert was most frequently chosen when the 
observer was permitted to choose this level. 
In the same tests the screen brilliancy 
chosen was that corresponding to the order 
of 30 foot-lamberts if the projector had 
been operated without film. This would 
correspond under picture conditions with 
the lO foot-lambert level generally given 
for close desk work. 

Flicker was mentioned as a prominent 
cause of visual fatigue. Intermittency of 
illumination was found not to be a serious 
cause of visual fatigue provided it was not 
discernible to the vision as "flicker." Some 
evidence was found that flicker due to 
frame frequency is still a factor in visual 
fatigue in the motion picture theater. 
However, other causes of flicker may be 
even more serious. 

One has only to look across the beam 
from the projector in a darkened theater to 
see that a series of "shocks" are presented 
to the eye due to the normal shifting of 
scenes and motion of objects in each scene. 
Television and the motion picture may, by 
careful choice, reduce this considerably 
but it can hardly eliminate it. It seems 
certain that as the screen brightness in- 
creases, more experimental work could 
very well be done on visual fatigue. The 
case of seeing and the effect of flicker may 
have mutually opposite trends under the 
influence of increased screen brightness but 
whether or not visual fatigue could be re- 
duced would seem to require experimental 

Furthermore, it would seem desirable, if 
possible, to devise experiments designed 
to reveal the portion of visual fatigue in 
any given motion picture or television per- 
formance which may be assessed solely to 
frame frequency. 

{To be concluded next month ) 

Intricate Electrical Eqpt. 

One of the most unusual sets ever con- 
structed for a motion picture has been 
completed at Universal for use in the 

studio's new "horror" melodrama, "The 
Mysterious Doctor R." 

Elaborate and complete, the set repre- 
sents a modern electrical research labor- 
atry in which Lionel Atwill, as a half-mad 
scientist, subjects Lon Chaney, Jr., to ex- 
periments attempting to prove a theory 
that human beings can be controlled by 

Replicas of such intricate equipment as 
an electrostat table, high tension insulators, 
an atomic bombarder, a control cabinet 
and an oudin coil were enstructed in the 
studio's technical department under the 
supervision of Eric Wybrow, noted elec- 
trical expert. 

Laboratory sequences are calculated to 
be dramatic high spots of "The Mysterious 
Doctor R," which is being filmed under 
the direction of George Waggner. 

Lillian Russell Collection 

A large mass of original material deal- 
ing with the life, romances and career of 
Lillian Russell, one of the immortals of 
the American theatre, soon will find its 
way into the archives of the Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania public library for future 
study by interested historians. The mate- 
rial was accumulated by Alice Faye, film 

Included in the collection are numerous 
theatrical programs, original photographs, 
shoes worn by Miss Russell, one of her 
hats, a number of original photographs 
and a mass of newspaper and magazine 

Miss Faye is now completing work in 
her latest starring vehicle, "Tin Pan Alley',' 
a musical cavalcade at 20th Century-Fox. 





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AKELEY CAMERA No. 113. Pair 2-inch matched 
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DEBRIE PARVO MODEL L with pilot pins and 
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dissolve 50mm Zeiss F.3.5. Tripod, 6 magazines 
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Intkknational Photograph kr for January. 1941 


Extends to 


of the 

Motion Picture Industry — 

Good Will 


Good Wishes 

for a 




i»Ki;i;>n\i;\ i 

ALL three Eastman negative films make 
important coiitribiitions to the startling 
beauty of today's screen productions. Un- 
varying dependability and wide latitude 
make them the established favorites of 
critical cameramen. Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

J. E. BRULATOUR, INC., Distributors 
Fort Lee Chicago Hollywood 


for general studio use when little liuht is uvuilable 


for buelturounds and aenerul exterior work 


FebRUARy, 1941 





i i r 


24 30 



A NEW FILM — Finer Grain 

For exterior and 
background cinematography 

Superior-1 (type 104) sets a new mark for fine grain 
quality in a panchromatic film. Prints made from it 
have greater resolving power and perceptibly better 
definition. This improvement commends Superior-1 for 
the making of background negatives in particular and for 
all-around exterior use in general. 

The speed of this film is entirely adequate for well 
illuminated subjects. Like other Du Pont Cine Negatives, 
it possesses a wide exposure latitude, a well balanced 
panchromatic color response and good non-halation pro- 
tection. The developing characteristics are normal. The 
curves and 20 diameter grain enlargement reproduced 
above were obtained by processing Superior-1 in a stan- 
dard borax developer, formulated for machine use. 
Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corporation, New York. 
(Smith & Aller, Ltd., Hollywood.) 








Aero - 1 



Aero -2 




















iy 2 









2V 2 













Vol. XIII 


February, 1941 

No. 1 

On the Cover 

"Tobacco Road, 7 ' Powolny & Kornmann. See also pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 


Tribute to the Model, Mortensen — Page 3 
Negative Exposure, Norwood — Page 8 
Candid Photography, Starre — Page 16 
Very too Happy, Please, Dela plane — Page 18 


"Tobacco Road," Powolny and Kornmann — Pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 
"Cheers for Miss Bishop," Wallace — Pages 13, 14, 15 
"Legacy" with Ratoff in Action, Gold — Pages 16, 17 
"Sentinels of the Dawn," Hoke — Page 10 


They Say, Rella — Page 19 
Patents, Fulwider — Page 20 
16mm Department — Pages 22, 23 
Trade Winds — Pages 24, 25 
Television — Pages 26, 27 
Books— Page 28 

Editor, Herbert Allek 

Business Manager, Helen Boyce. Art Editor, John Corydon Hill. 
Contributing Editors: D. K. Allison, George Hurrell, J. N. A. Hawkins, Roman 

Freulich, Ernest Bachrach, Alvin Wyckoff, William V. Draper, Fred Gately, 

George Scheibe. 
Copyright, 1941, by Local 659, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 

and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada. 

Entered as Second Class matter, Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

International Photographer, as the monthly official publication of International Pho 
tographers, Local 659, of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, not only 
represents the entire personnel of photographers engaged in professional produc- 
tion of motion pictures in the United States and Canada, but also serves technicians 
in the studios and theatres, who are members of the International Alliance, as well 
as executives and creative artists of the production community and executives and 
engineers of the manufacturing organizations serving the motion picture industry. 
International Photographer assumes no responsibility for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts or material. 

Subscription Rates: U.S.A., $2.50; Canada-Foreign, $3.00 per year. Single Copy, 25 cents. 
Australian Representative: McGill's News Agency, Melbourne. 

Office of Publication: 6461 Sunset Blvd. (Los Angeles P. 0.), Hollywood, California 

Telephone: Hillside 9189 
Publication Date: 5th of Each Month 




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Cable Address: "CAMERAS" 

International Photographer for February. 1941 


By William Mortensen 

TnibuTE to The mocIeI 


This month I want to pay a small tribute 
to the forgotten girl — the model who poses 
for our pictures — yours and mine. Seldom 
do we give her a thought after we have 
succeeded in getting a good print, but it 
is her hearty and self-effacing collaboration 
that makes our pictures possible. 

In the Elizabethan era. tolerant and pro- 
gressive though it was in many respects, 
women were not permitted to appear on 
Ithe stage. It was not until the free and 
easy times following the Restoration that 
women were allowed to tread the boards 
|of the English theatre. These courageous 
pioneers had to contend against intense 
social projudice. The ladies of the the- 
iatre, in fact, were rated only a little high- 
er than the ladies of the evening. It is only 
; within recent memory that the last of this 
ancient prejudice against "actresses" has 

A similar prejudice has been held 
against those girls who pose for artists. 
This feeling has been particularly in evi- 
dence against those who pose in the nude. 
In Victorian times, of course, when virtue 
was practically inseparable from clothes, 
the prejudice was at its strongest. Some 
people, unfortunately, have not yet rid 
themselves of it, and are still convinced 
that a girl who poses thus is not quite 

Photographers, being more ignorant of 
artistic tradition than they should be, 
sometimes make this mistake. A few fool- 
ish photographers of my acquaintance 
have gained in wisdom, I am glad io say, 
by having their ears resoundingly slapped 
down when they assumed that a model 
doffed her dignity along with her clothes. 

A model who poses in the nude offers 
much, and she is justly proud of it. None 

but a boor or an utter ignoramus would 
do anything to blemish this fine instinctive 
pride. Pride in the body has been charac- 
teristic of the best and most productive 
■i\ ilizations, so these girls bear themselves 
like the aristocrats they are. 

I have rather specialized in the represen- 
tation of the nude, and, in the last twenty 
years, I have honestly lost count of the 
scores who have posed for me. But, in all 
the lot, I have never encountered anything 
cheap or vulgar. These girls have, with 
the fewest exceptions, been good sports, 
eager and cooperative in the tasks assigned 
them, taking it uncomplainingly on the 
chin when the lights were hot and the 
hours long. Their greatest joy was pride 
in a job well done. And they should be 
proud: for they bring us the most vital 
fruit of good breeding, good health, good 
living, good manners and good sense. 

UqkriiNq "TobAcco roacT 

No matter what inspired mood may have 
helped a writer turn out a perfect script 
and what understanding a director may put 
into the handling of the players and the 
scenes, it is still a long way from being a 
perfect picture unless the work of the cam- 
eraman matches their contributions. 

That this three-way artistic combination 
has been reached is the opinion of those at 
20th Century-Fox who have seen the first 
cut of "Tobacco Road." Nunnally John- 
son, who wrote the script and acted as as- 
sociate producer, and John Ford, who di- 
rected it, both agree that the camera work 
of Arthur Miller had a large share in giv- 
ing complete realization to the ideas they 
were trying to portray. 

While the bouquets are being tossed back 
and forth amongst this triumvirate, Arthur 
Miller now confesses that he had little sleep 
during the entire production. Night after 
night he would lie in bed worrying and 
planning the next day's shots. 

"Everything in the picture was entirely 
unorthodox from the cameraman's point of 
view," Miller said. "The character work 
in this picture demanded a new set of tech- 
nical principles which we had to work 
out as we went along. 

"And before we go any further, I want 
to credit John Ford with a great deal of 
the success we had with the camera in the 
filming of 'Tobacco Road.' Any camrea- 
man who has worked with Ford can tell 

you that his technical knowledge of the 
camera's capabilities and his imagination 
makes the cinematographer's job one of 
vitally interesting teamwork. 

"When I say that our methods were un- 
orthodox, I can mention, for instance, John 
Ford's idea of reversing the usual proce- 
dure in utilizing outdoor light. 

"There were sequences in the picture 
which were in a low mood, requiring a low 
key lighting. For those scenes, Ford pick- 
ed the dullest, cloudiest days on which to 
shoot outside. There were many times when 
we worked indoors while the sun was shin- 
ing the brightest. About three o'clock in the 
afternoon when clouds would begin to 
cover the sun and things turned gray. Ford 
would rush us off the set and spend the rest 
of the afternoon getting outdoor shots. 

"For one sequence showing Charley 
Grapewin and Elizabeth Patterson as Jeeter 
and Ada Lester on their march to the poor 
farm we had a very painstaking camera 
job, because bits of the sequence were 
filmed here and there, indoors and out- 
doors, over a period of time. 

"Mood and character had to be kept 
consistent. This was one of the low key 
sequences where we picked clouds and gray 
weather whenever we could get them. Then 
there were some of the shots that had to be 
done on an indoor set that had to be light- 
ed to match the almost lightless outdoors." 

One of the biggest helps in the filming 

of "Tobacco Road," Miller admitted, was 
the new camera recently developed and put 
into operation by 20th Century-Fox. It 
was the use of this camrea that allowed 
excellent results under low light conditions. 
Its shutter opening of 220 degrees gave it 
a latitude that was not possible with the 
earlier camera. Its coated lenses allowed 
shooting directly into sunsets without any 
resulting flares, and they could have shot 
into sunrises as well if John Ford ever got 
into the habit of starting work that early 
in the morning. 

"Realism was the principal aim in this 
picture," Arthur Miller said. "Artificiality 
of every kind had to be avoided, particu- 
larly in lighting and camera setups. 

"Not one single closeup, as we generally 
know it, was made for this picture. There 
were no big heads, and the closest shots 
made throughout the entire production 
were from the waist up. 

"There was n6 fancy movement of the 
camera, and. as a matter of fact, the cam- 
era rarely moved throughout production. 
Dolly shots were conspicuously absent and 
there was an absolute minimum of panning. 

"In very few spots where it was abso- 
lutely necessary in the telling of the story 
to follow the action did the camera move 
with it. On the whole, the camera setups 
were all stationary. 

"The entire picture, according to John 
Ford's conception and execution, consists 

International Photographer for February, 1941 

'TOBACCO ROAD," 20th Century-Fox Production 

Ward Bond as Lov Bcnsey 
Gene Tierney as Ellie May 

Slim Summerville as Henry Peabody 
Zeffie Tilbury as Grandma Lester 

Stills by Powolny and Koriiman 

Charley Grapewin as Jeeter Lester 
Elizabeth Patterson as Ada Lester 

William Traey as Dude Lester 
Marjorie Rambeau as Sister Bessie 

International Photographer for February, 1941 

William Tracy as Dude Lester, 
Marjorie Rambeau as Sister 
Bessie and Slim Summerville 
as Henry Peabody in a scene 
of bucolic romance. 

Charley Grapewin as Jeeter 
Lester and Ivar McFadden, an 
inmate of the poor farm, swap 
views over the fence. 

The cast of principals of "To- 
bacco Road." Left to right: 
Ward Bond as Lov Bensey; 
Gene Tierney as Elbe May; 
Charley Grapewin as Jeeter 
Lester; Elizabeth Patterson as 
Ada Lester; William Tracy as 
Dude Lester; Zeffie Tilbury as 
Grandma Lester; Marjorie 
Rambeau as Sister Bessie; 
Slim Summerville as Henry 

of a series of impressions. Each shot was 
framed, and the action and movement took 
place within that frame. The first shot of 
the march to the poor farm, which I men- 
tioned before, consisted of the two figures, 
a tree, a fence and the horizon. All inani- 
mate objects within the frame are as im- 
portant in the creation of mood and char- 
acter as the actors themselves and are used 
with telling effect." 

Lighting went through revolutionary in- 
novations in the filming of "Tobacco 
Road." The preponderent use of shade 
was one of the things that caused Arthur 
Miller many sleepless nights because it is 
very easy to get bad photography with too 
much shade. Keeping it from going beyond 
bounds at any time was Miller's main 

"But even a bad photographer cant get 
a bad picture when he works with John 
Ford,' Miller said. "He is the best direc- 
tor for any cameraman to work with be- 
cause he always knows what he wants and 
how to get it. 

"What interested me more than any- 
thing else in filming 'Tobacco Road' was 
the use of one source of light only and the 
minus of backlight. There could be no 
artificiality with this system, and the re- 
sults as we viewed them in the daily rushes 
were vitally interesting. 

"Those cases where we did have back- 
light were in outdoor shots where the main 
characters and the action were in the fore- 
ground shade and the background was in 
the natural sunlight. But this, like the use 
of one source of light, added to the natur- 
alness and realism. 

"Absence of makeup on all of the char- 
acters, except Marjorie Rambeau, who 
played Sister Bessie, was a great factor in 
attaining camera naturalness." 

It was a very minimum of makeup which 
Miss Rambeau was allowed to use. and it 
was checked carefully every morning by 
Miller and his second cameraman, Joe La 
Shelle. For the first two or three weeks 
on the picture, Miss Rambeau couldn't gel 
out of the habit of using lip rouge with the 
makeup. Miller and La Shelle had to re- 
mind her every morning with the admoni- 
tion of. "No lips. Miss Rambeau," to wipe 
it off before she began work. 

Not only did the otherwise glamorous 
Gene Tierney use no makeup in "Tobacco 
Road." but her face and limbs were treated 
every day to a generous coat of dirt. First 
the skin was rubbed with oil in order to 
provide a base for the dirt to stick to, 
then the dirt was rubbed in until it was 
well imbedded in the pores. 

The famous movie boner of having a 
backwoods girl with perfectly coiffed hair 
was scrupulously avoided when John Ford 
ordered Gene Tierney not to wash or dress 
her hair in any manner throughout the 
entire period of production. It was kept 
stringy and unkempt at all times. 

William Tracy, who played the role of 

Dude Lester, added another touch of real- 
ism by sacrificing some expensive bridge- 
work and exposing the gap of a missing 
front tooth. 

"With realism extending into every de- 
partment in the making of the picture, the 
total effect could not have been achieved 
if the camera had not also done its utmost 
to match this effect with its work." Miller 

"We continually took advantage of 
weather to create mood. So far I have 
mentioned mostly the filming of the low 
moods in the picture, but there are many 
comedy sequences. For these, of course, 
we took advantage of bright sunlight in 
our outdoor shots. 

"It is John Fords practice once he has 
started a sequence to follow that sequence 
through to completion in script order. 
However, changes in weather many times 
made him suddenly switch to other scenes 
when sun or the absence of it made condi- 
tions just right for certain lighting moods 
that he wanted to get. 

"On our main location at Sherwood For- 
est we had two important sets. One of 
these was Jeeter Lester's cabin and farm, 
and the other was a decrepit old mansion 
which had seen its last good days during 
the Civil War period and was now inhabit- 
ed by sharecroppers. 

"These two sets were strategically situ- 
ated in relation to the course of the sun 

and the shadows it cast. The shooting sche- 
dule was worked out so that we always 
shot the cabin in the morning and the 
mansion in the afternoon, at which times 
the light conditions were ideal for these 

"An exact duplicate of the cabin and 
farm was also built on Stage 5 at the 
studio. On this studio set we filmed our 
night shots, rain scenes and a few of the 
day scenes which we could not get on loca- 
tion on account of rain. 

"On the outdoor set, the distant back- 
ground consisted of trees and low hills. 
To match this on the studio set we had a 
foreground fringe of trees and then filled 
in the background with acid smoke which 
gave the illusion of distance." 

Unlike the play by Jack Kirkland, the 
picturization of "Tobacco Road" took in 
many sets, utilizing action and back- 
grounds which were in the original novel 
by Erskine Caldwell. Scenarized by Nun- 
nally Johnson with the accent on comedy 
and entertainment. Director John Ford 
nevertheless utilized every mood, from the 
very high to the very low. in telling this 

This was the pattern which Arthur Miller 
and his camera had to follow. What de- 
gree of perfection they have attained will 
be determined by that ultimate critic of all 
motion pictures — the man who puts four 
bits on the line at the box office. 

Looking over the setup for a street scene for "Tobacco Road" on the 20th Century Fox 
back lot. Seated in the chair is Director John Ford talking it over with bearded Charley 
Grapenin in the role of Jeeter Lester. In the center background, with arms folded, is 
Arthur Miller, Director of Photography. Paul Garnett is shonn in extreme left and 
next to him, wearing sweater, is Paul Lockwood. The only thing visible of Joe La 
Schelle is the top of his head behind the camera. 

International Photographer for February, 1941 



One hundred and fifty years ago, in 
Southern California, the old Mission 
Padres associated distance to be traveled 
in a day with the rate of speed at which a 
mule traveled. The missions located rough- 
ly 25 to 30 miles apart stand as evidence 
of this. 

In a later period when there were roads 
of a sort, and horses and coaches, stan- 
dards of the distance to be traveled in a 
day were changed and extended. Today, 
an automobile will cover five or six hun- 
dred miles easily in a day, while an air- 
plane will cross the continent in the same 
length of time. Again the standards have 
changed. Time moves on, and as it does, 
men's standards in various fields of activ- 
ity change and progress. This is true in 
the photographic field of the standards set 
up for negative exposure. 

Thirty years ago if a negative carried 
an image at all it was considered passable. 
The image might be very dense from over- 
exposure, or very thin from underexposure. 
The laboratory people would try to doc- 
tor it up. It could be further juggled 
around when it came time to make a print. 
Anyway it got by somehow. 

About seven years ago the advent of 
photoelectric brightness meters occurred. 
Brightness meters being those which meas- 
ure the light reflected from a scene. These 
meters were a big factor in changing the 
standards of negative exposure. By the 
use of these meters it became possible to 
so expose negatives that the entire image 
density range of all normal scenes would 
lie on the straight line portion of a char- 
acteristic H. & D. curve. It was still neces- 
sary, of course, to adjust printing expos- 
ures to compensate for variations in nega- 
tive image densities. 

Now the time has come when it is pos- 
sible to move on to still higher standards 
of negative exposure. This is made pos- 
sible through the development of a new 
photoelectric meter known as a "Prevail- 
ing-Illumination" meter. 

Negatives exposed under the control of 
this meter are so precise that all may be 
printed within a very narrow range of 
printing exposures. Assuming, of course, 
that processing is maintained at a high 
level of constancy. 

The principle on which this new meter 
operates will be described. Let us first 
i onsider a photographic scene. To a pho- 
tographer, a photographic scene may be 
defined as follows: "A complex array of 
assorted brightness, emanating from var- 
ious sized areas, located at varying dis- 
tances from the camera; further compli- 
cated by the clfccls of color." 

Consideration of this definition will lead 

one to realize what a tough proposition a 
brightness meter is up against. Of all ihose 
brightnesses in a scene, which should be 
measured? How much weight should be 
given to each measurement when balancing 
them off to arrive at a significant figure 
for the exposure? What about contrast as 
it affects exposure? What about correc- 
tions for color? What about corrections 
for distance? Haze? Backlighting? 

The problem is a serious one indeed. A 
careful and extended study was made in 
order to discover if it could not be sim- 
plified in some way. This study brought 
out the fact that all the brightnesses in any 
given scene have one factor in common. 
This common factor is the prevailing-illum- 
ination. The prevailing-illumination can 
be measured by a suitably designed in- 
strument, and the value so obtained can be 
used for exposure control. 

The reason for the above is as follows: 
Any photo subject brightness is a product 
of two factors, namely, illumination, and 
its own reflectance. Reflectances remain 
substantially constant. Prevailing-illumin- 
ations show wide variation. 

The range of diffuse reflectances encoun- 
tered in photographic subjects may extend 
from that exhibited by black velvet at two 
per cent, up to that of white velvet at eighty 
per cent. It will be noted that these values 
of two per cent and eighty per cent cover 
a range of 1-40. This range of 1-40 fits 
very easily into the latitude of negative 
emulsions which is usually about 1-125. 

Since the range of reflectance can be 
taken care of by the film latitude, it then 
remains only to measure the variable, the 
prevailing-illumination. With this done 
the lens diaphragm and shutter time may 
be properly set to compensate for the 
variable. In this manner the group of re- 
flectances to be found in a scene will al- 
ways come through onto the film with the 
same range of values. 

Consider some given scene. In one stu- 
dio it may be lighted up to a level of 350- 
foot candles. In another studio it may be 
lighted up to a level of only 50 foot 
candles. We know that the release prints 
carrying this scene may be practically in- 
distinguishable one from the other. In 
addition, the two negatives carrying the 
scene may be practically identical as re- 
gards densities. 

The range of reflectances remained the 
same of course for both takes.. On one 
case we had a high level of illumination, 
which was pulled down by the camera ex- 
posure controls. In the other case a low 
level of illumination, of which a much 
larger percentage was passed by the camera 
exposure controls. 

The point which it is desired to empha- 
size, however, is that in order to get per- 
fect negatives for both takes, the factor 
which logically should be measured is the 
only one which shows variation, that is, 
the prevailing-illumination. The range of 
reflectance constants will be taken care of 
by the emulsion latitude. When prevailing- 
illumination is measured, and then com- 
pensated for by the camera exposure con- 
trols, it will be found that any given sub- 
ject reflectance will always show up with 
the same density in the negative. 

Consider a face in close-up for example. 
Flesh tones have a reflectance of between 
30 and 40 per cent. A girl's face may 
show a reflectance of 40 per cent. In a 
print this should always show up at about 
the same given density. When the method 
of negative exposure control described 
herein is used the face will always show 
up with a constant density in negatives. 
Piecing these two facts together will show 
why it is possible to print all negatives 
with a fixed printing exposure, or within a 
very narrow range of printing exposures. 

It is interesting to examine prevailing- 
illumination as such. All prevailing-illum- 
inations may be classified into three types. 
Examples of each type may be visualized 
if we consider a white stucco garden wall 
with sunlight shining on it through the 
branches of a tree. 

Type 1 Prevailing-Illumination. See 
Figure 1 . In this type the subject and 
scene is for the most part in direct illum- 
ination from the primary light source. The 
wall has only a few leaf and branch sha- 
dows on it. In this case the prevailing- 
illumination is the clear sunlight, and that 
is what should be measured for exposure 

Type 2 Prevailing-Illuminating. See 
Figure 2. In this type shadow area fills 
most of the scene. Only a few shafts of 
direct sunlight strike through onto the 
well. Or there might be none. In this 
type the prevailing-illumination is that ex- 
isting in the shade. Its value should be 
measured at the position of the principal 

Type 3 Prevailing-Illumination. See 
Figure 3. In this type the sunlight and 
shadow portions of the wall are about 
equal in area and importance. The prin- 
cipal subject is illuminated by patches of 
both sunlight and shadow. In this case the 
prevailing-illumination is a mean between 
the illumination value existing in the sha- 
dows and that existing in the direct light. 
For exposure determination both should be 
measured, and the mean value determined. 
It might be further noted here that this 
Type 3 Prevailing-Illumination is not con- 


' : II 

Iducive to attractive pictures. It is a type 
lof illumination that is avoided by good 
photographers as being lacking in balance. 
Types 1 and 2 are much to be preferred 
for all normal pictures. 

Although the typical scenes described 
are outdoor scenes, the same principles 
apply to interiors. For interiors the cine- 
[matographer will achieve a balanced il- 
lumination by arrangement of his lighting 
Jiinits. Then when a satisfactory lighting 
[arrangement has been achieved, the pre- 
vailing illumination may be measured at 

■ the center of interest. The reading so ob- 
Itained will be used for exposure control. 

In this matter of defining prevailing-il- 
lumination consider how the human eye 
(functions when viewing a scene. The eye 
(has an automatic diaphragm. Under high 

■ levels of illumination this diaphragm stops 
>away down. Under low levels it opens up. 
i When viewing any given scene it recog- 
nizes the level of prevailing-illumination, 
land automatically adjusts itself in accord- 
ance therewith. 

We can very well follow the example of 
[the eye in this matter, because after all the 
ultimate product of all photographic effort 
lis something that is going to be viewed 
'by the eye. 

In order to set the camera controls prop- 
lerly it is necessary to have some means 
sof accurately determining the level of pre- 
ivailing-illumination. With an instrument 
fat hand which will accomplish this pur- 
: pose it is possible to set the camera con- 
trols to correspond to the natural auto- 
matic action of the eyes. 

The meter used for measuring the value 
f of prevailing-illumination is customarily 
used at the position of the subject. See 
Figure 4. It is pointed at the camera lens. 
In this position it acts as a miniature sub- 
ject. All light which would be effective 
in illuminating the subject for photogra- 
phic purposes will be accepted by the 
meter, integrated and evaluated. Since 
photo subjects are usually three dimen- 

Fie. 3 

sional objects, and illumination usually 
comes from a three dimensional space, it 
follows that the light pick-up surface of 
the meter must be three-dimensional in 

It has been found that a hemi-spherical 
surface is best suited to this purpose. See 
Figure 5. When properly oriented it pre- 
sents surfaces in planes at all angles that 
are visible from the camera position. These 
surfaces correspond to all surfaces of the 
subject which will be illuminated for the 
camera's benefit. 

For outdoor pictures where considerable 
distances are involved it is not necessary 
to use the meter strictlv at the subject's 
position. Usually the illumination under 
such conditions is substantially uniform 
over considerable areas. Under these con- 
ditions the meter may be used at any po- 
sition where the illumination is compar- 
able to that on the subject, right beside the 
camera if desired. It is only necessary to 
see that the meter is properly oriented with 
respect to subject and camera. 

The meter is universal in use, function- 
ing equally well indoors or out, under any 
type of illumination. Since the principle 
of operation of the meter is sound, the 
same method of use is employed at all 
levels of illumination, high or low. The 
meter will function in exactly the same 
manner under very low levels of artificial 
illumination on interiors, and under bright- 
est sunlight outdoors. 

One model of this meter was made up 
in triple range. The scale units were se- 
lected to tie in with the Weston system. 
The meter then read for full scale, 0-1000, 
0-100, and 0-10. When using the 0-10 
scale it is possible to read down to .05 
unit. At the other extreme of illumination, 
the meter when pointed directly at the sun 
at noon on a summer day gives a needle 
deflection of 450. 

Since this type of meter measures il- 
lumination, rather than light reflected from 
the photo subject, it is unaffected bv such 

Fig. 4 

matters as subject contrast, relative size 
of light and dark areas in a scene, chro- 
matic variations in a scene, distance from 
subject, effect of haze, back lights, etc. It 
is excellent for black and white films and 
ideal for natural color, due to its high 
precision qualities. 

Since illumination is always stronger 
than light reflected from the subject the 
meter has more light to work with, and in 
consequence has very great sensitivity. It 
is easily possible to get significant readings 
with the meter in a living room of a home, 
where the only illumination is the day- 
light filtering in through the windows. 
This feature of this type of meter makes 
it well adapted for use in connection with 
the new highly sensitive emulsions which 
are now available. 

It is believed that the matter of placing 

Fig. 5 

International Photographer for February, 1941 

"Sentinels of the l)awn ,, by Ira Hoke. 
Kr«un Howard Hughes Production "The Outlaw." 

( Eastman Infra Red, 25 A filler) 

negative exposure control on a precision 
basis will be a double benefit to the cine- 
matographer. It will assure the finest pos- 
sible negative quality for every scene ex- 
posed. And it will allow the cinematogra- 
pher to release his attention from the ex- 
posure problem, and exercise to the fullest 
extent his unique talent as a master artist 
dealing in the medium of cinematography. 


For our National Defense Program. THE 
UNITED STATES ARMY, will require 
men experienced in still and sound motion 
picture production for service in the event 
of emergency. 

The basic enlisted organization of the 
G. H. Q. Signal Corps Photographic Unit 
is now in process of formation. We want 
to create a list of qualified men who will 
simply express their willingness to serve in 
this motion picture organization in case of 
complete mobilization of the United States 

Those who have reached their 18th birth- 
day and those who have not yet reached 
their 45th birthday will be eligible to join 
this organization. 

This presents an opportunity for men in 
the motion picture industry to serve, in 
emergency, in the branch for which they 
are best qualified. 

Those interested may register by writing 

the RESEARCH COUNCIL, Academy of 

Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, 1217 

i Taft Bldg., Hollywood, California. Give 

| complete information on age, education, 

present position, studio with which con- 

> nected, number of years in motion picture 

industry, etc. 

We will require several men of the fol- 
lowing classifications to complete the tenta- 
i tive organization: Animation and title su- 
' pervisors"; camera repair supervisors ( mo- 
; tion picture and still ) ; cameramen ( motion 
picture and still) chemists (motion pic- 
ture and still laboratory; clerks, cooks; 
editors ( picture and sound ) electricians 
((motion picture); laboratory equipment 
engineers; laboratory supervisors (motion 
picture and still) machinists; motion pic- 
ture engineers; motion picture camera de- 
partment supervisors; negative cutters and 
assemblers, photographers (copy and 
printer) developers, projectionists; sound 
recording and re-recording engineers; su- 
pervisors; mixers; maintenance men, boom 
operators; recording and re-recording ma- 
chine operators. 

THIS TIME. This survey is for the pur- 
pose of obtaining information on qualified 
motion picture men willing to serve in 
time of national emergency. 


Every Improvement 
that has been found to be 
Practical by the 
most skilled engineers 
is incorporated in a 

^Mitchell Camera 



Cable Address "MITCAMCO" Phone OXford 1051 

Bell & Howell, Ltd., London, England 
Claud C. Carter, Sydney, Australia 

Motion Picture Camera Supply Co. 
New York City 
Fazalbhoy, Ltd., Bombay, India 
D. Nagase & Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan H. Nassibian, Cairo, Egypt 

International Photographer for February, 1941 


1. New "Positive" Viewfinder 

Magnifies rather than masks . . . with any lens, fills entire finder 
aperture with large-size upright image . . . eliminates eye parallax. 

2. New Viewfinder Turret 

Enables Eyemo user to select matching viewfinder objective unit 
with same speed he picks lens. Convenient. Fast. Accurate. 

WHEN the shots come fast and 
various, and you must get the 
picture . . . that's when you most 
appreciate the versatile Eyemo. 
For it's instantly ready to meet the 

What will you have? A swift 
change of lenses? . . . conversion 
from 100-foot film capacity to 200- 
or 400-foot magazines? ... a tripod 
mount or a light, easy-to-handle 
hand camera? ... a change from 
electric to spring or hand drive? 

... a silent camera or a hookup 
for sound? . . . slow motion or 
silent or sound speeds? Whatever 
the demand, Eyemo meets it. 

Send the coupon now, and get 
complete details on this unsur- 
passed portable camera. Do it to- 
day. Bell & Howell Company, 1848 
Larchmont Ave., Chicago; 30 
Rockefeller Plaza, New York; 7 1 6 
North LaBrea Avenue, Hollywood; 
13-14 Great Castle St., London. 
Established 1907. 

EYEMO can be equipped 
with many accessories for 
stiti/io anil location work, 
or it can be stripped clown 
to a li:J>t. compact, spring- 
driven hand camera. 



Eyemo owners may convert their Eyemos 
to include the following new features at 
very moderate cost. Write for details. 

I New "positive" viewfinder 

I New viewfinder turret 

o New flat base — 2V2 in. square 

4 Locking screws to lock each lens in focus 

J Turret lock for Eyemos with offset turret 

6 Detachable cord for electric-drive models 


1849 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

( ) Send details about new, improved Eyemos. 

I own Eyemo Serial No 

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"cIieers For miss bishop' 


In running these pictures of Martha Scott, the 

editor offers the prediction that she is the great- 

I est exponent of histrionic art that Hollywood has 

found in the last five years. She is the person 

' who would he most comparable to Helen Hayes 

! and eventually will be accorded such status by 

the stage and screen of this country. 

(Editor's Note) 

Richard A. Rowland's production, 
"Cheers for Miss Bishop," is perhaps the 
most outstanding example of a perfect 
welding of the art of photography and the 
art of make-up. 

For the finished work of art in the weld- 
ing of these two essentials considerable 
credit goes to the director of photography, 
Hal Mohr, and to the make-up director, 
Don Cash. 

As one sees this picture unreel and wit- 
nesses the gradual aging of the players as 
the story progresses one cannot but be 
strikingly impressed by the advances that 
have been made in both these arts in the 
last few years. 

These stills of Martha Scott, taken dur- 

The stills of Martha Scott as Miss Bishop, shown on pages 14 
and 15, are evidence of the cooperation that existed between the 
publicity director, the still cameraman and the make-up artist. 

ing the production of the picture by the 
author, exemplifies the task that was ahead 
of all concerned when Producer Rowland 
set out to film a story which called for 
his characters to age gradually in the story 
over a period of sixty years. 

So natural are each of the characters 
during the transition that it is not until 
one leaves the theatre that he is conscious 
of the illusion that has been wrought. Not 
only are those in the profession singing 
the praises of the fine artistic photography 
and make-up manifest in the picture, but 
the laymen who have seen the film are 
finding the fine work a subject for enthusi- 
astic praise. This itself is truly unusual 
for the average theatregoer seems gener- 
ally to be indifferent to the artistic and 
technical efforts that go into the making 
of a film production. 

In photographing these stills of Miss 
Scott, and the same was true of the stills 
of William Gargan and others in the cast, 
the still man had to do a right about face. 

Instead of working for those so-called 
beautiful effects in portraiture from the 

standpoint of lighting and composition, I 
had to do just the opposite. As Miss Bishop 
aged in the picture I had to work for 
reality, flattening the lighting to emphasize 
the wrinkles that the make-up produced 
but which in ordinary photography one 
would try to hide. 

Here was one of the cases where the 
stilbnan had to keep the retoucher under 

Before the picture started Murphy Mc- 
Henry, publicity director, and I had num- 
erous conversations as to the value of 
depicting the aging character at the ex- 
pense of quality in portraiture, and we 
agreed as to the importance of adhering to 
this principle. 

After working on seven pictures with 
McHenry as publicity director, I realize 
and appreciate what the cooperation of the 
publicity director means to the still cam- 
eraman. He was always willing to listen 
to my problems with the utmost under- 
standing and his help meant a great deal 
in enabling me to produce the desired 

%attIe of seattIe" 

As a part of one of the first demonstra- 
tions of West Coast metropolitan air raid 
defenses the 'Battle of Seattle" recently 
took place in which Battery "D," 205th 
Coast Artillery (A. A. ) set up the Army's 
most modern anti-aircraft guns in down- 
town Seattle, while in another part of the 
city citizens tried out the West Coast's first 
air raid shelter. It was a realistic show, 
with attack planes diving on troops, warn- 
ing sirens wailing, and men, women and 
children dashing for the sandbagged bomb 

Photo shows: Newsreel cameramen who 
covered the "Battle" : Earl Nelson, Univer- 
sal Newsreel ( left ) and C. L. Edwards, 
Paramount News ( right ) equipped with 
gas masks, film planes overhead as local 
citizens peer from Seattle's first air raid 
shelter. The shelter, conceived by Hilmer 
Benson I wearing white shirt), a Seattle 
merchant, is an old wine cellar, made of 
steel reinforced concrete and banked with 
sand bags. Benson believes his shelter 
would afford protection from anything but 
a direct hit, in the event of an attack. — 
(Photo by Grant Macdonald, Wide World 

International Photographer for February, 1941 


"CHEERS FOR MISS BISHOP," Richard A. Rowland Production 

Reading across the two pages, upper: Martha Scott as Ella Bishop at the age of eighteen; just entering college; thirty years old; <lr 

By William Wallace 

ist in gasoline buggies at forty-nine ; as the schoolmarm ; at fifty-six; on to sixty-five; taking life leisurely at seventy-nine. See page 13. 


By Starre 

Starre is a member of Local 659 who writes 
under a pseudonym. He will be glad to answer 
any correspondence on this subject. 

( Editorul Note) 

These pictures of Gregory Ratoff in action, 
ebullient with emotion, telling the actors 
how to play a scene while directing the 
picture, "Legacy." were presented to me 
for perusal and accompanied by a request 
that I define candid photography. 

So much has been said on this subject 
that I hesitate to offer my opinion with- 
out feeling that someone will be prompted 
to say, "So what!'" It is my humble sug- 
gestion that this person understand that 
opinions offered to constructively assist 
should never be frowned upon. If the re- 
sult is only to arouse interest and conver- 
sational tones that may be heard in the 
next room, the objective base has been 
struck and the result is only a matter of 

Some years ago it was unorthodox as 
well as an infringement on good taste to 
photograph anyone not properly dressed 
and posing in the conventional sitting or 
standing position. With the development 
of cameras and film, discovery was made 
that movement and speed could be visual- 
ized photographically. Following these in- 
novations, if they may be called such, there 
came into being the miniature camera 
which enabled the photographer to dis- 
pense with the obvious in the way of dis- 
cretion and take pictures whether or not 
they accorded with the subject's wishes. 
Yet cameras and pictures have not been 
completely controlling — publicity, fan mail 
and streamline effects modernized in every 
type and form to show people as they are, 
helped create a new photographic era. 
Though perhaps not the best example, but 
direct and unequivocal, comparison might 
be made with the nudist who helps destroy 
modesty, be it false or otherwise. 

The ice having been broken with the help 
of such magazines as Life, Look, Pix, Click 
and many others, candid photography grew 
to tremendous proportions. The answer is 
obvious to me. Demand controls supply. 
The magazines succeeded in influencing 
people, other barriers gradually were de- 
stroyed. The vogue became stark realism : 
shoot people as they are, how they work, 
the way they really act, so we can sec it 
I Continued on Page 27) 

Reading down: Scene from Columbia pro- 
duct ion, "Legacy" ; Gregory Ratoff, direc- 
tor, issuing instructions and judging from 
his expression in the lower picture those 
instructions were carried out to his entire 
satis faction. 


Gregory Ratoff in action, directing Columbia production, "Legacy. 

Stills bv Milton Gold 

Left to right: Talking it over; driving home the thought; discussing minute details; telling Warner 
Baxter what he wants; making the players warm up; through the finder. Shot with 4 by 5 Speed 
Graphic on Dupont Super-sensitive film. 

International Photographer for February, 1941 


VERy TOO llAppy, plEASE 

Reprinted from San Franeiseo Chron- 
iele, Deeember 14, 1940 


In a photographically correct scene and 
with a script rewritten to the tastes of the 
newsreel patrons, Captain Leland E. Haw- 
kins received the highest decoration which 
the Japanese government gives an alien — 
the Fifth Class Order of the Rising Sun. 

Last year Captain Hawkins' tanker Asso- 
ciated picked up 209 people from the ni- 
trate-fired Bokuyo Maru. Yesterday on the 
after sundeck of the Asama Maru. at Pier 
11. he was given the red-and-white stripped 
ribbon and ruby medallion entitling him to 
attend special functions held for the Em- 

The only witnesses were the press and 
three longshoremen who were busy arguing 
about the war. 

As usual, the newsreels took charge. 
Re a range Scene 

Before the participants had arrived, the 
newsreel men were busy rearranging the 
scene and the speeches. A pair of tables 
and bundled American and Japanese flags 
were whisked away. 

The fifth class was dropped from the 
title of the decoration. 

"Gives it more class," explained the 
sound men. 

The hand-rails were like ice and every- 
one was bundled to the ears except Captain 
Hawkins and Acting Consul General Ichiri 
Kawasaki. The Captain wore a blue suit 
and the Consul wore diplomatic morning 
coat and striped trousers. They lined up 
with ship's officers and consular attaches. 
Flashlights began to pop. 

Spins Lenses 

Kluver of the newsreels slipped on his 
head phones, spun his lenses and squinted 
through the eyepiece. The Consul looked 
around for confirmation and then said that 
he was happy to present this medal from 
the Emperor. 

He took the medal from a black lacquer- 
ed box and hung it in Captain Hawkins' 

Captain Hawkins said to tell the Emperor 
he was grateful and anyone in his position 
would have done the same. The longshore- 
men began to argue on the deck just below 
the microphone. 

""Is that your gang in the hold said 
one of them. 

"What about it?" said the winchdriver. 

"They're screwballs," said the longshore- 
man. "They load that mail like it was 

Yells "Quiet" 

Kluver slipped off his headphones and 
yelled "Quiet!" 

"Let's try it again," he said. "Turn to- 
ward me when you say, "and I feel anyone 
in my position and so and so'." 

"I'm cold," said Captain Hawkins. The 
Japanese all smiled politely. 

"Please give my thanks to the Emperor 
and I feel" — the medal fell off his coat. 
The Captain juggled it back into his but- 
tonhole and continued — "I feel that anyone 
in my place would have done the same." 

"You hesitated," said Kluver. 

"I know it," said the Captain. "The 
medal broke." 

Two still cameramen came over, fishing 
in their bags for pliers. Kluver pulled out 
a pocket knife. They huddled until the 
Captain took the medal away from them 
and put it together. He put it in his but- 

Captain Leland F. Hawkins, General Kawasaki and party aboard Asama Marn, where the Captain was presented with 
the Fifth Class Order of the Rising Sun, the highest decoration the Japanese Government gives an alien. 



The cameras were moved up to a close- 
up and the Captain repeated his speech, 
adding this time that anyone would have 
done the same "where humanity is con- 

The Japanese had quietly faded from 
the deck. There was some argument as to 
whether the ruby in the medal was real, the 
majoritv holding that it probably was. 

"I'm cold," said the Captain. 

"We reallv ought to tell what its for,'" 
said Kluver. They set up the cameras 
again and someone asked the Captain how 
it happened. 

"We were on a return trip from Manila." 
said the Captain, while the newsreel men 
squinted in their eyepieces. "We got an 
SOS from the Bokuro Maru. and we were 
the nearest ship. When we arrived we 
found the lifeboats and floating wreckage 
and we took the people aboard." 

"We ought to get in something about it 
exploded and burned to the waters edge, 
or something like that." said Kluver. "Let's 
do it over." 

"It all depends on whether you want the 
truth or a story," said Captain Hawkins. 
Grits Teeth 

A still cameraman asked Kluver to hurry 
it up. "You're holding up a drink," he 

Under prodding, the Captain gritted his 
teeth and told the staring camera that he 
had come to the Bokuyo Maru, which had 
fire in the hold, and later exploded and 
burned to the water's edge, in response to 
an SOS. The part about his being the 
nearest ship was deleted. 

It was suggested that everybody go be- 
low for a drink. 

"1 guess there's no law against it." said 
Captain Hawkins through chattering teeth. 
"Where's my medal? I'm cold!" 


sizes , 

The photographer 
who works with large 
negatives will appreci- 
ate the powerful light 
and optical system of 
Solar studio enlargers. 
The brilliant project- 
ed image makes for 
ease in securing criti- 
cal focus — and mini- 
mum exposure time. 
Full tone scale and 
contrast of the nega- 
tive is reproduced at full value 
See a Solar before you buy! 





They sAy* 

© Earl Nelson, Universal newsreeler who 
covers the Northwest territory, looking over 
Southern California and taking the missus 
around busy Hollywood. 

• Willard \anderveer, who collaborated 
with Joe Rucker on Byrd's first expedition 
to the South Pole, now with Pathe. 

• Kay Rennaban, first cameraman; Irving 
Rosenberg, Bill Abbott, Don Anderson, sec- 
ond cameramen, and technicians Thad 
Brooks, John Gustafson and Nelson Cordes 
are in Mexico City covering a genuine bull 
fight for "Blood and Sand." Ironically, the 
matador originally scheduled to work in 
the picture was gored to death previous to 
the arrival of the crew. 

• Reggie Lanning occupying the berth of 
first cameraman at Republic Studios. 

• Dick Fryer, Jimmie Palmer, Perry Fin- 
nerman, Les Schorr, Leo Hughes and 
George Bourne were seen at Talisman Stu- 
dios on the Feher musical shorts. 

• Joe Rucker in town covering Tourna- 
ment of Roses activity. By coincidence 
Rucker and Vanderveer have met for the 
first time in many years on the same job. 

• Dan Fapp, second cameraman. Para- 
mount, is the father of a newly arrived son 
whose aspirations undoubtedly will be to 
direct what dad photographs. 

• Charles Chaplin is to be commended for 
his expression of good will to Local 659. 
Chaplin permitted Rollie Totheroh to use 
the words I.A.T.S.E. after his name on the 

• Joe Citron, asistant cameraman at Co- 
lumbia Studios, holds the degree of P.H.C. 
from the University of Southern California. 

• Members of Local 659 are happy to 
know that stillman Sherman Clark's wife 
is recovering from a very severe operation. 
© Cliff Shirpser surprised us by staving 
only five or six days at Cedars of Lebanon 
Hospital to recover from an appendix oper- 
ation. Cliff says he will be looking for a 
long engagement to make up for the costly 
short one. 

© Vic Milner at Universal Studios after 
seventeen years at Paramount. He will con- 
tinue his fine record in his new home. 
© Alfred Harvey back in Hollywood after 
working with Hurrell at his special studio 
in the Waldorf Astoria Hotel. New York 
City. Al tells us how brother Hurrell did 
Washington's political persons and the 
New York blue bloods in his inimitable 
style, creating nothing short of a sensation 
among New York's distinguished photo- 
graphers. Strange to say, the work of an 
ace cameraman, as a rule, implies motion 
picture work: vet Hurrell's still camera 
work means more to many eastern lights 
than anv of our ace cameramen in Holly- 
wood. The camera enthusiast and movie 
fan only knows an ace cameraman as one 


who stands and directs the photography in 
Hollywood. Such is the difference of opin- 
ion on who's who in the photographic 

© Dewey Wrigley and Lothrop Worth off 
for Havana, Cuba, and it is rumored that 
their destination is Lisbon, Portugal. Prob- 
ably if the world were at peace members 
of Local 659 would really be traveling to 
all parts known and unknown. 

• Manuel Corral, Schlesinger Studios, 
was an all-round athlete and baseball play- 
er at Loyola College. 

© William Collins, asistant cameraman, 
reports for duty in the National Guard, 
State of California, shortly. 
© Joe Novak, second cameraman. Repub- 
lic Studios, is known to his friends as 
"Crooked Arm" because of his pitching 
prowess utilized sometime ago at Chatta- 
nooga Baseball Club and also in Flint, 
Michigan, playing ball. 

• Jobn McBernie, second cameraman, Re- 
public, played in the outfield for the old 
Vernon Baseball Club, Los Angeles. 

• Ray Flinsky is a linguist according to 
the Christmas card he sent out. 

© It is not often that any single camera- 
man is paid tribute to, as this column 
writes news as only such. However, we 
cannot omit comment concerning Leon 
Shamroy, whose great interest seems to be 
in rendering help to those in Local 659. 
He is found constantly pondering and 
wondering how an individual organization 
can substantially aid the cameramen who 
find^ themselves without work. The spirit 
of Shamroy is admirable and we feel that 
his efforts eventually will result in some 
progressive plan. 

© George Dye and Tommie Morris each 
have a pair of twins. 

© Roy Kluver announces the release of a 
new star, William Conrad Kluver. pro- 
duced by Mr. and Mrs. Roy Kluver. 
© Jack Smith, first cameraman; Kymye 
Mead and Josiah Roberts, operators: Matt 
Klusnick, Ken Meade and Frank McDon- 
ald, assistants; and Frank Bjerring. still 
man, leaving for Sun Vallev for MGM. 


Light Testers — Polishers used by all Major 
Studios. We are the sole Manufacturers 
and Distributors. 

Manufacturer of 16mm and 35mm Record- 
ing Heads, Developing Machines, Bipack 
Color and Black and White Printers, Re- 
Special Machinery built to order. 


914 No. Fairfax HE 1984 

Holly-wood, Calif. 

Cable Address: "CIINEBARSAM" 

International Photographer for February, 1941 




Patent Attorney, Los Angeles 

No. 2,224,901— Camera Dolly. Harry G. 
Cunningham, assignor to Radio Keith 
Orpheum Corp. Appln. July 20. 1937. 
10 claims. 
A camera dolly having a substantially 
horizontal frame plate with a screw adjust- 
ed column in the center and a counter- 
balanced camera boom mounted on top of 
the column. 

No. 2,224,947 — Film Processing Appara- 
tus. Jesse M. Blaney, assignor to Cin- 
audagraph Corp., Stamford, Conn. 
Appln. Feb. 21, 1938. 16 claims. 
A machine for processing a continuous 
length of film, and making use of a series 
of loops of constant length, with a loop of 
variable length adapted to provide a con- 
stant tension. 

No. 2,225,035 — Projection Apparatus. 
Alan A. Cook, assignor to Bausch & 
Lomb Optical Company. Appln. Dec. 
31, 1938. 2 claims. 
A projector for projecting pictures to a 
screen below the projector, the latter hav- 
ing a horizontal lamphouse with a prism 
for deflecting the light downwardly. 

No. 2,225,219 — Filter and Sound Gate 
Mechanism. Oscar J. Holmes, Chicago, 
111. Appln. May 28, 1937. 9 claims. . 
A film driving means which is driven by a 
shaft to which is attached a flywheel which 
alone drives the shaft, the flywheel being 
coupled to the source of power in a man- 
ner that prevents the flywheel from exert- 
ing a driving reaction on the coupling. 

No. 2,226,188 — Speed Control Assembly. 
Otto Wittel, assignor to Eastman Kodak 
Co. Appln. Feb. 3, 1939. 13 claims. 
A centrifugal governor adapted to operate 
at a plurality of predetermined speeds. 
with a brake member adapted to be moved 
to a position corresponding to the speed 

No. 2,226,339 — Three-Color Film and 
Method of Makinc Same. William T. 




No. 22184 
4516 Sunset Boulevard Night, SUnset 2-1271 


headquartersi RENTALS * SALES * SERVICE 



PtoLaiAdOtu U Studia and Cutting Roam. ZquipmetU 

Available At All Times 

* MITCHELL — Standard, Hi-speed, Silenced and N C Cameras * 

* BELL & HOWELL — Standard, Hi-speed, Process and Eyemo Cameras * 
•k WALL — Latest Model Single System Sound Cameras * 




all fecal 1 1 1 ■ t h » — F I LT E R S and LIGHTS * 






1600 BROADWAY nyc 

CIrcle 6-5080 

Crespinel, assignor to Cinecolor, Inc. 

Appln. Jan. 3, 1938. 9 claims. 
A process for producing a colored photo- 
graph which includes: Producing two sup- 
erimposed positive silver images on a pho- 
tographic film; converting said images to 
a blue metallic salt capable of reacting 
with dimethylgloxime by treatment with 
solutions containing a soluble ferricyanide, 
a soluble ferric salt and a soluble nickel 
salt; and converting one of said images to 
a magenta color by treatment with a solu- 
tion containing dimethvlgloxime. 

No. 2,226,638 — Motion Picture Camera. 
Walter Riedel, Germany, assignor to 
Zeiss Ikon Aktiengesellschaft, Dresden, 
Germany. Appln. Jan. 30, 1939. In Ger- 
many Feb. 11, 1938. 3 claims. 
A motion picture camera having a pair of 
vertically aligned reels between which the 
film passes in a substantially straight line, 
with the lens located between the reels at 
their point of least separation. 

No. 2,226,639 — Color Photography. 
Karl Schinzel, Czechoslovakia, assignor 
to Eastman Kodak Co. Appln. April 29, 
1937. In Austria May 9, 1936. 5 claims. 
A process of color photography making 
use of separate emulsions, the one nearest 
the support being a silver bromide and 
the one farthest away being a silver chlor- 
ide, which is treated by a developer which 
acts on the chloride before a useful image 
is formed in the bromide. 

No. 2,226,971 — Motion Picture Camera. 

Leo Goldhammer, Germany, assignor to 

General Aniline & Film Corp. Appln. 

Dec. 10, 1938. In Germany December 

11, 1937. 14 claims. 
A motion picture camera having a norm- 
ally closed gate which is opened when the 
cover of the camera is opened, the cover 
having spring plates which bear against 
the side of the film and push it into place 
as the cover is closed, the gate closing 
after the film is in place. 

No. 2,227,201 — Method for Producing 
and Exhibiting Sound Motion Pic- 
tures. Oscar A. Ross, New York, N. Y. 
Appln. April 17, 1936. 5 claims. 
A method of producing foreign language 
sound films by recording the pictures and 
native tongue sequence on separate nega- 
tives, and then making a foreign language 
sound record of same length and word 
spacing, and combining the foreign lan- 
guage sequence and the picture into a 
single film. 

No. 2,227,269— Fire Protection Device 
for Motion Picture Projectors. Et- 
win May, Wetzlar, Germany, assignor 
to Frank Dumur, Lausanne, Switzerland. 
Appln. June 3, 1939. In Germany June 
10. 1938. 2 claims. 
A safety device for motion picture pro- 
jectors which closes the dowser before the 
motor is stopped, and starts the motor be- 
fore the dowser is opened. 



EVERY one of the Ten Best Pictures, se- 
lected in the Film Daily's critics poll for 
1940, was made on Eastman Negative 
Films. This impressive record speaks for 
itself. In 1941, these exceptional films will 
continue to contribute to the success 
of outstanding screen productions. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y. 

J. E. BRLLATOl R. INC., Distributors 
Fort Lee Chicago Hollywood 


for general studio use when little light is available 


for backgrounds and general exterior trork 


International Photographer for February, 1941 21 


The Chicago Cinema Club 

The Chicago Cinema Club, organized in 
May of 1927, is typical of ihe numerous 
clubs and organizations of amateur cinema 
enthusiasts in the country. Every week on 
Thursday nights about one hundred and 
fifty men and women from all trades and 
professions get together in the Lighting 
Institute in Chicago's Civic Opera Bldg. to 
analyze, tear apart, and reconstruct the 
various phases of their common hobby- 
amateur movie making. 

Their programs are varied. Once a 
month, usually the night of their business 
meeting, a "Film Analysis" is held: on an- 
other night, a technical lecture; one night 
is spent in their "little"' theatre viewing pic- 
tures made by amateurs of other clubs. 
And one night a month includes a visit to 
a studio, plant, lab or other commercially 
engaged organization to see how things are 
done professionally. 

"Film Analysis" night sounds like a very 
serious, profound affair. While it is se- 
rious in that it gives an amateur a chance 
to get the opinions of others, it still re- 
tains something of the "Fite Nile" about 
it — with everyone taking sides! The films 
are screened and then the meeting is 
thrown open for discussion and criticism. 
In this way he may get the benefits of the 
opinions of the group on the relative merits 
and faults in his work. 

One of the most praiseworthy activities 
engaged in by the club is under the com- 
mittee chairmanship of Mr. Robert O'Shea. 
This is the "Outside Activities" committee. 
Settlement house, orphanages, hospitals, 
or even private individuals are singled 

Chicago Cinema Clnb 

out and films screened for these people. 

Mr. S. J. Hofreiter tells of his experi- 
ence with a boy who had been bed-ridden 
for a long time. This boy was unable to 
sit up, or even to get into a lying position 
from which he could look straight ahead 
and see the screen. Mr. Hofreiter's solution 
to the problem was to place a mirror at a 
45 degree angle a short distance away from 
the projector and to shoot the image up 
onto the ceiling. This involved turning the 
film around in the projector so that the 
picture could be seen "right sideto." And 
in this manner the entire picture was view- 
ed on the ceiling. Even by the dog. Mr. 
Hofreiter tells of the dog either tiring and 
falling over on his back as a result of his 
continued watching, or just deciding that 
it would be the easiest thing to do; the 
fact remains that the dog watched the 
greater part of the showing on the ceiling 
lying down on his back. 

Another activity is the school that is con- 
ducted for those desiring formal instruc- 
tion in amateur cinematography. In con- 
nection with this we wish to say something 
that we feel would be of help to all those 
interested in amateur movie making gen- 
erally. One more or less unfortunate condi- 
tion exists in cinema work that does not 
in "still" photography: It is very difficult. 
if not impossible, for the amateur movie 
maker to process his own film. Developing 
and printing one's own film gives an in- 
sight into the workings of an emulsion that 
cannot easily be had otherwise. The still 
photographer has the advantage of being 
able to conveniently develop his own nega- 
tives, and to make the prints. When the 

By Warren Sandage 

resulting prints are not to his satisfaction, 
he investigates. Too much development. 
An overtimed print. Or some other reason 
for it. He gets to the point where his pro- 
cessing is correct, and then begins to see 
the defects in his camera work, and is able 
to correct this. Working with his own nega- 
tives, or at least in close contact with 
them, he is able to follow through and get 
a closer, more intimate feeling than if he 
had some one else do it for him. Now, it 
is not necessary to always keep doing one's 
own processing to turn out fine work; it 
is just that there is a greater intimacy with 
the medium if one has a working knowl- 
edge of that medium. 

The amateur cinematographer is at a 
disadvantage there because he uses reversal 
film in the great majority of cases, and, 
even if he did use negative, the cost of the 
processing equipment would make the ven- 
ture prohibitive. Amout the only suggestion 
that could be offered would be to acquire 
a small still camera and try out the same 
ideas with the same type of film, lights, 
etc. (not lenses!) as used with the movie 
camera, and to develop and print those 
films. A lot could be learned from that. 

The club's president is dynamic Mr. I. 
Vise. A lawyer by profession, we wonder 
how he manages to keep his mind away 
from amateur movies during the day. 

TkE Projector 

By Hamilton Riddel 

Winter months mark the beginning of a 
busy season for your home movie projec- 
tor. There will be more than one occasion 
at your home when good friends get to- 
gether, and they will call for: Movies! 

So be ready to give them a show . . . 
a real show! 

Nothing contributes so much to satisfy- 
ing pictures as a well-cleaned, smooth- 
running projector. So let's give the ma- 
chine a close check-up to insure the maxi- 
mum results which it is capable of deliv- 
ering. It would be a good idea, too, while 
you are at it. to re-read the instruction 
manual. Then you will be sure not to 
overlook any important points in servicing 
your projector. 

Be sure to oil your machine as indicated 
in the manual. Don't use too much lubri- 
cant, for an oil-soaked projector is almost 
as bad as one with none at all. A drop 
of oil, at each lubrication point, is usu- 
al l\ sufficient; and wipe off any excess 
that appears. Thus you prevent an ac- 
cumulation of dust and dirt that causes 
excessive wear in the mechanism. 

Next, your attention should be directed 
to cleaning the sprockets, film gate and 
claw -movement. As films thread their way 
through these passageways, there is a grad- 
ual accumulation of dust, emulsion par- 
ticles and other foreign substances that 
make your machine noisy and which will 
most assuredly tend to scratch your films. 


Such deposits can be removed with a slight- 
ly moistened rag and discarded toothbrush. 
Under no circumstances use a fingernail 
file or knife in cleaning the film gate: you 
can't afford to scratch or mar any metal 
parts that the film comes in contact with. 
The optical system of your projector 
comes next. Make sure that the silvered 
reflector, located directly behind the pro- 
jection bulb, is in proper alignment with 
the lamp, and that it is free of dust and 
finger-marks. You should also polish the 
projection bulb. If it is excessively black- 
ened through long use or, as is sometimes 
the case with the higher wattage type, if 
the bulb has a "heat blister" on it. you 
will do well to discard the veteran, in favor 
of a new r lamp. Then proceed to the con- 
denser lens. Carefully remove any oil. and 
all dust, and replace the lens. And lastly, 
remove the projection lens and polish it 
gently. Careful, now! For optical glass is 
relatively soft, so don't use too much 
"elbow grease" in this operation. 

Do not overlook the film aperture plate 
in your servicing. A soft brush, usually 
furnished with most projectors, will wipe 
away all unwanted dust and emulsion par- 
ticles that have collected on the plate. Your 
movies will then be free from fuzzy border 
lines that dance and detract from the pic- 
tures on the screen. 

Check carefully the various controls on 
your machine and don't overlook the take- 
up reel. So often a bent flange on such 
reel stops the show, almost before it is 
under way, when the film is jammed out 
of alignment as it feeds on to this lower 

Our attention is next directed to a typi- 
cal set-up for a home movie show ... a 
show which will have all the professional 
aspects of your favorite theatre, vet afford 
your friends the enjoyment of a private 
screening, in the comfort of your home. 

Comfortable visibility for your audience 
is the most important factor to consider 
in setting up for a home movie show. Try 
to avoid hasty, crowded arrangements that 
make it necessary for a number of vour 
guests to sit on the floor of your living 
room, as they view the movies, ready as 
are some people to assume this informal 
position in spite of all you say. Such 
guests will only get a poor impression of 
vour pictures, caused by the distorted view- 
ing angle and uncomfortable posture they 
are in. Another thing, don't let your 
friends sit too close to the screen. You 
can't expect compliments for your movie 
efforts if. in such close proximity to the 
moving hadows, your friends' eves are 
dazzled by the gyrations of the millions 
of particles of grain that make up the 
screen images. 

Set your screen on a level with that of 
the projector. Arrange chairs well back 
from the screen, but in as near a straight 
line with projector and screen as you can 
without interfering with the "throw of 

the show. Your audience will then be in 
best position to enjoy the movies. 

Provide a table for your projector which 
is large enough to provide room also for 
the projection reels which you are to pre- 
sent. Keep the reels in numerical order, 
and out of the humidor containers, so that 
there will be no hitch in your show. Ev- 
erything necessary for your presentation 
should be at your finger-tips, ready for 
instant use, with no time out for fumbling! 

Incidentally, don't stop to rewind each 
reel after its presentation, as this practice 
causes too much interruption in your show. 
It is far better — far easier, for that matter 
— to leave all rewinding jobs until after 
your guests depart. 

There's difference in opinions as to how 
dark a room is desirable for a satisfactory 
showing of home movies. Manv people 
favor a semi-lighted room . . . often are 
careless in allowing extraneous light to 
reach the screen. However, it is the writer's 
feeling that a room, in which movies are 
being projected, should be in total dark- 
ness. While this requirement may be over- 
looked in the presentation of regular black 
and white movies, it would appear to be 
most important factor in showing natural 
color films. A great part of the gorgeous 
color renditions, now obtainable on ama- 
teur film, are lost unless full opportunity 
is given the projection lamp to bring out 
the colorful pictures on the screen, with- 
out undue competition from some extran- 
eous living room light fixture! So again 
we say . . . keep your home theatre dark, 
very dark, while you're showing your pic- 

Most everyone has reels of mixed pic- 
tures, some of the regular black and white 
spliced onto the natural color variety. Each 
type of film, viewed as an entirety, is 
satisfactory, but when immediately fol- 
lowed upon the screen by natural color 
presents an unwelcome studv in contrast. 
Many home movie fans will overcome this 
condition by tinting and/or toning their 
black and white films. Nevertheless, some 
will not care to trouble themselves with 
this additional processing, or for one rea- 
son or another thev will not care to impart 
a permanent tint to their films. But there's 
an easy way out, and the answer is: Use a 
selective color wheel in front of your pro- 
jector lens; Fashioned somewhat like the 
gelatine color wheel used on spotlights in 
theatre presentations, which give the lime- 
lights their array of tinted lightbeams, the 
amateur cinematographer can easilv con- 
struct such an attachment, made from small 
bits of colored gelatine or colored glass, 
and position the device before the lens of 
his projector. Thus, supposing your nat- 
ural color film has passed through the pro- 
jector gate, it is only a matter of a split 
second to swing your color wheel into 
nos'tion when vour regular black and whit ■ 
film follows along. With this attachment 
you wont let your audience down! 

In presenting your movies, prove your- 

self a showman. Be sure to gauge your 
audience well . . . give them the movies 
you know will click. And don't run too 
manv films The best test for your home 
movie show is that it ends with the audi- 
ence asking for more! 

New Negative Filing System 
For Miniature Negatives 

There is always that controversial sub- 
ject amongst 35mm small camera users as 
to the method of filing their negatives. 

For the "strip filers," E. Leitz, Inc., has 
recently introduced a new filing system. 
This consists basically of film "jackets" 
each of which holds a six negative strip 
The "different" feature of the filing system 
is the fact that the "jackets" are made of 
a transparent material which is relatively 
thick and which therefore, does not have 
a tendency to curl. Another novel feature 
of this new film "jacket" is that it is not 
necessary to push the strip of film in from 
one end in order to insert it into the 
"jacket." The Entire '"jacket" opens up 
through a "zipper-like" action. 

New Kalart Speed Flash 

The new : Kalart Compak Speed Flash 
works with all low priced Kodak, Agfa 
and other cameras fitted with pre-set auto- 
matic I self-setting I shutters. Designed ex- 
pressly for the low priced midget bayonet- 
base flash lamps the Battery-Flector unit 
of this synchronizer comprises Kalart's 
popular Concentrating Reflector with its 
exclusive bulb ejector and a built-in bat- 
tery holder containing two standard size 
batteries. The whole unit will fit in your 
pocket — even with a dozen bulbs! 

Famous Persons in "Sergeant York'" 

• Major General George B. Duncan, re- 
tired, who commanded Sergeant York's 
World War division, is the latest historical 
figure to give consent to his portrayal in 
'Sergeant York," which Jesse L. Lasky 
and Hal B. Wallis are producing for War- 
ner Bros. General Duncan is living at 
Lexington, Va. 

Other noted figures of the World War 
era who have granted permission for their 
screen appearance in the drama are Sec- 
retary of State Cordell Hull and General 
John J. Pershing. Howard Hawks will di- 
rect the production. 

for difficult shots — THE ORIGINAL 

Scheibe's Monotone Filter 

INDICATES instantly how every color and 
light value of a scene or object will be ren- 
dered in the finished print before taking 
the picture. always ready. 


fW*,)* mi MiffcKfMc 

Gcorqe H. Scheibe 


International Photographer for February, 1941 


Brilliantly engineered and as precise as it is handsome is the new Eastman Kodak Ektra 35 mm. Camera. Interchange- 
able magazine backs and lenses; precise range finder; local plane shutter of outstanding performance; individual 
adjustments for user's vision; variable power view finder for both normal and long focus lenses and numerous other 
technical refinements. 


Eastman Announces New 
35 mm Camera 

• I If raided as "the world's most distinguished 
camera." a deluxe 35mm. camera, the Kodak 
Ektra, is announced hy the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany. Rochester. 

Designed for the serious worker who prizes 
quality and precision in photographic equipment, 
the Ektra includes as an integral part of its de- 
sign certain new features never before available 
in any 35mm. miniature camera. 

For this camera, six superb interchangeable 
lenses are announced, incorporating new optical 
techniques which insure a quality of performance 
unequalled elsewhere. Focal lengths range from 
35 tn in. I<p 153mm., with other lenses to come, and 
a program of fine accessory equipment is also 

Magazine Backs Are New 

A distinct departure in miniature cameras, the 
Svodak Ektra is the first to provide both inter- 
changeable lenses and interchangeable Magazine 
Backs for 35mm. film. These Magazine Backs 
enable the Ektra owner to switch from one type 
of film In another in the middle of a roll, quickly 
j.nd without loss nt a single frame. 

Other outstanding features of the new Ektra — 
in addition to a host ol minor refinements — 

1. Precise range finder, coupling automatically 

with all focal lengths of Ektra lenses, and equip- 
ped with an adjustment for individual vision. 

2. A focal plane shuter of unique precision and 
stability of performance, with speeds from 1 sec- 
ond to 1/1000, and ••bulb." 

Finder Sets jor Lens in Use 

3. A variable-power view finder which sets b> 
a simple dial for lenses of focal lengths from 50 
to 254mm., corrects automatically for parallax, 
and has an adjustment for individual vision. 

4. A rhythmic operating cycle for all major 
adjustments, with all operating controls at the 
finger tips of one hand, and the other hand free 
for gripping camera. 

5. Full visibility of all scales and dials from 
the top of the camera (including the direct-read- 
ing depth-nf-field scale and aperture scale on 
most of the lenses) so that all operating data are 
available at a glance. 

6. Rapid film advance and rewind, with a 
visible indicator actuated by the film itself — pro- 
viding a sure and accurate check on film move- 
ment. Advancing the film simultaneously resets 
the shutter for another exposure. 

Rapid Manipulation, Clear Scales 

7. All control dials designed with a distinctive 
milled edge for rapid, convenient manipulation, 
and marked in large, clear numerals. 

These spotlighted features are in addition to 

such technical refinements as an automatic ex- 
posture counter on the Ektra body and a manual 
sel exposure indicator on each Magazine Back; 
a visual signal which shows after each exposure 
until the film is advanced; positive prevention of 
accidental double exposures; a velvet-smooth shut- 
ter release plunger — absolutely eliminating re- 
lease shock — with a quick-set lock to prevent acci- 
dental release; a delayed-action mechanism for 
self-portraits and similar work, and other features. 
A neat brown cowhide combination case is 
available for the Kodak Ektra, to accommodate 
the camera with lens, an extra Magazine Back, 
two extra film cartons, and several filters. All 
Wratten Filters, Kodachrome Filters, and the 
Kodak Pola-Screen are available for use with all 
the lenses. 

The Kodak Ektra may be purchased with any 
desired lens. Additional lenses and additional 
Magazine Backs may be purchased separately as 
desired. The prices are: Kodak Ektra with Ektar 
f/3.5, 50mm., $235.00; Kodak Ektra with Ektar 
f/1.9, 50mm., S300.00; Kodak Ektra with Ektar 
f/3.3, 35mm., $243.00; Kodak Ektra with Ektar 
f/3.5, 90mm., $260.00; Kodak Ektra with Ektar 
173.8, 135mm., $305.00; Kodak Ektra with Ektar 
f/4.5, 153 mm., $325.00; Magazine Back, indi 
vidually fitted, $55.00 (price includes fitting at 
Rochester); Ektar f/3.3, 35mm., $68.00; Ektar 
f/3.5, 50mm., $60.00: Ektar f/1.9, 50mm., $125.00; 
Ektar f/3.5, 90mm., $85.00; Ektar f/3.8, 135mm., 
$130.00; Ektar f/4.5, 153mm., $150.00; Combina- 
tion Case, brown cowhide, $15.00. 

An illustrated lecture, covering the feature* 
and capacities of the Ektra, is now in preparation. 
It will be available for showings by arrangement 
with the Camera Club Photographic Service of 
the Eastman Kodak Company. 

CE. 3-Light Photo Enlarger Camp 

• Development of a 50-100-150 watt "A 21" 
white Mazda Photo Enlarger Lamp designed to 
provide amateur and professional photographers 
with three intensities of light from a single source 

ha* ju>t been announced bv General Electric's 
lamp department al Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 

For proper operation, the new "A 21" requires 
special accessor) equipmenl which is bring built 
into new enlarger* soon to appear on the market 
or which should be built into existing equipment. 

Chief among these "necessaries" arc a 3 contact 

porcelain socket and a wattage selection switch. 

Anion" outstanding advantages claimed for the 

new lamp an- tin- following: Use of the 50-watt 

filament provides ample light for the setting-up 
and focusing operations which frequently con- 
sume considerable time; the relatively little heat 
produced by the 50-watt filament permits leisurely 
setting up and focusing without "cooking" the 
negative; for making exposures, two higher stage* 
of light are available; one an intermediate in- 
tensity from the 100-walt filament alone, the 
other a much higher intensity of light from use 
of the 50 and 100-watt filaments each burning at 
the same time. List price 60 cents. 

Kalart Sistogun 

9 Among newspapers and picture services now 
using the Sistogun are listed Associated Press, 

World Wide Photos, New York Daily News, 
Acme News Pictures. International News Pic- 
tures, New York Sun, Daily Mirror, Philadelphia 
Inquirer, New York World-Telegram, New York 
Journal-American, News Week, Cleveland Plain 
Dealer, Charleston Observer, PM. 

Leda Dubin, in charge of the West Coast Office 
of Kalart, Taft Bldg.. Hollywood, tells us thai 
during the Sistogun campaign, the unit will be 
installed free of charge if purchaser will bring 
in or send his camera to the Hollywood office. 

Miss Dubin further informs our readers thai 
any repairs, installation and service of Kalart 
products are handled without delay at the office 
in Hollywood. This means a great saving in time 
for West Coast users. 


Movie Forest Fires 

Forest fires in the movies are staged with 
all the precision of a hallet routine. The 
star follows a course through the flaming 
woods that has been charted as carefully 
as a danseuse's steps. 

"If the actor loses his way, he's in se- 
rious trouble,' explained Otto Brower, the 
thrill director of Hollywood. "An assistant 
sounds the alarm and the firemen rush in 
with hoses to throw a wall of water around 
the player. That seldom happens, though, 
since we go through so many rehearsals 
that he knows exactly where he is going." 

Brower, who has filmed earthquakes, 
simoons and other catastrophes for some of 
the movies' most exciting scenes, has been 
directing a $150,000 conflagration on 20th 
Century-Fox' backlot for the last month. 
The scenes are for Zane Grey's "Western 
Union," which is being filmed in Techni- 

The studio built a forest that spread 
over 17 acres. The trees were real. Scores 
of Los Angeles property owners who want 
to clear trees out of their yards telephone 
the movie lots every week. The studios, if 
they are in need of a forest, do the ex- 
cavating free. 

"We gave the players asbestos clothes 
for the scenes where they're working with- 
in a foot or two of flames,' said Brower. 
"Even at that, it's dangerous. Bob Young 
lost his eyebrows the other day. The heat 
singed them off before he realized what 
was happening. Dean Jagger suffered 
minor burns when he strayed two feet off 
the course we had set for him." 

The studio kept 15 firefighters, two fire 
trucks, a doctor, two nurses and an ambu- 
lance standing by. 

"The special effects men can tell within 
inches just how far away the flames are 
going to leap from a burning tree," said 
Brower. "They have perfected a chart 
over the years which takes into considera- 
tion the wind, the humidity and the type 
of timber. The flames were within 18 
inches of Bob Young several times." 

Burning wagons rolled almost into the 
camera for "Western Union," which is a 
pioneer story, and blazing pines fell a few 
inches away from the camera platform. 
It will all look on the screen as though it 
had just happened that way and yet a crew 
of 120 "built" the forest fire thrills as an 
architect would a house, blueprints and all. 

Fox to Film O'Henry Story 

© "The Gift of the Magi," often consid- 
ered the best work of America's genius of 
the short story, O'Henry, has been bought 
from the O'Henry estate by 20th Century - 

Jo Swerling, who recently completed 
"Blood and Sand," has been signed to 
write the screenplay under supervision of 
associate producer Robert T. Kane. Actu- 
ally, "The Gift of the.Magi," a short story, 
will be only the basis for the motion pic- 

ture. It will provide the famous O'Henry 
snap ending for an original plot devised 
by Swerling and Kane. 

New Graphic View Camera 

For the first time since as far back as anyone 
can remember, there is something new in view 
cameras. The Folmer Graflex Corporation ha> 
just announced the Graphic View Camera, which, 
for the first time, brings modern design, engineer- 
ing and production methods into a field that has 
been long neglected. This new 4x5 camera is 
made entirely of metal and offers a unique com- 
bination of versatility, rigidity, lightness, and 

The front of this camera rises three inches, tilts 
either forward or backward, swings and shifts 
either to the right or left. Its back also swings, 
tilts and shifts. These two in combination give 
the photographer all the adjustments he needs to 
solve practically any problem of linear perspec- 
tive, sharp field or form. 

Its removable lensboard permits the use of a 
wide variety of lenses. The camera also accepts 
lensboards of the 4x5 and 5x7 Speed Graphic 
cameras enabling Speed Graphic lenses to be used 
interchangeably on either camera without disturb- 
ing their flash synchronizer adjustments. A 12 ] /i>- 
bellows extension is provided. Ground-glass focus- 
ing is available with either "Graphic" or "Graflex" 

A real departure in view camera design has 
been employed in this new camera. An inverted 
V-section bed of aluminum alloy forms the sup- 
port upon which both lens and film may be 
focused to give complete control of focus and 
scale when working at extremely close distances. 
Smoothly-operating rack and pinions which may 
be locked in any position are actuated by large, 
convenient controls. This type of construction 
makes it possible to shift the entire camera for- 
ward or backward to preserve camera balance 
with heavy lenses or to prevent cut-off when 

working with wide-angle lenses. It is also one 
big reason for the camera's unusual rigidity, sta- 
bility and lightness. 

Built integrally with the camera is a combined 
camera base and revolving-tilting tripod head of 
which all movements are controlled by a long, 
accessible handle. This feature greatly facilitates 
positioning the camera. 

A built-in spirit level is provided on top of the 
camera. The reversible back may be removed 
and re-positioned for either vertically or horizon- 
tally proportioned pictures. Built to close toler- 
ances and with component parts of great intrinsic 
strength, the new 4x5 Graphic View Camera is 
definitely a precision instrument. Graflex dealers 
now have it on display. 

New Graphic 

Motion Picture Equipment 

Studio and Laboratory Tested Since 1929 



~New Address: 

1515 Cahuenga Blvd. 

Hollywood, California 


Cable address: ARTREEVES 

International Photographer for February, 1941 




In the beginning there were magic lantern 
slides. Then came the dawn. Silent motion pic- 
tures, silent and yet strong in their appeal to the 
imagination — an imagination that went one better 
and brought forth sound pictures which in turn 
quickly raised an acoustically sensitive proboscis 
and readily remedied an era referred to as "the 
smellies." This was accomplished by ihe geniu- 
of craftsmen within the industry, many of whom 
about this same time were silently working be- 
hind locked doors on the perfection of a system 
for the immediate transmission of image and 
sound, which we accept today as of sufficient 
merit to take a position alongside the electronic 
arts of the age. That is Television! 

The year 1941 will leave a definite impression 
upon the pages of Television history. The early 
granting of many licenses by the Federal Com- 
munications Commission for the furtherance ol 
experimental activity is only to be topped by 
the granting of commercial licenses to some fifty 
odd embryonic stations throughout the nation. 
Money and manpower sufficient to make this all a 
reality awaits only the granting of said licenses. 
Manpower that eventually will be represented by 
si\ hundred thousand strong, that being the esti- 
mate made by David Sarnoff, President ot Radio 
Corporation of America. 

The furtherance of Television in Europe has 
been frustrated by the tenebrousness of war. 
Yet, an inkling to the effect that Television has 
been successfully employed in reconnaissance ac- 
tivity can readily be taken for granted when we 
consider the fact that here in America television 
as applied to military purposes is being instruct- 
ed to some eighty young men, members of the 
first Television I nit to be formed for that pur- 
pose, in the United States. 

Under the command of Captain William L. 
Prager, whose articles on Color and Television 
have previously appeared in The International 
Photographer, Television Unit No. 1, of ihe Sig- 
nal Corps. Military Order of Guards. U. S. A.. 


is a reality. A civilian training organization oper- 
ating by Act of Congress and authorized by ihe 
War Department, is training young men, and 
men young of mind, under competent instructors, 
the military adaptation of Television. With a 
working laboratory of its own, and equipment, 
Television Unit No. 1, with headquarters in I lol- 
ly wood, is making Television history. The com- 
pany is made up of men from all walks of life, 
hut naturally there is a predominance ot men 
from the picture and radio ranks, for like its 
predecessors, television finds its followers firmly 
planted in the entertainment capitol of the 

With Paramount Pictures holding fifty per cent 
interest in DuMont Television and various other 
picture and radio interest financially set into the 
television picture, it is only to be expected that 
Hollywood will likewise become the Television 
capitol of the world. It now possesses the loftiest 
transmiter in the world, at an elevation of eigh- 
teen hundred feet. Over twice that of the Em- 
pire State Building in New York. For, with the 
inauguration of the new three-story Thomas S. 
Lee Station, W6XAO, atop of Mount Lee, with 
a transmitting radius of over sixty miles, Holly- 
wood, and all of Southern California, is soon to 
be treated to a form of television entertainment 
not to be surpassed by any one other part of 
the country. 

Many other licenses have been granted for the 
experimental telecasting in the California area, 
both south and north. In the Los Angeles district 
alone there have been a sufficiency to tax the re- 
ception of the better receivers with five channels 
capacity. Those licensed have been Television 
Products (Paramount). Hughes Tool (Howard 
Hughes), The May Company, LeRoy Jewelry Co. 

On the receiving end there are over ten dif- 
ferent makes of television receivers selling from 
less than one hundred twenty-five dollars for the 
smaller picture area types, to the largest DuMont 
combined Television and Radio receiver with a 

First Television Unit, United States Army 


picture area of 169 square inches, and priced at 
about double of that of the smaller sets. All in 
all. when Television has reached development cor- 
responding to the current radio development. 
Doctor Ortestes H. Caldwell, Editor of Radio 
Today, foresees a billion dollar sales volume, 

Thus, predictions too become realities. Tele- 
vision has arrived. It only awaits the granting 
of commercial telecasting to set off the spark, 
and at a time when wars and rumors of wars 
seem destined to further retard the rational and 
sane efforts of our pioneers of vision. Those pio- 
neers whose efforts have not been in vain, to the 
end that radio and pictures (be they instantan- 
eous or filmed) together, neither supplanting the 
other, shall bring into the American home and 
theatre the last word in entertainment or educa- 

Television stations licensed by the Federal 
Communications Commission: W9XAL, Kansas 
City, Mo. (First National Television, Inc.); 
W1XG, Boston (General Television Corp.); 
W9XG, West Lafayette, Ind.; W2XDR, Long 
Island City (Radio Pictures); W3XAD, Camden, 
N. J. (Portable) ; W3XEP, Camden, N. J. (R.C.A. 
Manufacturing Co.); W9XK, Iowa City, Iowa; 
W9XUI, Iowa City, Iowa (University of Iowa); 

Renewed as of March, 1940: W2XAB, New- 
York City; W2XVT, Passaic, N. J. (Allen B. 
DuMont Laboratories, Inc) ; W2XH, Schenectady, 
N. Y.; W6XAO, Hollywood, Calif. (Don Lee); 
W2XBS, New York City (N. B. C.) ; W2XBT, 
New York; W2XAE, Philadelphia; W3XP, Phila- 
delphia (Philco) ; W9XZV, Chicago, 111. (Zenith). 

With the government spending billions of dol- 
lars on the navy, the army and airplanes for our 
preparedness program, there also will be needed 
several thousand radio and signal men for the 
army and navy. 

Gaglielmo Marconi, Dr. Lee De Forest, G. W. 
Pickard. Edwin H. Armstrong and Philo T. 
Farnsworth perhaps never realize the many men 
who would receive work through their inventions. 

Those wishing to enter this field may secure 
information by addressing the author, care of 
International Photographer. 

George H. Seward, Television Pioneer 

Following is copy of letter received from sub- 
scriber Winslow Stewart, Associate Member Tele- 
vision Engineers Institute of America, R-74643, 
"X" Flight, R.C.A.F., Canada: 

"It is with deep regret that the writer notes 
the death recently in Hollywood of George H. 
Seward, President of the Television Engineers In- 
stitute of America, Inc., which organization he 
founded and the admirable objectives of which 
lie formulated. 

"Like most pioneers Mr. Seward will be un- 
able to observe the culminations of past and pres- 
( nt research and development of the television 
ait in the near and distant future, a future in 
which he held such abounding faith. 

""Mis untiring efforts during the past many 
years to foster public interest in television have 
cot been wasted and should not go unrecognized 
h\ the Radio-Television trade press. His name 
and reference to his television activities have ap- 
peared in many prominent publications. 

'During the past summer the writer had ihe 
privilege of working with Mr. Seward as his 


assistant in organizing and conducting the First 
National Television Convention in Hollywood. 
It was unfortunately the last of Mr. Seward's 
series of pioneering efforts in the behalf of tele- 
vision; unfortunate because he had outlined plans 
for many further efforts. 

"Thus the writer believes he speaks for all 
those who have had the opportunity to work 
with Mr. Seward and be touched by the spirit 
of pioneering, devotion and integrity which was 
abundantly his." 

Reprinted from S.M.P.E. Journal 

( Concluded from January issue. ) 

Future Work — It is recognized that this 
report does not consider color. More time 
will be required to investigate this phase 
of the problem adequately from the stand- 
point of flicker and visual fatigue. Like- 
wise,- more data are needed on the ade- 
quate portrayal of smooth motion as a 
function of frame frequency. It is believed 
that some additional work of an experi- 
mental nature is desirable to determine 
effects of certain of these phenomena in 
the television field. So far as the work has 
gone, there seems to be a trend of evidence 
pointing to the conclusion that television 
will not be on technically safe ground if 
the frame frequency is reduced below that 
now in use for motion picture work. 

O'Brien, B., and Tuttle, C. M.: "An Experi- 
mental Investigation of Projection Screen Bright- 
ness," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXVI I May. 
1936), p. 505. 

Beers, G. L., Encstrum, E. W., and Maloff, 
I. G.: "Some Television Problems from the Mo- 
tion Picture Standpoint," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., 
XXXII (Feb., 1939), p. 121. 

Gricnon, L. D. : "Flicker in Motion Pictures," 
/. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng.. XXXIII (Sept., 1939). 
p. 235. 

Snell, P. A.: "An Introduction to the Experi- 
mental Study of Visual Fatigue," /. Soc. Mot. 
Pict. Eng., XX (May, 1933), p. 367. 

Lowry, E. M.: "Screen Brightness and the Vis- 
ual Functions," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXVI 
(May, 1936), p. 490. 

Hyde, E. P.: "Talbot's Law as Applied to the 
Rotating Sectored Disc," Scientific Paper 526, 
National Bureau of Standards, March 1, 1906. 

Dow, J. S.: "The Speed of Flicker Photo- 
meters," Electrician. 59 (May 31, 1907), p. 255. 

Ferry, E. S. : "Persistence of Vision," Amer. 
J. Science, 144 (1892), p. 192. 

Porter, T. C: "Contributions to the Study of 
Flicker," Proc. Royal Society, 63A (1898), p. 

Porter. T. C: "Contributions to the Study of 
Flicker" Proc. Royal Society, 70 (1902), p. 313. 

Lythgoe, R. J., and Tansley, K.: "The Adap- 
tation of the Eye, Its Relation to the Critical 
Frequency," Med. Research Council, Special Re- 
port Series No. 134, 1929 (Great Britain). 

Hecht, S., and Verrijp, C. D.: "The Influence 
of Intensity, Color and Retinal Location on the 
Fusion Frequency of Intermittent Illumination," 
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 19 (May, 1933), p. 522. 

Cobb, P. W.: "The Dependence of Flicker on 
the Dark-Light Ratio of the Stimulus Cycle," /. 
Opt. Soc. Amer., 24 (Apr., 1934), p. 107. 

Luckeish, M., and Moss, F. K.: "The Rate of 
Visual Work on Alternating Fields of Different 
Brightness," /. Franklin Inst., 200 (Dec, 1925), 
p. 731. 

Lythcoe, R. J., and Tansley, K.: "Relation of 
the Critical Frequency of Flicker to the Adapta- 
tion of the Eye," Proc. Royal Society, Series B. 
105 (1929), p. 60. 

Ives, H. E.: "Studies in the Photometry of 
Lights of Different Colours," Phil. Mag., 24 
(Sept., 1912), p. 352. 

Zworykin, V. K.: "Television," Television, 
RCA Institutes Press, I (1936), p. 242. 

Kell, R. D., Bedford, A. V., and Trainer, 
M. A.: "Scanning Sequence and Repetition Rate 
of Television Images," Television, RCA Institute 
Press, I (1936), p. 355. 

Ives, H. E.: "Studies in the Photometry of 
Lights of Different Colours," Phil. Mag. (Series 
6), 24 (July, 1912), p. 149. 

Engstrom, E. W.: "A Study of Television 
Image Characteristics," Proc. I. R. E., 21 (Dec, 
1933), p. 1631. 

Encstrom, E. W. : "A Study of Television 

Image Characteristics," Part Two, Proc. I. R. 
E., 23 (April, 1935), p. 295. 

Ives, H. E.: "Studies in the Photometry of 
Lights of Different Colours," Phil. Mag. (Series 
6), 24 (Dec, 1912), p. 845. 

Gace. S. H., anl Gage, H. P.: "Flicker with 
Moving Pictures," Optic Projection. Comstock 
Pub. Co. (Ithaca, N. Y.), p. 423. 

Zworykin, V. K., and Mortons "Television," 
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N. Y., 1940. 

W|lson, J. C. : "Television Engineering," Sir 
Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd., London, 1937. 

Wolf, S. K.: "An Analysis of Theater and 
Screen Illumination Data," /. Soc. Mot. Pict. 
Eng., XXVI (May, 1936), p. 532. 

Luckiesh, M., and Moss, F. K.: "The Motion 
Picture Screen as a Lighting Problem," /. Soc. 
Mot. Pict. Eng., XXVI (May, 1936), p. 578. 

Cobb, P. W. : "Some Comments on the Ives 
Theory of Flicker," /. Opt. Soc. Amer., 24 
(March, 1934), p. 91. 

Geld\RD, F. A.: "Flicker Relations within 
Fovea," /. Opt. Soc. Amer., 24 (Nov., 1934), p. 

Ives, H. E.: "Critical Frequency Relations in 
Scotopic Vision," /. Opt. Soc. Amer., 6 (May. 
1922), p. 254. 

Ives. H. E.: "A Theory of Intermittent Vision," 
/. Opt. Soc. Amer., 6 (June, 1922), p. 343. 

Graham, C. H., and Granit, R.: "Inhibition, 
Summation, and Synchronization of Impulses in 
the Retina," Amer. J. Physiol., 98 (1931), p. 66. 

Creed, R. S., and Ruch, T. C. : "Regional Va- 
riations in Sensitivity to Flicker." /. Physiol., 74 
(1932), p. 407. 

Hecht, S., and Verrijp, C. D.: "The Relation 
between Intensity and Critical Fusion Frequency 
for Different Retinal Locations," /. General 
Physiol., 17 (1933), p. 251. 

Ghanit, R., and Hammond, E. L.: "The Sen- 
sitivity-Time Curve and the Time Course of the 
Fusion Frequency of Intermittent Stimulation," 
Amer. J. Physiol., 98 ( 1931 ) , p. 654. 

U. S. Army Requests 
"Teddy the Rough Rider" 

Twenty-two prints of "Teddy the Rough 
Rider," Warner Bros.' historical featuret 
staring Sidney Blackmer, have been re- 
quested by the U. S. Army, for morale 
and entertainment use in their training 

Warner Elevates Five 
Players to Stardom 

% Jack L. Warner, vice president in 
charge of production at Warner Bros., and 
Hal B. Wallis, executive producer, ele- 
vated five players to full-fledged stardom 
with a single stroke of the pen, as a result 
of their work in 1940 films. The fortunate 
five are Eddie Albert, Brenda Marshall, 
Dennis Morgan, Ronald Reagan and James 


(Continued from Page 16) 
the only difference between human beings 
is a matter of money. 

At the same time it became apparent that 
the candid camera could tell a story, show 
the background from which so much origi- 
nality is gone and give the outsider an in- 
sight into the other world. What greater 
curiosity can one have than to know how 
the other lives? 

Today candid photographv depicts im- 
portant personalities sneezing, standing in 
awkward or other positions, or doing this 
or that, as long as it is a real happening 
in real life. So much time and space is 
devoted to candid shots because of the al- 
leged human interest. However, I am in- 
clined to believe that it has its cycle and 
at present ranks high among photograph- 
ers. On the other hand, like human life, 
it has its end. Whether even after its de- 
parture it will have a different effect of 
doing away permanently with the present 
accepted type of photographv remains a 
question to be answered through photo- 
graphic history. 

Candid photography is characteristically 
not photography as the artist sees it. There 
are lacking all the essentials of beauty, 
symmetry, color balance and composition. 
Planning a candid shot is momentary. 
Shooting a beautiful still to be hung on 
the wall, or put on a shelf, or use in some 
portion of the room, is meditated and 
planned photography. A candid shot is 
examined and commented upon only once 
as a rule, then cast aside to be forgotten. 
Such is not the case with a beautiful still. 
Yes, there are exceptions, but not enough 
to offer substantial argument. Logic and 
reason force us to our conclusions. Candid 
photography is passing through a photo- 
graphic cycle, perhaps at its half-wav mark. 

To photographers who labor industrially 
to satisfy a querulous public, my only an- 
swer is to shoot candid photography and 
fall in line with the parade, make it ring 
home, let it live, spare the subject, prac- 
tice moderation for the sake of being dis- 
creet. Photography, like painting and mu- 
sic, can be deftly applied. In the motion 
picture world, as the cinema-addicts crave 
it, intimate close-ups of people at work, 
be they director, actor, cameraman or elec- 
trician; nature in the raw photographically 
speaking, is the vogue, so to the still cam- 
eraman I say: Let it be candid and may 
the portion not be a war ration. 

Next Lupino Vehicle 

• Ida Lupino's next picture at Warner 
Bros, studio will be "The Damned Don't 
Cry," by Harry Hervev. The story deals 
with the efforts of a girl to lift herself out 
of the environment into which she was 

International Photographer for February, 1941 



Reviewed by Ernest Baehraeh 

"The American Annual of Photo- 
graphy, 1941," published by Amer- 
ican Photographic Publishing Com- 
pany, Boston, Massachusetts. Paper 
bound $1.50; cloth $2.25. 276 pages 
plus advertising. 
One for the shelf. This annual is one 
that I would recommend purchasing yearly- 
Profusely illustrated from the pick of the 
pictorial field. The articles are written in 
a comprehensive way by skilled craftsmen. 
The most interesting feature of the book 
is that the publishers have kept pace with 
the modern trend, but still retain all that is 
fine and wanted from the accepted art point 
of view. Possibly this is because they 
themselves are accomplished in their line 
of endeavor. 

Included are eighteen articles and of 
special interest are "The Paper Negative," 
by Adolf Fassbender; "Color Photogra- 
phy." by Joseph S. Friedman; "Making 
the Most of Architecture," by Robert R. 
Miller. Hy Schwartz's "Photoflash Pho- 
tography" and Roy Gallaghers "Fluores- 
cent Light in Photography" are well worth 

Inasmuch as this book is so well known 
more need not be said. It is a good buy, on 
sale at most photographic supply stores 
and book stores. 

"Copying Technique," American 
Photographic Publishing Company. 
Boston, Massachusetts. Cloth bound 
$1.50. 128 pages. 
This textbook, a compilation of Frank 
R. Fraprie and Robert H. Morris, prob- 
ably was intended for the unitiated camera 
enthusiast. There are a number of short 
articles dealing with equipment: prepara- 
tion of work; black and white and color 
copying; the use of infra-red, ultra violet. 

etc., which might well have appeared in 
monthly articles as space fillers. Each 
problem of copying has its own solution. 
To the average man the book is not worth 
the price. 

"Modern Photography," 1940-41. 
The Studio Publications, Inc., New 
York City. 120 pages, of which 103 
are reproductions. Paper bound 
$2.50, cloth $3.50. 
A miniature edition of U. S. Camera, less 
grooved, but leaning toward "The cultiva- 
tion," as the editor phrases it, "of modern 
photography." A foreword by Alexander 
King, associate editor of Life Magazine, 
once more impresses us with the fact that 
raw and unbeautiful truth is to be desired, 
even to the beauty of an intelligently cre- 
ated picture of a battered garbage can. 

Can't say much for the book at the price 
asked with such books as the above men- 
tioned American Annual and U. S. Cam- 
era as competition. 

"The Science and Technique of 
Advertising Photography," by 
Walter Nurnberg. The Studio Pub- 
lications, Inc., New York City. Cloth 
bound $3.50. 94 pages, illustrations 
and text. 
Had to read this book through twice be- 
cause of the highly controversial text. One's 
thoughts on the subject may not coincide 
with the author's. As this is an ambitious 
attempt to orient one with a highly spe- 
cialized form of photography plus the per- 
sonal element, I would say that an excel- 
lent job was made of it. This volume is 
in two parts: Part I, Fundamentals: and 
Part II, Execution. Part I deals with the 
photographer and his client; status of ad- 
vertising photography; light and shadow; 
sales psychology. Part II, still life, three 
chapters: face and figure, three chapters; 
photo combinations ( montages, etc. ) and 
a conclusion. The illustrations bear out 
the text to a degree. Be that as it may, as 
the jobs present themselves one may be 
better equipped to tackle them after hav- 
ing absorbed the contents of this book. 
One for the shelf, but tough at $3.50. 

Landers Camera Rentals 


Blimps, DoSlies, zll Accessories 






Near Vine Street 



Prop Coal Mine 

Twentieth Century-Fox has bought 20 
tons of coal which it is burying in the 
hills 30 miles north of Hollywood so that 
some movie extras may sweat and labor 
for six weeks mining it. 

The studio is sinking a coal mine in a 
prop Welsh town. It is built at a cost of 
$100,000 for Darryl F. Zanuck's produc- 
tion of "How Green Was My Valley," 
Richard Llewellyn's best seller. 

Since the hills about Hollywood never 
saw any coal except in smoke form, it 
was cheaper for the studio to "plant" the 
coal than to go to the nearest mines, 500 
miles distant. 

Sir Cedric Hardwicke Signed by RKO 

© Adding another outstanding screen per- 
sonality to its powerful roster of Holly- 
wood stars, RKO Radio has signed Sir 
Cedric Hardwicke, one of the greatest char- 
acter actors of today, to a three-picture 
acting contract in the company's program 
for the 1941-42 season. 

Sir Cedric was for many years a noted 
stage figure, and has since scored many 
successes on the screen. His contract to 
act for RKO brings him back to the lot 
where he gave such an outstanding por- 
trayal of the High Justice Frollo in "The 
Hunchback of Notre Dame."' His more re- 
cent pictures include "Victory" and "The 
Howards of Virginia." 

Charlotte Greenwood Awarded 
Major Role 

Charlotte Greenwood, frisky veteran of 
the stage and screen, has been awarded one 
of the major roles of her career — a part 
almost completely devoid of comedy. 

The long-legged "Letty" of the stage 
will carry most of the sympathetic burden 
in "Miami," an imposing Technicolor musi- 
cal which is scheduled to go into produc- 
tion in about three weeks with Betty Grable 
heading the cast. 

Walter Lang will direct and Harry Joe 
Brown has been assigned as the associate 









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Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable : CINEQUIP 


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Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable: CINEQUIP 

FOR SALE: Combination 16 mm. and 35 mm. optical 
printer very reasonable. Will accept Bell & Howell 
35 mm. camera in exchange. Address Box BD 25. 
International Photographer, Hollywood. 

FOR SALE: Like new. H.C.E. "Hollywood" Com- 
bination 35 mm. and 16 mm. automatic one-man 
developing machine. Operating capacity 3000 feet of 
positive or 1500 feet of negative per hour. Price 
CHANGE, 1600 N. Cahuenga Blvd. 

MITCHELL NC 112. LIKE NEW. Up to the min- 
ute. B. B. RAY, 300 W. Durante Road, Arcadia, 



For Best Photography 

As determined by 
The Preview Poll — 


Sol Polito 


Al Greene 


Frank Evans 



"Santa Fe Trail" 


Negative- Sound Track -Positive 


Processing By 

Warner Brothers Laboratory 


1515 No. Cahuenga 

Hollywood, Calif. 


MARCh, 1941 




4^#*e Qnxun 


Du Pont now adds to its list of standard cine products a 
group of fine grained sound recording and positive print 
stocks. Developed in collaboration with production and 
laboratory engineers engaged in the industry, these new 
films transmit to the exhibitor's screen the benefits gained 
by using modern camera negatives and improved sound 
recording techniques. Extensive practical tests have estab- 
lished that these new materials are thoroughly dependable. 
They possess the stability and uniformity characteristic of 
all Du Pont Cine Products. 

Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corporation, Incorporated 

9 Rockefeller Plaza Smith &. Aller, Ltd. 

New York . . . N. Y. 6656 Santa Monica Blvd. 

Plant . . Parlin, N.J. Hollywood . . California 




Vol. XIII 

March, 1941 


Some Rules Made to be Broken, Toland — Page 3 

The Amazing Mr. Fulton — Page 5 

George Barnes, Winner — Page 7 

Historical Facts, Hoke — Page 11 

Studio Portraits, Jones — Page 13 

Color with Kodachrome, McGregor — Page 16 

On Location for Backgrounds. Perry — Page 20 


"Sunlit Nude," Mortensen — Page 2 

Ginger Rogers, Miehle — Page 6 

"The Outlaw," Hoke and Gillum — Pages 8. 9 

Studio Portraits, Welbourne — Pages 12, 14, 15 


16 mm. Department — Page 22 
Television — Page 24 
Patents, Fulwider — Page 26 
They Say, Rella — Page 28 

No. 2 

Editor, Herbert 

Business Manager, Helen Boyce. Art Editor, John Corydon Hill. 
Contributing Editors: D. K. Allison, George Hurrell, J. N. A. Hawkins, Roman 

Freulich, Ernest Bachrach, Alvin Wyckoff, William V. Draper, Fred Gately, 

George Scheibe. 
Copyright, 1941, by Local 659, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 

and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada. 

Entered as Second Class matter, Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

International Photographer, as the monthly official publication of International Pho 
tographers, Local 659, of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, not only 
represents the entire personnel of photographers engaged in professional produc- 
tion of motion pictures in the United States and Canada, but also serves technicians 
in the studios and theatres, who are members of the International Alliance, as well 
as executives and creative artists of the production community and executives and 
engineers of the manufacturing organizations serving the motion picture industry. 
International Photographer assumes no responsibility for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts or material. 

Subscription Rates: U.S.A., $2.50; Canada-Foreign, $3.00 per year. Single Copy, 25 cents. 
Australian Representative: McGill's News Agencv, Melbourne. 

Office of Publication: 6461 Sunset Blvd. (Los Angeles P. 0.), Hollywood, California 

Telephone: Hillside 9189 
Publication Date: 5lh of Each Month 



On the Cover 

This scene from "The Outlaw" Howard 
Hughes Production, was shot near Tuba, 
Arizona on the site of a prehistoric Hopi 
cliff dwelling. A four by five Speed Gra- 
phic camera and Eastman Infrared Cut 
Film were used. Exposure: one second at 
F.12, 25 A filter. 


The stills from "Tobacco Road" featured 
in the February issue should have been 
credited to Emmett A. Schoenbaum and 
Gene Kornmann. Our apologies to Mr. 
Schoenbaum and Mr. Powolny for the 

Strangest Railway Train at Fox 

The strangest railway train in the world 
has been making daily runs along 150 feet 
of track on Stage Two of 20th Century- 
Fox' Hollywood studios. 

Built according to specifications and 
complete from firebox to tail lamp, the 6- 
car train was constructed at a cost of 
$40,000 to serve as the setting for "Sleep- 
ers West," the Lynn Bari-Lloyd Nolan 
comedy mystery. Included in the train is 
the engineer's compartment, baggage car, 
two Pullmans, a diner and a lounge car. 

For railway scenes, studios usually rent 
the equipment. However, more than 90% 
of "Sleepers West" takes place in and 
around a train and frequent cloudiness 
and rain made location work too expen- 
sive. So, instead of going to the train, the 
studio brought a train to a sound stage. 

Strangest part about the movie train is 
that it can be completely dismantled and 
stored away in a single dav. Following its 
work in "Sleepers West," it will be re- 
assembled from time to time to appear in 
subsequent 20th Century-Fox productions. 

Efficient Courteous 




Professional and Amateur 


New and Used Equipment 
Bought, Sold and Rented 



Camera Supply Co. 

1515 North Cahuenga Boulevard 

Cable Address: 


International Photographer for March, 1941 


(Enlargement made from 35 mm. negative) 

By William Mortensen 

pRudEuy ancI The tjmes 

Anion" the doctrines promulgated by 
the Medieval churchmen, few have reached 
wider or lasted longer than that of de- 
nouncing the "flesh" as evil and loathsome 
and therefore to he hidden. Neurotic as- 
cetics, flaming with a compensatory zeal 
kindled by their own abstinence, built up 
a complex against the naked human body 
that finds expression even todav. Odo of 
Cluny in the Tenth Century reviled in 
carefully chosen epithets all the beautv of 
the female body. "If we cannot bear to 
touch phlegm or filth even with the tip of 
the finger." said he, "how could we desire 
to embrace a bag of dung." And with 
wonderment we read of female ascetics 
who bathed in the dark or in their shifts, 
lest they fall into temptation. To this 
same impulse may be traced the crime 
committed by the missionaries of the last 
century against the island peoples of the 
Pacific; simple beauty-loving races com- 
pelled under threats to become lisping 

From "Monsters and Madonnas" 

prudes, walking to chapel in Mother Hub- 
bards and cast-off Prince Alberts. 

This movement against the innocent 
South Sea Islanders was perhaps the final 
manifestation of an impulse already some- 
what discredited in the land of its origin. 
Although in Victorian England the forces 
of prudery held absolute sway, the char- 
acter of this prudery had changed utterly 
since the days of Odo of Cluny. As Have- 
lock Ellis points out: "The nineteenth cen- 
tury man who encountered the spectacle 
of white limbs flashing in the sunlight no 
longer felt like the medieval ascetic that 
he was risking the salvation of his im- 
mortal soul ... he merely felt that it was 
'indecent'." Already there was under way 
a movement toward a healthier, saner view 
of nuditv, a movement which today is 
bearing fruit. Compare, for instance, our 
conventional swimming attire with the 
habits of the bather who, a hundred years 
ago in Victorian England, patronized a 
"bathing machine," a dressing room on 

wheels that was rolled out into the water. 
From this contraption the bather descend- 
ed, completely sheltered by an awning that 
came down to the surface of the water, 
and in sedate privacy disported himself in 
the chill brine of the North Atlantic! 

Although the movement has suffered 
much from the prurient curiosity of a sec- 
tion of the public and from the unseemly 
antics of a few publicity seekers, the 
growth of "Nudism" is significant as a 
symptom of a changing viewpoint. It ma) 
well be that this changing viewpoint is 
leading us to a new Renaissance of the 
plastic and graphic arts. "In all the arts." 
says Maeterlinck, "civilized peoples have 
approached or departed from pure beauty 
according as they approached or departed 
from the habit of nakedness." 

Nowadays, among normal and intelligent 
people, we usually depend upon a whole- 
some reaction to the use of the nude in 
photography — pleasure in a healthy body, 
admiration for plastic beauty. 


What is good motion picture photogra- 

If simple questions always had simple 
answers, it would save a lot of wear and 
tear, but it just doesn't seem to work out 
that way. 

Let's have a look at an answer to our 
question; the answer being a good deal 
more complex. 

Good photography means a good deal 
more than well photographed pictures. A 
picture may have carefully-considered 
composition, fine lighting, depth and char- 
acter and still not be acceptable as "good" 
photography when applied to an individual 
scene in a motion picture. 

The pictures the competent cinematog- 
rapher must get on his film, in addition to 
the above requirements, must fit the dia- 
logue, the action and the subject matter 
of the sequence in question. 

For instance, very often my laboratory 
man has called me to say that my rushes 
were too contrasty, or too flat or that the 
exposure was too great or even that the 
picture was photographically out of bal- 

All of this was, on several occasions, 

perfectly true. But the laboratory-man was 
judging the several hundred feet of film 
he was working on by accepted photo- 
graphic standards. He did not see it as 
anything but a part of the whole. And he 
certainly did not see it through the eyes 
of the cameraman. 

With all due respect to members of my 
craft, I have never been satisfied to find a 
successful formula and then stick to it for- 
ever after. To do so would be a positive 
denial of progress. I don't believe in this 
and I hope I may never be guilty of prac- 
tising it. 

But setting new standards in any profes- 
sion or craft is not an easy matter. One 
must not start breaking the accepted rules 
until one has mastered these rules. No 
competent artist and I'm speaking now of 
the man with brush and paints, no com- 
petent artist, such as Bracque or Picasso, 
ever attempted the unconventional, weird 
canvasses for which they are famous until 
they had thoroughly mastered the conven- 
tional methods. 

Applying this to cinematography, one 
can readily see that before "special ef- 
fects" are to be sought by the cameraman, 
he must master his "art" as it is conven- 


tionally practised. And only when he has 
done that, has he earned the right to ex- 
periment; only then has he gained permis- 
sion, so to speak, to deviate from the nor- 

One of the greatest bugbears in Holly- 
wood today. I think, is that the greater 
portion of all the creative workers — writ- 
ers, directors, actors, cameramen and all 
the rest — are making pictures for the ap- 
probation of their fellow-workers. 

This is an unhealthy condition and 
leads nowhere except to false values in 
pictures. Motion pictures should be made 
for the ultimate consumer, the audience. 
And the creative worker, should, in my 
opinion, make pictures for the audience 
and dare the criticism of his fellow- 

As great an occupational hazard as the 
Hollywood cameraman has to face is that 
of constantly wondering whether the di- 
rector or the producer or the star will like 
the results of his day's work. 

It is true that many are not in a suffi- 
ciently secure economic position to forget 
these considerations but to those who do 
have a few nickels in the bank, this view- 
point is directed: The sooner you adopt 

International Photographer for March, 1941 

the attitude of pleasing yourself as a pho- 
tographer and disregard the multi-opinions 
of others, the better photographic story- 
telling will you do. 

The great artist land I am not debating 
whether the cameraman is an artist) does 
not paint his picture for the people who 
come to see it but he paints it because he 
wants to make a good, honest effort to 
contribute his very best to his work. 

It is only human to want the societv in 
which you live to like you and like your 
work but artistically, if you are to pro- 
gress, you must see through and beyond 
your immediate society and aim at basic 
values which represent your personal 

While I'm taking pot-shots at the 
"shouldn*t-be-dones." here's another. I 
quarrel, photographically, with the labor- 
atories which are still using the Test Sys- 
tem. This antiquated system, to my mind, 
is in a class with cranking a camera by 

As you know, there are two laboratory 
methods. 1 1 ) The Test Method, consisting 

This informal picture of Gregg Toland, 
chiej cinemato grapnel on "The Outlaw," 
mis shot during production by Ira Hoke. 

of developing some six-feet of the test of 
a scene to determine how much or how 
little development that particular scene 
requires. (2) The Time and Temperature 
Method, in which every foot of film is 
developed identically throughout the en- 
tire pictures. 

In the second method, Time and Tem- 
perature, the result is constant for the com- 
plete footage shot and it means that the 
constancy of the picure is entirely in the 
hands of the cameraman, where it belongs. 
It eliminates the judgment of a third party, 
the negative-timer. 

For instance, suppose we have a scene 
in which the girl is brilliantly lighted in 
the foreground. She plays the scene, 
walks to the back of the set, which is in 
shadow, to deliver some lines. She then 
returns to the foreground. Also suppose 
we want a close-up of the girl in the shad- 
ows as she speaks her lines. 

The laboratory man sees a test of both 
the scenes. One is very light. The other 
is very dark. "Ah-ha," says the lab-man. 
"This one must come up; that one must 
come down." So when he develops, he 
brings the light-values on both scenes 
closer together. 

Result: The girl walks out of the bril- 
liantlv-Iighted foreground, goes into the 
deep shadow, speaks her lines and we cut 
to a close-up. We have just seen her in 
shadow but in the close-ups she pops onto 
the screen out of the gloom, because of an 
over-developed negative. The quality has 
also changed. But. with the Time and Tem- 
perature Method, each shot would auto- 
matically be developed to the same den- 

If you're looking for reasons, maybe 
this will answer your question. I think 
the only reason the Test System prevails 
is that a few years ago, before we were 
using accurate light-meters, the exposure 
depended upon the camerman's own judg- 
ment. This was subject to error. If the 
mans eyes were over-tired, he'd use more 
light, for example. 

Therefore, the Test System was valu- 
able in those days. But now, with accurate 
light-meters at our command, there seems 
to me to be no reason for continuing this 
antiquated system. 

Personally, I have not used the Test 
System for two years. I believe I was the 
first man to use light-meters on black-and- 
white pictures, although they were em- 
ployed for a couple of years before that 
on color. And many cameramen laughed 
at my use of a meter. Possibly on the 
grounds that camera-work was getting so 
mechanical, anybody would be able to do 
it. But the use of the light-meter saved 
a lot of time and when this time was given 
over to discussion of the picture with the 
diicctor, with greater attention devoted to 
values, and the like, better photography 
was the result. 

In "The Grapes of Wrath" some 
scenes were photographically flat, muddy 

and grey. Photographically, "bad" pic- 
tures. But these pictures fitted the scene 
accurately and conveyed the mood and 
feeling of the scenes they were repro- 

In "The Long Voyage Home" there are 
a number of scenes in which the back- 
grounds are out of balance with the faces 
in the foreground. In printing these scenes 
down, so that the highlights on the faces 
were right, all that was left were the faces, 
the background was lost. And deliberately 
so, since the background would definitely 
detract from the actors. 

Again, in "Wuthering Heights." I was 
told constantly by the laboratory that the 
exposure was "dangerously low." But I 
do Mot think I am over-stating when I say 
that Oliviers performance was aided some- 
what by the fact that many times he was 
in very deep shadow, with only his well- 
spoken lines to take care of the scene. 
And this "working in the gloom" was a 
deliberate advice to make the dialogue 
more effective by coming from sinister, 
provocative shadows. 

So, how does one get results one can 
say mean "good photography"? 

Well, after mastering the techniques, the 
craft-aspects of camerawork, one has to 
have a feeling for those refinements, those 
"experimentations." And this is the 
"hunch", or the "feeling" every competent 
craftsman or artist has when he sets about 
doing a job. 

Learn the orthodox methods thoroughly 
and, if you have this "sense of feeling," 
you'll find yourself reaching out for those 
effects that make "good photography." 

Still Cameramen Receive Recognition 

The First Annual Exhibition of the Art- 
istry of Motion Picture Still Photographers 
will be held under the auspices of the 
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and 
Sciences, at the Hollywood Studios' Still 
Photography Show, April 14 to 26. 1941. 

The Academy announces "It will be an 
annual event, created and maintained un- 
der strict supervision to bring greater rec- 
ognition to motion picture still men and 
to advance the fine art of still photography, 
in the interests of motion pictures." 

Entries will not be received before 
March 3 and not later than March 15. 
Gold Academy medals will be awarded 
the best prints in the seven different exhibit 
classifications. Competition is limited to 
still pictures made during the filming of 
motion pictures between March 1, 1910 
and March 1, 1941. 

Free lance still men are eligible for the 
competition and should direct their in- 
quiries to Herbert Aller, Local 659, 
IATSE. 6461 Sunset Blvd., Hollywood; or 
to Donald Gledhill. Executive Secretary 
of the Academy. 



Who said "impossible?" 

There is no such word, according to 
John Fulton, Universal studios ingenious 
young special effects chief. 

Fulton has proved it by doing the im- 
possible time and again. Since 1923, when 
he first became active in trick effects 
work, his amazing photographic achieve- 
ments have startled the worlds film audi- 
ences and been the envy of Hollywood's 
technical experts. 

Probably Fulton's most celebrated ac- 
complishment — at least, the one which 
brought him public recognition for the 
first time — was his rendering the Invisible 
Man invisible in 1933. Universal had pur- 
chased "The Invisible Man" from another 
studio which had given it up as impossible 
to film. Called in by studio officials, Ful- 
ton stated that nothing was impossible. 
Then he set out to show them. 

With Claude Rains in the title role, 
"The Invisible Man" showed clothing walk- 
ing down streets alone, footprints impres- 
sing themselves in the snow, cigarettes 
smoking themselves, and other weird ef- 
fects. The press, public and Hollywood 
itself asked, "Who did that?" When told, 
they began to shout Fulton's praises. 

Previously, Fulton had scored numerous 
other scoops in camera trickery. But be- 
ing behind the scenes, he was accorded no 
credit or acclaim. It is only in recent 
years that the film industry has deigned to 
honor its technicians as well as its per- 

Fulton began life in Beatrice, Neb., in 
1902, descendant of an impressive array of 
antecedents. Among the latter were steam- 
boat inventor Robert Fulton, writer-com- 
poser-actress-pianist Maude Fulton, stage 
artists Jesse and Enid Fulton, and Dr. 
John Fulton, John's grandfather who 
brought Robert Taylor into the world. 

Fulton's father is Fitch B. Fulton, a 
prominent Hollywood scenic artist for the 
past 17 years. When John was born, the 
senior Fulton was an itinerant stage man- 
ager and scenic artist for the Orpheum 
Circuit. As a result of the family's con- 
stant traveling, John attended 18 schools 
before settling in Los Angeles in 1917. 

Early in his youth John was struck with 
the urge to reproduce beautiful scenes. His 
first impulse was to paint, but since most 
of the artists he met were starving, he 
turned to photography as a more practical 
method of capturing those breath-taking 
views glimpsed on vacation trips to the 
Grand Canyon, Yosemite and other beauty 

John's entire world was wrapped up in 
his little Brownie. He built his own lab- 
oratory, mixed his own "soup," developed 
his own prints. By nature curious and in- 

ventive he was soon dabbling in double 
exposure and other amateur photography 

In Los Angeles John entered the Poly- 
technic Trade School, majoring in elec- 
trical engineering. He secured a job im- 
mediately upon graduation with the South- 
ern California Edison Co. Dissatisfied 
with his meagre pay, he quit his position 
and became a surveyor for a realty com- 
pany. Meanwhile he kept alive his inter- 
est in photography with frequent visits to 
the Mack Sennett studios where Charlie 
Chaplin, Harold Lloyd and other famous 
comedians were working. 

It was in 1923 that Fulton surrendered 
to the lure of the film industry. He gave 
up his $50-a-week surveying job to serve 
for $18 a week as assistant cameraman 
and still photographer at the Sennett 
Studios. A year later he was called to 
Universal, where he remained for two 
years as assistant to Jack Rose. 

Then Frank Williams, who owned most 
of the trick film patents at that time, en- 
gaged Fulton as his assistant. At last John 
was in his element. His next few years 
were marked by ingenious accomplish- 
ments. Such memorable scenes as the 
chariots running over men in "Ben Hur," 
the battle and barrage sequences in "What 
Price Glory," and "The Big Parade,*' the 
Johnstown Flood in the picture of that 
name were but a few of the amazing effects 
he conceived and supervised. 

In 1927 Universal again summoned Ful- 
ton, this time for "Uncle Tom's Cabin." 
The ice scenes in this film are still remem- 
bered today as a most remarkable film 

Not long afterwards, Fulton produced 
another sensation when he showed how lap 
dissolves could be made right in the cam- 
era. A little later he gave film-makers an- 
other jolt when he created a 400-foot mon- 
tage sequence for "The Black Cat." 

In 1928 Fulton went over to Columbia 
to concoct more celluloid magic for Frank 
Capra's "Submarine." After that historic 
production, he joined Producer Henry 
King to serve as cameraman on three films. 

In 1931 Fulton again returned to Uni- 
versal to head the studio's process depart- 
ment. His first assignment was to create 
the earthquakes, lava flows and other 
special effects for "East of Borneo." The 
startling electrical effects in "Franken- 
stein," the realistic bombing raid in the 
original "Waterloo Bridge," the spectac- 
ular plane crashes in "Air Mail" were 
other camera highlights evolved by Fulton 
before his notable work in "The Invisible 

A list of Fulton's other accomplishments 
since then would fill a volume. Last season 

he topped his efforts in "The Invisible 
Man" with even more ingenious wizardry 
in "'The Invisible Man Returns." When 
Universal released "The Invisible Woman" 
a few months ago again it was Fulton who 
stole the show with incredible new magic. 

At present he is busy brewing new leger- 
demain for "Man-Made Monster," the 
studio's latest horror drama. In it he will 
show a human being, supercharged with 
electricity, glowing like an electric light 

Tall, blonde, modest John Fulton tries to 
disclaim the difficulties of his work. 

"Much of it is purely mechanical, if 
secret," he states. "Most of it is done by 
a simple formula which we hit on and 
others just failed to find. Practically all 
of it requires long hours of tedious work 
by a large staff of photographers, artist* 
and technicians. 

"In many ways our job is a thankless 
one. For instance, an apparently difficult 
trick may be accomplished very easily. 
Other effects much more difficult are hard- 
ly remembered. But all in all the work is 
satisfying and I still don't think anything 
is impossible." 

In the same department and ably assist- 
ing Mr. Fulton are Stanley Horsley and 
Ross Hoffman, second cameramen, and 
James V. King, assistant cameraman. 

Weird Set at Universal 

One of the spookiest sets ever devised by 
Universal technicians, famous for their 
backgrounds for blood-chilling thrillers, 
provides the principal setting in the new- 
est Bud Abbott and Lou Costello starring 
comedy, "Oh, Charlie," now in production. 

To all intents and purpses the setting is 
a bedroom, elaborately furnished, in a 
long abandoned tavern to which the come- 
dians fall heir. By the simple application 
of pressure on a coat hook in a clothes 
closet, the room suddenly comes to life. 
The bed folds back into the wall, chairs 
and dresser disappear as though by magic, 
and in their places a big roulette table, 
crap table and other gambling devices 
snap into place. 

Apparently the tavern at one time was a 
hideout for bootleggers who operated the 
place as a gambling joint also, and the in- 
nocent appearing bedroom was provided 
in case of raids. 

Costello, rotund member of the famous 
comedy team, attempts to bed himself 
down in the room with hilarious results, 
supplying one of the funniest sequences of 
the picture. 

Ginger Rogers, Academy Award winner 

By John Miehle 

pictures jn 


Through The Auspices of the Research 
Department of the Motion Picture Acad- 
emy of Arts and Sciences the motion pic- 
ture industry will do its share in contribu- 
ting to the defense program upon which 
the United States is now embarked. 

Arriving here recently was Major Gen- 
eral James P. Mauborgne whose duties 
will be to explain the wishes of the United 
States Army in connection with production 
of motion picture film to be utilized in the 
national defense program. Also arrived 
are Colonel Major John L. Ballentvne of 
the Infantry and Colonel Gordon P. Savoy 
of the Cavalry. Major Charles Strodter, 
Signal Corps Officer, has been assigned to 
Hollywood to act as liaison officer. 

Major General Mauborgne has made it 
known that through the use of motion pic- 
ture film, men will be trained four to five 
times faster than under normal conditions. 
Of significant help will he the use of mo- 
tion pictures in explaining the operations 
of mechanical devices and equipment, as 
well as discovering faults these may have 
when employed in maneuvers and war tac- 
tics, all of which is covered in every phase 
by the motion picture cameraman. 

The Major advised that the Signal Corps 
of the U. S. Army is not as well equipped 
as Hollywood to render this service where 
it will be done on a cost basis without anv 
profit to the motion picture industry. This 
will be the contribution of the motion pic- 
ture industry to the national defense pro- 
gram. Certain writers have agreed to con- 
tribute their services but the lower bracket 
working class which will be composed of 
all technical help will be paid in accord- 
ance with the union scale. At present there 
are writers working with the respective 
army officials in planning the types of pic- 
tures that ought to be made. There will 
be no press releases or publicity given 
these pictures. They will be the property 
of the Army and those taking part in the 
creation of these pictures will be servants 
of the United States Government. Natur- 
ally it will consist of work in 35 milli- 
meters. There is the possibility that some 
of it may be done in 16 millimeter. Lab- 
oratory facilities have already been set 
up and different studios will be assigned 
their particular job. The General empha- 
sized one important and surprising state- 
ment; that is, that the contribution of the 
motion picture indusry to defense can be 
made to be more important than that of 
the steel industry. 

CEORqE Barnes, Winner, 
Ac Ad e My AwARd 

WINNER OF THE Academy Award for 
the best photographic contribution, in black 
and white, was George Barnes, much res- 
pected member of Local 659, for his not- 
able work on Selznick International Pro- 
duction, "Rebecca." 

Award for the best color photography 
was bestowed upon George Perinal for his 
outstanding work on the Alexander Korda 
Production, "Thief of Bagdad." Perinal 
probably will be among the last to learn 
of the honor, as he is now with the British 
armed forces. 

Sometime ago International Photog- 
rapher published a story dealing with the 
activities of Lawrence Butler, who was 
responsible for so much of the special ef- 
fects in "Thief of Bagdad." Recognition 
of his work by International Photographer 
was confirmed by the award to Butler 
of the Academy plaque for special effects. 
There is much more we will hear about 

from Larry Butler. 

By coincidence Joe Rucker, newsreel 
cameraman for Paramount, who went to 
the South Pole with Byrd on his first ex- 
pedition and was awarded not only an 
Oscar but the Congressional Medal, was 
there to photograph George Barnes, winner 
of the award for black and white pho- 

The change in the manner of presenting 
the awards this year caused much "sitting 
on the edge of chairs." The tabulations by 
the auditors were not announced or known 
to anyone until the awards actually were 
presented at the dinner. 

The outstanding event at the banquet 
was the talk delivered by President Roose- 
velt in which he addressed the industry 
and made known his regard for its import- 
.ance in our modern civilization and its 



cance in rendering services in 


Defense Program. 

George Barnes, Member Local 659, awarded the Academy "Oscar -1 
for best black and white photography. 

International Photographer for March, 1941 

Sandstone chimneys of Coal Canyon, Arizona, 
form the labyrinth hideaway of Billy the Kid, 
desperado of the lo^O's. Actual locale of "The 
Outlaw." Photos by Ira Hoke. 


Sheriff Pat Garrett ami his posse follow a Crow 
Indian tracker to tbe lair of Billy the Kid. Picture 
shot from great height. An idea of the immensity 
of these nature formed monuments may be gained 
by comparison with the horses and their riders in 
lower pari of picture. 



Jack Beutel, 21, of Dallas, Texas and 
Jane Russell, 19. of Van Nuys, California, 
are the screen's newest stars, discovered by 
Howard Hughes, who brought to motion 
pictures Jean Harlow and Paul Muni. In 
Hughes' production, "The Outlaw," Jack 
makes his screen debut as Billy the Kid, 
with Jane as his quick-tempered sweet- 
heart. Rio. Neither Jane nor Jack has ever 
been in motion pictures before. Jane grad- 
uated from Van Nuys High School a little 
more than a year ago, and sought some 
kind of work which would help her to 
support her widowed mother and four 
brothers. Between herself and her mother, 
Jane managed to earn enough as a pho- 
tographer's model to take a dramatics 
course. Modelling, however, proved a pre- 
carious calling, so Jane accepted a job as 
a $10 week receptionist, working after- 
noons, in a doctor's office. It was then that 
she got a chance to try for the leading 
feminine role in "The Outlaw," since 
Hughes was searching the nation for two 
completely new stars. Jack, meanwhile, 
was sleeping in an apartment with four 
other job-hunting youths, with a mattress 
on the floor as his boudoir. He had come 
to Hollywood from Dallas with the idea of 
crashing films, but had no success what- 
ever until the Hughes talent search gave 
him the opportunity to shoot for stardom. 
Never before in Hollywood history have 
two newcomers been placed in the top roles 
of a picture costing more than a million 
dollars. In "The Outlaw" cast with Jane 
and Jack are Thomas Mitchell, Walter 
Huston and Mimi Aguglia. The picture is 
being released through Twentieth Century- 

RKO's "Parachute Battalion" 

Harry Carey, veteran character actor 
who has scored innumerable triumphs on 
the screen, has been signed by RKO Radio 
for a major role in "Parachute Battalion," 
which Producer Howard Benedict expects 
to send before cameras early next month. 

"Parachute Battalion." based on a screen 
play by John Twist and Capt. Hugh File. 
U. S. Air Corps, will be the first motion 
picture to chronicle the dare-devil lives 
led by members of the United States 
Army's newly-formed parachute troops. 

Leslie Goodwins, who will direct the 
new feature, is now en route to Fort Ben- 
ning, Ca., with a technical crew to film 
backgrounds for the picture. 



Howard Hughes Production. 

Top left : Walter Huston as "Doc Holliday," card sharper and gambler 
of the 80's, friend and pal of Billy the Kid. Top right: Tom Mitchell 
as Sheriff Pat Garrett. (Stills by Ira Hoke.) Lower left: Jane Russell 
as the sweetheart of Billy the Kid (still by Tad Gillum) and lower 
right The Kid himself as played by Jack Beutel (still hy Ira Hoke.) 

International Photocrapher for March, 1941 


October 31, 1940. 

Mr. Herbert Aller and Members of Local 
659: "Long time no write — excuse me, 
sirs." It has been over three years since I 
visited Hollywood last and since then I 
presume that great improvements in the 
making of pictures have taken place. For 
myself, I'm kept quite busy most of the 
time shooting one picture after another. 

In our Toho Studios twenty-four cam- 
eramen are under contract at present and 
they are quite busy, too. Thirteen of them 
are for regular feature pictures; seven are 
assigned for short subjects and the rest 
work for the special effects department. 
Usually seven to nine features are sched- 
uled daily throughout the year. Seven NC 
type Mitchell cameras, three standard 
Mitchells and nine other Bell & Howell 
and Super Parvo cameras are in use. 

I have shot three of the much talked 
about pictures this year, namely, "Prin- 
cess Snake," "The Night in China" and 

"Son-Go-Cue." The first one is a costume 
play and broke the box office record in 
many years. The second was made mostly 
in China, where we were located nearly 
two months. The story was laid in Shang- 
hai, with Japanese seamen and a Chinese 
girl taking the parts. One of the most 
popular Chinese stars, Lee Shang Lang, 
played the part of the girl. She made such 
a hit in this picture that we borrowed her 
again in "Son-Go-Cue." 

The story of "Son-Go-Cue" or "The 
Adventures of Western Travel" was taken 
from the famous old Chinese fantasy well 
known to the Oriental people, especially 
for the children. The three main characters 
are the monkey, the hog and the sea 

Now I'm working on an amazing story 
of "The Horse." It resembles the popular 
book "Yearling," telling of the country 
people and their love for the animal. The 
shooting of this picture started the early 

part of September, 1939, because the story 
calls for four seasons: Fall, Winter, Spring 
and Summer, then back to Fall again. 

In Japan, under present conditions, we 
are not able to see the latest American pic- 
tures, but quite old ones are coming in 
one by one. "The Stage Coach" and "Stan- 
ley and Livingston" made great hits lately 
and the work of both Bert Glennon and 
George Barnes was praised by theatregoers 

In conclusion. I hope that you and the 
boys in the local are enjoying good health 
and here is wishing you all the best of 
luck. I am enclosing a few stills from my 
latest pictures and I hope you will enjoy 

Yours sincerely, 


Camera Dept., Toho Studios, 

100 Kitami Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan 

Upper left: Marry Minium at the camera; right: Quocn of the harem enjoys the dancing; lower left: 
Itig Boj Hog and the popular Chinese star, Lee Shang I.ang; right: the fantastic woods of the fairy talc. 


Some HisTomcAl 


A long time ago, 22 years to bs exact, 
when I shot stills for the old Jack Hox'e 
series of westerns, the up and coming sen- 
sitive emulsion was the Hammer Dry Plate 
and the Seed 40. Not that we ever had use 
for more than one emulsion on a picture 
in those days, but there was always the 
usual controversy among us to whom made 
the best negatives, and on what. 

Development time and temperature did 
not count much, as exposure latitude near- 
ly always made it possible for something 
to develop into visibility upon the plate 
which made a print of sorts, which we 
fondly termed a "production still." 

Shortly after the war some smart boys 
at the Eastman plant in Rochester figured 
up a new fangled high speed emulsion 
which they rolled out on sheet celluloid 
instead of glass. 

Over on the old Fox lot at Western and 
Sunset I took out the first Buck Jones show 
with the new film loaded in special sheaths 
in my old plate holders. It wasn't much 
faster than the Standard Orthos we had 
previously used, but it was a lot lighter, 
and I remember that the cut film negatives 
for the whole picture weighed just about 
the same as a single dozen of the old glass 

From then on I was sold on the new 
product and when I went over to director 
Ed LeSaints company as still man to Shir- 
ley Mason, camera department head. Frank 
Burns, outfitted me with the new thin cut 
film holders made especially for the new 

I shall never forget that picture. A great 
load had been lifted from my heart as well 
as from my camera case, for the new "Par 
Speed" film actually did take a lot less 
exposure to produce a good negative. 

That was fortunate with Shirley for she 
used to have the jitters after a long day's 
work, and the afternoon stills would have 
often been failures had it not been for that 
little speed boost that the Eastman Kodak 
boys had packed in the new film. 

Along in the early twenties our only 
piece of equipment was the 8 x 10 view 
camera, but when I went over to the Rob- 
ertson-Cole lot with Harry Carey I began 
to use the faster cut film with remarkable 
success in action pictures with the Graflex. 
That camera not only began to make use 
of its fast shutter, but more important, be- 
came light enough to chase horses, Indians 
and cowboys with. I think the Graflex 
must have lost about six pounds overnight 
when cut film supplanted glass plates in 
its magazines. 

Later came Alberta Vaughn and her col- 
orful college girls, and I tried a few of 
the new Panchromatic cut films. Portrait 
(Continued on page 18) 

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International Photographer for March, 1941 



By Scotty Welbourne 




Whether he is photographing the newest 
cutie on the Warner lot or the Statue of 
Liberty, Charles Scott Welbourne, head 
portrait photographer of that studio, be- 
lieves that the proper use of light and 
shadow is the answer to most of his prob- 

Light and shadow, explains Welburne, 
is all that may make the expensive — and 
expressive — face of a Bette Davis, for ex- 
ample, different from the ordinary face of 
Sophie Glutz, that long-suffering nonen- 
tity who is always available for compara- 
tive purposes. The varieties and possibili- 
ties of light and shadow for the camera, 
he adds, never have been exhausted by 
Hollywood or by any photographer. 

The commercial portrait photographer 
and the studio portrait man have much in 
common, but they must work differently 
because they have different objectives. 

The commercial artist works to get real- 
ism. What he wants, because he knows it 
will please his customers, is a more or less 
exact likeness. 

The studio photographer, on the other 
hand, is willing — even anxious — to sacri- 
fice an exact likeness for a glamorous ap- 
pearance, a seductive smile, a menacing 
glare or whatever it is his subject has the 
most of. 

The studio photographer works with the 
worlds most expensive faces and he knows 
he can add or take away many thousands 
of dollars in value by the way he pictures 
those faces. 

Mood and frame of mind of a subject 
are vital to good results, Welbourne be- 
lieves. Almost as important as lighting 
but not quite. The photographer, once he 
has started the sitting, shouldn't putter 
too much with the camera because the 
faster he works the better will be the ani- 
mation and expression of the subject. 

The photographer can't fit every sub- 
ject into the same mold, he adds. 

"Not every player looks good on a bear 

It is important, Scotty thinks, to get 
and keep his subjects in the right mood. 
He has a phonograph handy and a supply 
of records — all kinds of records — so that 
he can fit his music to the mood the player 
is in or that Scotty wants the plaver to 

The man who has photographed almost 
every one of the great and near-great 
names in Hollywood, believes that he 
should "press the bulb" when the general 
effect he wants is before the camera re- 
gardless of small details. He likes to 
think that each picture tells a story but 
he won't attempt to interpret all the pic- 
ures he makes. 

Scotty once made 686 pictures of Carole 
Lombard in one day. This is not as ex- 

travagant as it sounds, however, because 
the demand for pictures of motion picture 
celebrities is greater than most people 
realize. A fleeting, twisted smile on Errol 
Flynn's handsome face caught by Scotty's 
camera, will eventually please a Hula 
maiden, a Chinese peasant and a hundred 
other types and nationalities. It may cir- 
culate for ten years. 

In his big. square, lofty gallery on the 
Warner lot, Scotty doesn't think of all 
these things before snapping each picture. 
He is a young man but an old hand at the 
business and most of it comes to him by 
habit now. It is only when he is asked to 
explain his work that he tells, haltingly, 
of his theories and practicss. 

"It's just light and shadow," he insists, 
"whether the subject is Merle Oberon or 
the Statue of Liberty. Only I would 
rather photograph Miss Oberon. Or even 
Jimmy Cagney. Jimmy's face has enough 
animation to keep it interesting — even if it 
isn't very beautiful." 

One other thing is important to the 
studio photographer, in Scotty's expert 
opinion. The photograph or the photog- 
rapher never must overshadow the subject 
in importance. He believes it is import- 
ant that his credit line read, "The lovely 
Olivia de Havilland — portrait by Scotty 
Welbourne," and not "A new Welbourne 
portrait of Olivia de Havilland." 

He thinks the latter credit line "puts the 
cart before the horse," and he says this 
without meaning to call Olivia a horse. 
He thinks that the studio portrait man 
must always be of secondary importance 
to the star he pictures. That's one reason 
he holds the job he does. 

Scotty Welbourne "shooting" Ann Sheridan 

International Photographer for March, 1941 


Depicting the art of Charles "Scotty" Welbourne 




Brenda Marshall 
Olivia cle Huvillaml 

Joan Leslie 
Sylvia Sidney 


See story on preceding page 

Ann Sheridan 
Merle Oberon 

Rita Hayworth 
Rosemary Lane 

International Photographer for March, 1941 


coIor wrrh kodAChRONE 

The author of this article, writing under the 
pseudonym of Burr McGregor, is a well known 
cameraman. He invites any questions on this sub- 
ject. (Editorial Note. I 

At least, once in your experience, you 
have stopped to gaze upon the depth and 
beauty of a colorful scene, or, perhaps it 
was one of those sublime moments, just 
before the close of day, when Nature 
seemed to stop for a moment to paint the 
sunlit sky in golden hues, blending off into 
soft pastel shades of bluish-purple, as the 
golden orb gently dipped below a dark 
silhouetted ridge of a distant mountain 
range, pink-tinting soft cloud edges into 
myriad hues of color mystery; and while 
you beheld this farewell to a day, you 
bowed your little self before this grand 
requiem of panorama, regretting your 
camera was loaded with a film that could 
only record this passing display in tones 
of gray: the more regretful, because there- 
after, you could only recall this phenome- 
non in memory, it would never be repeated 
the same. 

It is such a show, and others of less 
grandeur, that have intensified the increas- 
ing color-mindedness of aspiring color 
fans to the awakening of their artistic 

There is romance in color photography! 
Its fascinating appeal has stimulated com- 
petitive expression from almost every 
commercial and entertaining activity of 
thought throughout the civilized world. 

The invention of Kodachrome has open- 
ed unlimited possibilities to the realm of 
scientific research for analytical study, re- 
sulting in discoveries of untold benefits to 
mankind and his progress. 

Great commercial enterprises employ 
this product, because of the fidelity of 

color rendering, to educate potential pur- 
chasers of the excellence of their merchan- 
dise and to influence greater trade de- 

This medium of color has become one 
of the most influential factors of educa- 
tion ; unconscious education, due to the 
color penetrating to the mind to leave a 
lasting impression more impressive than 
the monochrome picture, or written word. 
A correct rendition of distant places, and 
strange people, are brought into home 
circles, as well as the auditorium, with 
a penetrating fact of truth. To the thirst- 
ing mind for knowledge it has created a 
source of educational entertainment, re- 
vealing hidden secrets of scientific lore. 

It is to the serious minded amateur pho- 
tographer that Kodachrome has opened the 
vast fields of romantic adventure: fields 
of unlimited opportunity for the cultiva- 
tion and expression of his artistic instinct 
to analyze color composition. The entire 
realm of animate, and inanimate life, is 
spread out ready to parade before his 
camera in an unending procession of en- 
chanting color mystery, limited only by 
his creative genius to record with unerring 

Kodachrome. is the unfailing companion 
of travelers, trusting its collective power 
to faithfully reproduce the panoramic 
views, and incidents, of their wandering 
experiences with a perpetual record of the 
romances, and adventures, that have 
dropped behind them to be brought forth 
again and again and vividly re-lived in 
resurrected memory. 

No other contribution to the science of 
photography has become so popular or 
can produce such faithful color reproduc- 
tion for so little expense and mental 


In a lecture at the Franklin Institute, 
Philadelphia, on December 28, Dr. C. E. K. 
Mees, Vice-President in Charge of Re- 
search and Development for the Eastman 
Kodak Company, disclosed that Koda- 
chrome film is now processed by a method 
different from that employed when it was 
first brought out in 1935. The method is 
quickei than that originally used, better 
quality results are secured, and there ; s 
less risk of damage to the film because it 
i>- handled fewer times in the processing. 

Kodachrome film carries three superim- 
posed sensitive layers. The top layer re- 
sponds to blue light, the middle layer to 
green, arid the bottom to red. In exposure, 
three-color separations are thus effected in 
the depth of the film coating. When the 


film is processed, positive images of dye 
are formed in each of the three layers. 
The film is first developed to give a black 
negative silver image in all layers, and is 
then redeveloped by the so-called reversal 
process in special developers which pro- 
duce the positive dye images. The color 
of the image in a particular layer is com- 
plementary to that of the light by which 
the layer was exposed; that is, the image 
in the bottom layer is processed to give a 
blue-green (or cyan) dye, that in the mid- 
dle layer to a magenta dye, and that in the 
top layer to a yellow dye. 

One of the most ingenious aspects of 
Kodachrome processing lies in the method 
by which the three different dyes are pro- 
duced and confined to the lavers to which 

By burr McGregor 

The ardent photographic devotee who 
has experienced the satisfaction of ordi- 
nary photographic reproduction need not 
hesitate to venture into the realm of color 
with Kodachrome in his camera. His ex- 
periences in black and white photography 
will be to his advantage, and his results 
will be infinitely more pleasing; he will 
learn that color is the contrast he should 

Many aspirants have hestitated to ven- 
ture forth into color photography because 
of a false mystery with which it has been 
expounded, as well as a prohibitive ex- 
pense experiment: True, the expense is a 
trifle more than that of black and white, 
and the thoughtful effort must be more 
painstaking, but the results, and that is 
what counts in any effort, are extremely 

There are "candid" cameras on the mar- 
ket retailing at only a few dollars with 
which excellent results can be obtained by 
the careful student-operator. Color repro- 
ductions have been created with such cam- 
eras that have equaled exhibition quality, 
and have returned dividends, not only of 
pleasurable satisfaction, but gratifying in 

Clean, clear enlargements are success- 
fully reproduced from Kodachrome trans- 
parencies without loss of detail, or a trace 
of unpleasant grain. Reproductions from 
the original color to black and white mono- 
chrome, of commercial quality, is accom- 
plished with ease. 

The enthusiasts who yearns for movie 
action, with his 8mm. or 16 mm. camera, 
can enjoy raptures of delight through the 
reproduction of scenes, and objects, as 
they flash over the projection screen in 
faithful shades of soft pastel, or brilliant 
sharp colors of reminiscent experiences. 

they belong. The dyes are produced by 
using so-called "coupler developers," in 
which the image is developed to black sil- 
ver which is produced in association with 
a dye. The color of the dye can be deter- 
mined by properly selecting the compo- 
nents of the developer. In the early meth- 
od of processing Kodachrome, the colors 
were confined to their proper layers in the 
following manner: After negative develop- 
ment, the silver was bleached and the re- 
maining silver bromide redeveloped as in 
the reversal process to give silver and cyan 
dye in all three layers. By a process of 
controlled diffusion, the dye in the two up- 
per layers was destroyed, and the silver 
in these layers reconverted to silver halide. 
The two upper layers were then developed 


Swings, tilts and shifts of both lens and film ; 3" rise of the front ; bellows 
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International Photographer for March, 1941 


in a solution which produced black silver 
in association with a magenta dye. By a 
second bleach bath, the dye in the top lay- 
er was destroyed and the silver reconverted 
to silver halide. The top layer was then 
developed in a solution which produced 
black silver and a yellow dye. As a final 
step, the silver was removed from all three 
layers, leaving only the dye images. 

The earlier method required three separ- 
ate developments on three continuous pro- 
cessing machines and drying between the 
machines. In the new method the film is 
processed continuously on a single ma- 
chine. First it is developed to give a black- 
and-white negative. The three layers are so 
sensitized that the sensitizing dyes are not 
harmed by this first development, and, 
therefore, the layers are still sensitive re- 
spectively to red, green and blue light in 
later stages of the processing. After the 
negative development, the film moves 
through the machine to a point where it 
is exposed to red light through the back. 
This affects only the back layer, which is 
red sensitive, and the film is then passed to 
a cyan developer which develops color only 
in the back layer without affecting the two 
upper layers. After this stage, the film is 
exposed to blue light from above. This 
exposure affects only the top layer, which 
can then be developed in a solution pro- 
ducing a yellow dye. Finallv. the middle 
layer is developed to a magenta dye. 

As before, silver is produced when these 
dye developers function, so this has to be 
removed from all three layers, leaving a 
final film having only three superposed 
dye images. After processing, the film is 
dried, and it is returned lo the photogra- 
pher for projection in amateur motion pic- 
ture machines, miniature slide projectors, 

Bull Fighters Must Be Well Dressed 

Even Alice Faye when she played Lillian 
Russell didn't have a layout of costumes 
like Tyrone Power will wear in his next 

Twentieth Century-Fox will give Tyrone 
24 costumes, eight of which cost $2,000 
each, for his role as a matador in "Blood 
and Sand" which the studio will film in 

Even at $2,000 an outfit, the studio 
won't be indulging in any extravagant 
whims. Most matador costumes run be- 
tween $5,000 and $10,000 each, including 
precious slnucs. and one that Armillita, 
the most famous of all bull fighters, will 
wear in "Blood and Sand" cost $23,000. 

The studio's wardrobe department has 
kept 10 ^'irls bus\ for the last six weeks 
making the costumes. Each outfit includes 
inner and outer stockings, pumps, silk 
knee breeches, silk shirt, four yards of 
waist sash, a gold-embroidered waistcoat 
studded vsith gems, a hat, and a cape of 
-ilk that is covered with gold embroidery. 

Tyrone's wardrobe budget will be triple 
that of Linda Darnell who plays opposite 

No More Typing 

A Hollywood which used to be accused 
of typing the stars too much, has changed 
policy so radically that nowadays you can 
even find Kay Francis playing a slinky 
adventuress instead of a glamour girl. 

It wasn't always so, of course. Until 
Producer-Director Herbert Wilcox came 
along to give her straight roles, ZaSu Pitts 
was mainly a pair of fluttery hands. Will- 
iam Powell once cancelled his contract be- 
cause the movies made him a suave society 

But nowadays producers recognize a 
good player is a versatile one — or should 
be. Players themselves had a lot to do 
with forcing the change. Ginger Rogers 
wouldn't stay typed, but hung up the 
dancing shoes which brought her fame to 
play dramatic roles — and now look at her 
"Kittv Fovle," which placed Ginger in top 
bracket as winner of the Academy Award. 

Carole Lombard refused to be tagged 
screwball forever. Bette Davis insisted on 
varying roles. 

The men, too. Robert Montgomery 
shucked playboy roles for the murderer in 
his memorable "Night Must Fall/' Robert 
Taylor demands rough-and-tough parts. 
John Barrymore lends his profile to 

As marked as any player-transition, if 
not the most pronounced, is what Kay 
Francis has done with her roles. 

Of all the glamour girls, she seemed 
the one most fixed. But she also decided 
to show her versatility, first played that 
heavy with Cary Grant and Carole Lom- 
bard, swung then to the role of the mother- 
ly Jo in "Little Men." Now — well, wait till 
the fans see her as the adventuress in RKO 
Radio's "Play Girl" — the role of a woman 
who lived by fascinating men until the 
years made her change her tactics. 

This one really proves the typing buga- 
boo has joined the dodo. 



(Continued from page 11) 

Pan was a success from the first, and I 
used it for years, to be exact until the ad- 
\ent several years ago of Super XX. 

Up to the- coming of stereo backgrounds 
one emulsion was usually satisfactory for 
an entire production, but the stereo pre- 
sented a chance for the still men to spread 
themselves. I followed the crowd. I made 
background negatives on several films, and 
still do. 

For fine grain I use Panatomic X or 
Portrait Ran. For fine shadow detail. 
Super Panchro Press. I find these three 
Eastman films gave me a fine selection that 
react differently enough to various filters 

that I can give the process department al- 
most any desired effect. 

I carry both 5x7 and 8 x 10 film for 
backgrounds, and use the 14" Ektar coated 
lens exclusively. This new piece of equip- 
ment makes possible stereo plates of 
hitherto unsurpassed brilliance, roundness, 
and sharpness over the entire field. 

I've had a lot of success with the new 
coated Ektar on Kodachrome. It produces 
a color transparency of that lovely stereo- 
scopic quality, and intense sharpness of 
detail that we all strive for since color has 
been added to our bag of tricks. 

Finally I include now-a-days several 
dozen Eastman Infra Red cut film for 
cloud effect backgrounds, and occasion- 
ally use it to shoot an Indian if he happens 
to be backed up against the skyline where 
he can't fight back. 

A Good Part At The Right Time 

Joan Fontaine, now co-starring with 
Cary Grant at RKO Radio in the Alfred 
Hitchcock's new thriller, "Before the Fact," 
is movietown's leading example of what 
one good part at the right time will do 
for a player. 

It was her role in the recent "Rebecca," 
which Hitchcock directed, that lifted her 
from stock player ranks to stardom . . . 
before that, during three years on the 
screen, she'd played in stock at the same 
studio where now she's starring, later had 
been a freelance player. 

"Rebecca" not only brought stardom 
but one of the five nominations for "best 
actress of 1940" voted on by members of 
the Academv of Motion Picture Arts and 

Joan Blondell To Pose For Sculptor 

On the commission of the American 
Mothers' Society of New York, which has 
voted Joan Blondell "the most glamurous 
mother in America" for the second con- 
secutive vear, \ucca Salamunich, eminent 
Jugo-Slavian sculptor, arrived here last 
week to execute a bust of the Hollywood 

Jack Oakie Signed for "Navy Blues"''' 

• Jack Oakie has been signed by Warner 
Bros, to plav the leading featured role op- 
posite Eddie Albert in "Navy Blues." Slat- 
ed for production during the early spring, 
"Navy Blues" will be laid in and around 
the San Diego naval base and on the decks 
of various United States men-of-war. An 
original storv by Arthur Horman is being 
adapted for the screen. 

New Burke & James Catalogue 

A brand new 92 page Burke & James catalogue 
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used lenses from one of the nations finest stocks. 
Ask for free catalogue No. 141-N from Burke & 
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New York, Pittsburgh, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco 

International Photographer for March, 1941 


on Iocatjon For bAckqROUNtJs 


Harry Perry started as a cameraman hack in 
1918. He has made five trips hack and forth to 
Europe in the last few years for different Holly- 
wood studios. When the war started he was 
making shots around Monte Carlo for Selznick, 
hut was forced to leave in September, 1939, be- 
fore his work was finished. The authorities would 
not permit him to work in the district because of 
troop movements. He returned home on a boat so 
crowded that he, with about fifty others, slept 
on cots in the bottom of the swimming pool 
I minus the water) . 

During the past six or seven years most of his 
work has been on location trips, last year going 
to the Bahamas and New York for backgrounds 
for "Honeymoon in Bali." 

Despite the fact that Perry is a globe trotter 
who has visited countries known and unknown, 
he always finds his work exciting and enjoys 
each new experience. — (Editorial Note.) 

Last October Paramount sent me to New 
York to photograph hackgrounds for "The 
New Yorker," directed by Charles Vidor. 
Stanley Goldsmith, assistant director, was 
in charge, accompanied by Curtis Mick, 
production manager. We were successful 
in making some difficult shots; quite a few 
on Fifth Avenue around the RCA Build- 
ing, where they had to hold the crowd back 
for minutes at a time. This was a prob- 
lem, especially at noon, which was the only 
time we could work to get the light across 
Fifth Avenue. 

Some night shots were made on Fifth 
Avenue, shooting across from Saks Store 
toward the RCA Building. On these we 
used lights on the Avenue and the build- 
ings across the street. 

Another shot presenting complications 
was Times Square just at dusk. We used 
a few Photo-floods for the foreground ac- 
tion. All the big signs were wanted, in- 
cluding Wrigley's and the Paramount The- 
atre and the traffic going across Forty- 
second Street at Broadway. By the time 
we got started thousands of people had 
crowded up and it took a lot of policemen 
to keep them from running the camera 
down. Finally we had to get on a plat- 
form so they would not push the camera 

We took several shots from the Brooklyn 
Bridge, doubling in the lights of the Bat- 
tery and up-town building lights and for- 
tunately the sway of the bridge did not 
affect the double exposure at all. 

After finishing in New York I received 
word to go to the West Indies for location 
shots with a 16mm camera for a picture 
to be made by E. II. Griffith, called "Dildo 
Cay." E. D. Leshin, production manager 
in charge of assignment, was sent from the 
studio to \'cw York to complete arrange- 

We flew to Miami, where we staved one 
day, then took the Pan American Air Finer 
to Port au Prince, Haiti. Upon our arrival 
there we found we had missed, by just one 

day, the monthly liner that stops at the 
Grand Turk Islands on its way to New 
York. We had to get to these islands, so 
it was up to us to find a boat that would 
take us there. We spent two or three days 
at Port au Prince, trying to find a boat 
capable of making the trip, then made a 
very interesting drive across the island, 
about two hundred miles over very rough 
roads. The villages were fascinating, with 
their grass covered houses and little naked 
children running around. At one spot by 
the side of the road we passed a native 
girl of about eighteen sunning her naked 
body on the bank of a small stream and so 
unself-conscious that she scarcely noticed 
us when we went by. 

We had to ford several streams with the 
car. After a heavy rain this would have 
been impossible. Our destination was Cap 
Haiti, where we arrived late in the evening. 

Now we had to find a boat with a motor. 
Sounds simple, but we were unable to ac- 
complish it. All of the boats were of the 
plain sail type, manned by natives, so fin- 
ally we were forced to engage one of these. 
We got the best boat to be had, about forty 
feet long and manned by a crew of six 
natives. There were no lights, no life pre- 
servers, no cabin. A light leaky row boat 
was carried which would have accommo- 
dated only half the crew if we had needed 

We started out for Grand Turk Islands 
about four o'clock in the afternoon, ran 
into a heavy wind the first night — which 
took us along like an express train — as 
well as making us feel very bad for quite 
a while. Then due to the lack of lights 
we had the experience of being almost run 
down by a liner. We were saved by the 
use of my flashlight, which I flashed back 
and forth. They passed about fifty feet 
to one side of us. 

We were supposed to get to our destina- 
tion next day, but did not make it until 
the following Monday. The second night 
out we ran into some reefs and had to an- 
chor there all night. The third day, Sun- 
day, we were becalmed for twenty hours, 
about twenty miles from our goal. Finally 
a light breeze came up and it took us five 
hours to make the twenty miles, reaching 
the islands called Grand Turk and Salt 
Cay, about which the book "Dildo Cay" 
was written. 

On Grand Turk Island we were the 
guests of the English Commissioner, as 
there are no hotels nor accommodations. 

In Salt Cay we were the guests of the 
Herriott family. There are about three 
hundred and fifty native blacks on the 
island and there are six people in the 
Herriott family, the only white people 
there. The Herriott family have been in 

the salt business there since 1820. They 
were very helpful to us in getting our 
shots. The pictures we made at Salt Cay, 
covering several hundred acres of ground, 
showed the evaporation tanks and the sys- 
tem of making salt. They have windmills 
for power, carrying the water in and out 
of the different tanks. It also was inter- 
esting to watch them load sacks of salt 
into little lighters or sailboats, taking them 
to the big liner and transferring them to 
the hold. 

After finishing there we had to get to 
another island twenty miles away, called 
East Harbor. This necessitated another 
rough sailboat ride of about five hours. 
We were in East Harbor for two days. 
Then Paramount Studios sent a plane to 
pick us up and take us seven hundred miles 
to Miami. Upon our arrival there we went 
to Key West along the new automobile 
road which was built several years ago 
after a hurricane took out the railroad. We 
took pictures of the town, the old resi- 
dences, coral reefs, and some in the vicin- 
ity of the Mangrove Islands, near Key 
West, location shots for research work for 
a production to be made by Cecil B. De 

We left Key West on Christmas morn- 
ing, got back to Miami about noon, stayed 
the afternoon, then took the train that eve- 
ning for St. Augustine, Florida, where we 
went to see the Marine Gardens, about 
twenty miles south of the city. Here we 
made shots for possible use in under-water 
scenes for "Reap the Wild Wind." 

These gardens are very unusual and in- 
teresting. They are in two very large tanks, 
with all the most modern ways and means 
of temperature control and proper circula- 
tion of water. Both tanks have a lot of 
flora and coral for backgrounds, which 
make it look like the bottom of the sea. 

In one of the tanks are many large por- 
poises, lots of turtles and other fish which 
are not ferocious. 

On the bottom of the tank and along 
the sides are probably a hundred port- 
holes through which visitors may watch the 
fish. A diver goes down and feeds them. 
The porpoises are very playful and take 
fish from his hand. 

In the bottom of the other tank, swim- 
ming around the wrecked hull of a ship. 
are seven or eight man-eating sharks, two 
big baracuda and some morays, and many 
other varieties of fish, all of which are 
ferocious. The diver goes down to this 
tank also and entertains the spectators 
who look through the portholes. There 
probably are five hundred to a thousand 
visitors every day who pay a dollar and 
ten cents admission, and it is well worth 
the price. 



EASTMAN negative films — each in its 
special field — work in perfect agreement 
with director and cameraman to capture 
completely the beauty of every scene. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

J. E. BRULATOUR, INC., Distributors 
Fort Lee Chit-ago Hollywood 


for general studio use when little light is available 


for backgrounds and general exterior work 


International Photographer for March, 1941 21 


Some Notes on Color 

There are three nerve fibrils in the 
human eye: one of them is sensitive to red, 
the second to yellow, and the third to blue. 
All of the colors as we see them are made 
up of various combinations of these three 
basic colors: magenta, for example, excit- 
ing the red and the blue fibrils simultane- 
ously and giving rise to the sensation of 
the purplish hue as we know it: any varia- 
tion in the shade of magenta will cause a 
variation in the ratio of the excitation of 
these two fibrils and will cause a corres- 
ponding response. 

All color photography consists basically 
of breaking down the original scene into 
its components so that these components 
may be recorded photographically, and 
then combining them again for the final 
print. This process is known as color 
separation. All of the many methods of 
color photography have this process of 
color separation in common, though their 
methods may — and do — vary considerably. 

The earliest and simplest form of color 
photography was employed in still photog- 
raphy. Here a still life object was pho- 
tographed on three different negatives — 
one negative through a red filter, one 
through vellow, and one through blue. All 
three of the negatives so obtained were 
black and white. The final color print was 
obtained by making prints from these 
negatives on thin tissues which were pig- 
mented with a color determined bv the 
color of the filter used to expose that par- 
ticular negative, and by combining these 
three tissues. 

The exposure of three separate nega- 
tives at three different times precludes the 
possibility of taking moving objects, and 
for a time it was possible to photograph 
only still life objects. With the poising 
of the problem of obtaining color separ- 
ation negatives simultaneously, several dif- 
ferent methods presented themselves. The 
simplest of these is known as the bi-pack 
method. In this system two films are used 
— one of them ( the one towards the lens ) 
is a color blind material not sensitive to 
red and having a red backing, against 
which is placed a standard panchromatic 
emulsion which is highly sensitive to red. 
Color separation is obtained by recording 
the blue and yellow (or green) light on 
the firsl film, its blindness to red light 
creating the same effect as placing a green 
filter in front of this emulsion. The green 
light is then filtered out by the red back- 
in" on this film acting as a filter for the 
panchromatic emulsion behind it. This 
gives us what is known as a two-color pro- 
cess, because only two films are used in 
the color separation. 

A second process developed is the Tech- 
nicolor process. In this system three color 
separation negative are obtained. Two 

prisms are used, and their hypotenti ce- 
mented together so that their appearance 
resembles a cube. By means of a coating 
on the surfaces in contact we have a unit 
which acts as a partial transmitter and a 
partial refractor. In other words part of 
the light entering the prisms from the lens 
will go right on through while part of it 
will be reflected to one side. Having di- 
vided the light in this manner, it is pos- 
sible to place filters in any desired com- 
bination, utilizing the bi-pack principle of 
two films on one side and a single film on 
the other. Here, too, the printing process 
is one of pigmentation of the prints from 
black and white negatives. 

Unfortunately, these two basic prin- 
ciples are not adapted to amateur work. 
They are expensive, and their complicated 
nature would not make for the convenience 
and light weight that is of such consider- 
ation in amateur work. It was apparent, 
then, that an entirely different approach 
would have to be made to the problem, in 
order to secure direct color on a reversible 
film with no appurtenances. The old Koda- 
color process, which did make it possible 
to get direct color on reversible film, had 
the disadvantages of being very grainy, 
not being sharp, being very slow, and re- 
quiring special filters not only on the cam- 
era but on the projector as well — and the 
ultimate result was only mediocre color. 

Kodachrome, seems to have achieved the 
ideal. It is needle-sharp, capable of per- 
fect color rendition, needs no corrective 
filters if the properly balanced emulsion 
(either interior or exterior) is used for 
the condition at hand, needs nothing in the 
way of projector gadgets, is reasonably 
fast, and has no grain. 

While the exact prcesses involved in 
Kodachrome are a manufacturer's secret, 
the known facts should make it possible 
to present a working knowledge of the 

The sensitive emulsion on Kodachrome 
consists of three separate emulsions, ce- 
mented together by a very thin layer. 
Each one is sensitive to one of the primary 
colors, allowing for some overlap. Under- 
neath the coating adjacent to the lens is a 
thin coating constituting a yellow filter. 
It is in this manner that the actual separ- 
ation is achieved. When Kodachrome is 
developed, it is first treated in the usual 
manner of a reversible film — that is, it is 
first developed negative, then the reduced 
silver bleached off, the film exposed to 
light, and developed again to obtain the 
positive. Up to this point there is no color 
on the film. 

The black and white in the three-color- 
separation emulsions at this state corres- 
ponds to the negatives made by exposing 
three separate films through three filters. 

except, of course, that the image has al- 
ready been reversed in the Kodachrome 
and we have a positive. 

The color is obtained by the reaction of 
a "color developer" upon a "color coup- 
ler." We are all familiar with the sight 
of red rust on steel rails after a rain. 
When a copper penny is found in the mud 
it will have a greenish-blue color. Notice, 
too, the yellow flame after salted water has 
boiled over on the stove. All metals have 
a characteristic color, and when they are 
combined in a salt of the metal it becomes 
visible. The rain acting on the rail forms 
iron oxide; the water in the mud acting 
on the penny, copper oxide. The "table 
salt" in the boiling water is the salt of 
sodium known as sodium chloride; color 
is not visible until placed in a flame, when 
its characteristic color of yellow becomes 
visible. Now, in the examples of the steel 
rails and the copper penny we can call 
the rails and the penny "color couplers" 
and the rain and the mud "color develop- 
ers." In the case of the boiling water, the 
salt water will be the "color coupler" and 
the flame the "color developer." In Koda- 
chrome three different color couplers are 
used to treat the film after reversal, and 
these are acted upon by the color develop- 
ers to obtain the desired color. Actually, 
the process is considerably more intricate. 
First, all three layers of the film are treat- 
ed with one coupler and developer. A 
bleach is then used to remove the color 
from the two upper emulsions, but not on 
the one closest to the base. Another coupler 
is then used for these two layers, but not 
the third already colored, and this is acted 
upon by the color developer. The bleach 
is then used on the top layer, but is not 
permitted to act on the bottom two. A 
third color coupler is then used on the top 
layer, but not permitted to act on the two 
layers already colored. These color coup- 
lers are chemical compounds which, when 
acted upon by the color developer, will 
yield the color desired for that particular 
color-separation positive. The black and 
white positive permits more or less den- 
sity of the color to be evident, resulting 
in the gradations in the original scene. 

It is to be emphasized that the exact 
process is a secret of the manufacturer. 

By means of varying the correction of 
the yellow filter underneath the first layer, 
we can "correct" the film for the blue 
light of the outdoors or the yellow light of 

Because of patent complications, Koda- 
chrome has thus far been balanced only 
for photoflood light in cinema film. It 
has, however, been balanced for standard 
studio mazdas in the still films. 

New B&H 2000-foot Film Reel 

Completing the Bell & Howell line of 16mm. 
projection reels is the new, 2000-foot spring-steel 
reel recently introduced. The newest addition 
will permit an hour's continuous projection of 
sound film, an hour and a half of silent film. 
Trice $4.00. 


Eastman New Sound Kodascopes 
Most versatile of the new "F" series of Sound Kodascopes 
are the FB-25 and the FB-40. These, with their higher power 
output (25 and 40 watts), larger single or twin speakers, 
soundproofed "blimp" eases and sound-mixing facilities, 
are eminently suited for controlled sound projection of 
highest quality hefore large assemblies. 

Five New Sound Kodascopes 

Five superb new 16mm sound projectors, priced 
from $295 to $520, and covering the widest range 
of school, industrial, and home needs, are an- 
nounced by the Eastman Kodak Company, Roches- 
ter, New York. 

Similar to one another in exterior design, but 
differentiated in power output and other features, 
' these new Sound Kodascopes offer a complete 
line from which the lecturer, school authority, 
business man, sales organization, club or church 
group can select a model that precisely fits exist- 
ing projection requirements. For each projector, 
! a choice of six lenses is available, in focal lengths 
of 1 to 4 inches, to fit all the commonly-used 
( projection distances and screen sizes. 

Power output 10 watts up to 40 watts; special 
design for smooth film movement assures high 
sound quality; either variable area or variable 
density can be used on all models; some sup- 
plied with double speakers and sound mixing 

Detailed descriptive literature is available 
through Cine-Kodak and Kodascope dealers. 

New Low Prices on Two B&H Models 

The famous Bell & Howell, Filmo Master 8, 
all-gear drive, 8mm. projector has been reduced 
in price to $99.50 and Filmo Sportster 8mm. 
camera is now priced at $69.50. Bell & Howell 

states that neither quality nor features have been 
modified in any way. 

Bell & Howell Filmo Eight "400" 

The Filmo Eight "400", newest unit in the Bell 
& Howell 8mm. line, is just announced. Taking 
8mm. reels of up to 400-foot capacity, the new 
"400" will present a full half hour of 8mm. 
movies without the interruption of changing reels. 

The Filmo Eight "400" is priced at $112.50; 
400-foot reels and cans, 60c each. For further 
particulars, write to Bell & Howell Company, 
1801 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 

New Victor Camera 

A series of modifications have been worked 
out in the Victor 16mm. camera which I he manu- 
facturer states are of sufficient importance to 
warrant considering it as a new camera. 

The new unit, called the Aircraft model is 
said to turn in results of remarkable accuracy 
at all speeds over a range of temperature down 
to zero and even lower. In fact the speed tests 
were made in a cold storage warehouse at — 10° 
and the camera was left over night to simulate 
the toughest conditions likely to be encountered 
in practice. The speeds were tested with a neon 
type stroboscope and the settings of the instru- 
ment were not touched during the run at any 
(Continued on page 28) 


The magic transformation of little negatives into 
big beautiful enlargements is the everyday work 
of a Solar . . . the enlarger that does everything. 
It gives you every essential adjustment plus ex- 
clusive patented features for producing 'prize 
winning' enlargements from your most ordinary 
negatives. Your big thrill in photography will come 
when you make your first Solar enlargement. 


Available for interchange with the Solar lamp 
house is a camera back that converts the enlarger 
into a regular type view camera — ideal for por- 
traiture, copying, still life, table top work, etc. 
Eight Solar models cover negative sizes from 
35mm. to 5x7 inches. Prices start at $39.50. 


A comprehensive vol- 
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fusely illustrated. Written 
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Light Testers — Polishers used by all Major 
Studios. We are the sole Manufacturers 
and Distributors. 

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914 No. Fairfax HE 1984 

Hollywood, Calif. 

Cable Address: "CINEBARSAM" 

International Photographer for March, 1941 




Judge Joseph Marchetti and Catherine Sibley considering pictorial composition as 
appf.ied to television. The illustration being considered is from a recent issue of 
International Photographer. Judge Marchetti, it will be recalled, performed the first 
wedding ceremony to take place over television. For introduction to Miss Sibley of 
the University of California Extension Division read the story on this page. 

The New Frontier 

Among the younger artists who are one 
by one casting their lot with the future of 
Television, is Catharine Sibley, actress, 
writer, and former production associate of 
Max Reinhardt. 

"My belief in Television," says Miss 
Sibley, "is that it will become one of the 
greatest living social forces known. It will 
equalize opportunity in many fields par- 
ticularly in education. 

"I see it becoming the great distributor 
of the worlds goods both as far as mer- 
chandising is concerned, and making new 
and remunerative enterprises possible. A 
hint as to the new age of leisure arts in 
theater, dance, and design, which television 
might open up is to be seen in the wide- 
spread interest and profitable patronage of 
music that radio has brought about. 

"My fear for Television," continues 
\li^- Sibley, "is that during this difficult 
period of technical perfecting that lies 
immediately ahead, enough money and 
enough imagination will not be put back 
of program experimentation. As a conse- 
quence, before Television has had the 
chance to become the established favorite 
with the public thai it deserves along its 
own unique rails, it may have bored ils 
potential supporters into permanently 
snapping off the television knobs of their 


receiving sets, because of banally imitated 
radio programs or third rate motion pic- 
ture offerings with which it is providing 
the home screens in the meantime. 

"Tell the public of the great possibilities 
of Television and then show them vvhat to 
look for is one-half of the answer," in- 
sists Miss Sibley. "The other half of the 
answer is to be found in setting up a pro- 
gram experimentation unit that will de- 
velop production ideas for Television us- 
age, and this carries with it the additional 
responsibility of searching out the prin- 
ciples of a new technique — as Mr. Harry 
Lubcke puts it 'the to-be-developed tech- 
nique of Television'." 

To answer both these needs, Miss Sib- 
ley is organizing under the sponsorship of 
the University of California Extension Di- 
vision a course called Introduction to Tele- 
vision Production and Acting, and also 
an advanced group on program experi- 

Both courses will have their initial meet- 
ings the first week of March at the Uni- 
versity of California Extension Headquar- 
ters, 815 South Hill Street. Information 
may be secured by writing or calling there. 

The following is quoted from a recent 
radio broadcast by Miss Sibley: 

"Television is itself a new frontier to be 
explored, and television opens the way to many 

other yet unexplored frontiers. Any unfulfilled 
wish or desire that a person has is an implicit 
frontier for someone to develop a scientific in- 
vention, or a new production, or a new activity 
to fulfill that wish or need. Television itself, as 
a scientific invention, is a new frontier. 

It is perhaps in the same position today that 
the invention of the automobile was forty years 
ago. Forty years ago there were perhaps only a 
few thousand men employed in the automobile 
industry, whereas today, six million, by recent 
figures, were found to be employed in the auto- 
mobile manufacturing industry, and a million 
additional in the accompanying oil industry. 

"You see, there are two types of inventions. 
One type is a revolutionary idea like the tele- 
phone and the automobile, of which we have 
just spoken, and television itself. These inven- 
tions themselves create whole new industries, and 
bring about new widespread employment. The 
second kind of inventions merely improve exist- 
ing processes and products, and in some cases 
this last type causes deep unemployment. 

"Well, in this matter of unemployment, would 
television give unfavorable competition to mo- 
tion pictures? No, it would not. Because tele- 
vision is not just another motion picture. It is 
a medium of its own and will be developed 
along lines peculiar to its own medium. For 
instance, the outstanding characteristic that 
makes television is "immediacy." Immediacy is 
a word that best describes that feeling of suspense 
and fascination that one has when looking into 
a television screen and knowing that what one 
is looking at is actually taking place right at 
that very moment in some part of the world — 
whether it be in the television studios, in the 
down-town area, or a horse race, or an inaugura- 
tion of a president. 

"The essence of television might really be de- 
fined as — Sight, plus Sound, plus Immediacy. 
The motion picture, on the other hand, has only 
sight and sound, but lacks the romance of im- 
mediacy. Television, on the other hand, is a 
great consumer of motion picture film, and 
therefore a potential customer of motion pic- 
tures. Television will never have the high-power 
glamour appeal of motion pictures, because tele- 
vision will never be able to afford the tremendous 
sums of money that go into the making of a 
first-class motion picture. Television is being 
developed for home use by the family fireside. 
This is in itself a strength and a good quality, 
but it will never satisfy the social urge of people 
to gather together in large groups. That group- 
satisfaction that comes when one attends a 
packed house at the theater, or at the local mo- 
tion picture. , 

"In the all-important matter of defense, it is 
very possible that television will be the 1943 
medium of military communication. It is a 
mechanized warfare. The African tribes used 
their war drums to gather their tribes for battle 
— the American Indians sent their smoke-fire 
warnings. In 1914 — to jump to recent times — 
it was the telegraph and the crude mud wireless 
that kept the advance forces in constant contact 
with army headquarers. Now in his age of air- 
warfare and mechanized units, we find experi- 
ments successfully carried on transmitting air- 
plane views to the officer in command below. 

"The second new frontier, democracy, the basis 
on which our American system is built, would 
be considerably furthered if one could return 
to the democratic old (lays of the American town 

hall, where each citizen looked full into the face 
of his town councilor, and discussed the matters 
that concerned them both. That was, of course, 
a literal government of the people. 150 years 
later, the coming of the television age promises 
again that rare opportunity of meeting with one's 
governmental leaders, and, face to face, think- 
ing through matters of importance. 

"When one speaks of the third new frontier 
distribution, one immediately thinks of the com- 
pelling job radio does in mass merchandising. 
Television will doubtless have its part in ac- 
celerating sales of certain products. I can even 
see the housewife of a morning, sitting before 
her television screen and viewing the bargains 
of the day on the second floor, we will say, of a 
downtown department store. 

But I prefer to pass on to another phase of 
television distribution. It would seem that tele- 
vision offers one of the best means for spreading 
of education. 

"The arts will doubtless receive a tremendous 
stimulus from television presentation. Recall, for 
a moment, the increased interest in music created 
by the radio. Music publishers, instrument man- 
ufacturers, teachers of music have all benefitted 
enormously, and there is a widespread participa- 
tion in music never before known. Carry this 
analogy into the art of the dance, the theater, 
and the graphic arts. A new age in the practice 
of leisure arts and recreation dawns. 

"There is a fourth new frontier which has been 
touched on only implicitly in this past discussion, 
and that is the frontier of personal development. 
The television age will not be something wherein 
we can all sit statically by. It will demand of 
all of us a development of a personal style, in 
order that we should be able to step up and take 
our parts in the television scene. Perhaps we will 
be merchandising for Kellogg's Corn Flakes, or 
giving a course over television in banking, or 
fashions, or how to cook. It may be that we want 
only to present intelligently our club's project 
of preserving the redwoods, or building of public 
opinion to take signs off the highway, or to raise 
a milk fund for under-privileged children next 
door. In this age of "saying it with pictures" 
we will be called upon to develop, as did the 
educated man and woman of a past age a pleas- 
ant literary style, and as the radio age demanded 
a clear agreeable voice, so the television age 
will expect, as a matter-of-course, an easy, mag- 
netic personal expression. Yes, television and 
new frontiers are synonymous." 


By Cessi Weaver, Make-Up Artist 
Television Station W6XAO 

Contrary to popular opinions, television 
make-up no longer produces a gruesome 
effect. In the earlier experiments the faces 
did look like a Dalian conception of a 
Martian — blue and green crescents were 
interspersed with splotches of red. Gradu- 
ally the make-up artists have changed the 
procedure as they discovered that, as in 
the regular moving-picture and stage make- 
ups, panchromatic colors are best. 

Because of the intense heat from the 
lights in the studio it is not possible to 
use regular grease paint base. Max Fac- 
tor's has produced a pancake base that is 
applied with a sponge and water as this 
does not smear when the actors perspire. 
Black pencil is used for outlining the eyes 
and blue-gray eye-shadow is preferable. 
The lipstick is a deep reddish-purple, al- 
most black. Because television make-up is 
still in an experimental stage, the colors 
used in the application of highlights and 




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shadows for character parts have not yet 
been definitely decided upon. Pancro lin- 
ing for the shadows and yellow for the 
highlights, when well blended, have thus 
far given the best effect. 

Because of the extensive use of close-up 
shots, one of the secrets to a successful 
make-up i s to be found in the word 
"smooth." A smooth application of the 
base, a smooth blending of highlights and 
shadows, and a smooth finish of powder 
will bring the artist closest to his desired 

One of the most difficult tasks of the 
television make-up artists is in the quick- 
change applications. Probably a record 
was set recently when a young lady aged 
twenty-five years in one minute and twen- 
ty-five seconds. The actress stood just out 
of camera range while Father Time was 
hastened by the help of the artist. 


Cooke lenses will give you crisp, 
extremely sharp definition 
throughout the entire spectrum. 
Envisioning future demands, 
Cooke lenses have always sur- 
passed current requirements. 
Focal lengths for every need. 
Write for descriptive literature. 



Exclusive World Distributors of 
Taylor-Hobson Cooke Cine' Lenses 
1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago 
New York: :iu Rockefeller Plaza 
Hollywood: 716 N. LaBrea Ave. 
London: 13-14 Great Castle St. 

International Photographer for March, 1941 




Patent Attorney, Los Angeles 

No. 2,227,848— Liquid Distributing De- 
vice. Lester Soman, New York, assignor 
to Film Treatizor Corp., N. Y. Org. 
Appln. Apr. 11, 1935. Divided and this 
appln. Oct. 20, 1937. 6 Claims. 

A device for applying a liquid to a film 

after it has left the magazine and before 

it has entered the projector lead, with a 

temperature control for controlling the 

flow of liquid. 

No. 2,227,987 — Automatic Projection 
Printer. Clifton M. Tuttle and William 
Bornemann, assignors to Eastman Ko- 
dak Co. Appln. July 26, 1938. 30 Claims. 

Corp. Appln. Feb. 1, 1938. 4 Claims. 
A continuous film printer in which the 
passage of a negative splice between a pair 
of resiliently mounted rollers operates a 
shutter to change the amount of light 
passing through the sound printer slit. 
No. 2,228,643 — Method of Producing 

Cinematograph Films. Lewis Charles 

Rudkin, Streatham, London, England. 

Appln. Jan. 23, 1939. In Great Britain 

Jan. 27, 1938. 5 Claims. 
A method of printing two different sound 
records on a single track by varying the 
angle which the printing light makes with 

A projection printer in which tire density one of the films, and printing a second 
of the negative controls the intensity of record near the first record. 

the printing light, printing being done on 

an intermittent basis. 

No. 2,228,247— Steering Control Mech- 
anism. Harry G. Cunningham, assignor 
to Radio Keith Orpheum Corp. Orig. 
appln. July 20, 1937. Divided and this 
appln. June 24, 1938. 14 Claims. 

No. 2,229,137 — Production of Color 
Photographs. Wilhelm Schneider, Ger- 
many, assignor to General Aniline & 
Film Corp. Appln. June 17, 1937. In 
Germany June 26, 1936. 3 Claims. 
A method of producing color films in 
which a color forming dyestuff which is 

A camera dolly truck having a steering soluble in aqueous liquids but is incapable 

mechanism for simultaneously positioning 
all of its wheels in parallel planes, and 
means for releasing only one of two par- 
allel wheels from the steering means. 
No. 2,228,479— Color Photography Ap- 
paratus. Frederick T. O'Grady. Flush- 
ing, N. Y. Appln. June 14, 1939. 14 
A rotary camera shutter carrying a pair 
of complementary color filters, with means 
to vary the amount of the exposure aper- 
ture each filter will cover. 

per se of diffusing with respect to the bind- 
ing layer between the several emulsions, 
is incorporated in each emulsion layer, the 
film being exposed, reversed, and color 
images then formed. 

No. 2,229,157 — View Finder Control. 
Lloyed E. Whittaker, assignor to Tech- 
nicolor Motion Picture Corp. Appln. 
Jan. 12, 1938. 6 Claims. 
A device for adjusting an optical system 
mounted on a camera within a sound ab- 
sorbing housing, the adjusting device ex- 

No. 2,228,541 - - Means For Producing tending through the housing and transmit- 

Noiseless Film Splices. Ralph Hunt ting a minimum of sound from the hous- 

Toivnsend and Robert Colby Stevens, as- ing to the camera, 

signors to Twentieth Centurv-Fox Film No. 2,229,678 — Apparatus for Producing 

Landers Camera Rentals 


Blimps, Dollies, all Accessories 





Near Vine Street 


Composite Photographs. Otto John 
Lauro Seaman, Bayside, N. Y. Appln 
Dec. 23, 1937. 6 Claims. 
A camera for producing composite photo- 
graphs and having an objective lens, a first 
film located in the focal plane of the ob- 
jective, a copying lens behind the first 
film, a beam splitter behind the copying 
lens, with second and third films receiving 
reflected and transmitted light from the 
beam splitter. 

No. 2,229,861 — Electrical Circuit De- 
vice. Joseph H. McNabb, assignor to 
The Bell & Howell Co., Chicago, 111. 
Appln. Oct. 28, 1938. 2 Claims. 
An electrically operated camera having a 
carrying case in which a source of electri- 
cal energy is carried, with a flexible elec- 
trical connection leading from the energy 
source to the camera. 

Clipper Plane Built At Studio 

Warner Bros, technicians have dupli- 
cated in all respects except motors and 
interior finish a Boeing 314 trans-Atlantic 
clipper to match studio shots with scenes 
filmed at Lisbon and La Guardia Field for 
"Affectionately Yours." 

The studio-made clipper is identical in 
measurements with those now in service. 
It is the first permanent clipper set built 
at any studio. Merle Oberon, Dennis Mor- 
gan and Rita Hayworth ride the clipper in 
"Affectionately Yours." 

Another Awartl For Bette 

Bette Davis will receive her 24th acting 
award of the past twelve months when 
Cinelandia, leading fan magazine of the 
Latin-American countries, presents her with 
its first Pan-American trophy for the best 
screen performance of the year. The honor 
is based on her work in Warner Bros.' 
"The Letter." 









1600 Broadway New York City 

Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable : CINEQUIP 



1600 Broadway New York City 

Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable: CINEQUIP 

FOR SALE; Combination 16 mm. and 35 mm. optical 
printer very reasonable. Will accept Bell & Howell 
35 mm. camera in exchange. Address Box BD 25, 
International Photographer, Hollywood. 

FOR SALE: Like new. H.C.E. "Hollywood" Com- 
bination 35 mm. and 16 mm. automatic one-man 
developing machine. Operating capacity 3000 feet of 
positive or 1500 feet of negative per hour. Price 
CHANGE, 1600 N. Cahuenga Blvd. 

MITCHELL NC 112. LIKE NEW. Up to the min- 
ute. B. B. RAY, 300 W. Durante Road, Arcadia, 

— COMPLETE $1750.00 

1601) Broadway, New York City 


Bob Hurd walked up and kissed his Camera 

HERE'S ME," chortled Hurd, 'working fast in 
failing light . . . and you should've seen the 
results . . . 

. . . shadow details so sweet, I almost shed a tear. And 
a scale of tones as long as your arm. 

"So I skip out of the projection room and plant a big 
smack on Old Betsy. Right on her nose. And then I 
think about it, and I think that maybe all the credit 
shouldn't go to Old Betsy." 

"Maybe a lot of it should go to the film: Agfa Ultra- 

Many Hollywood photographers have found that 
Ultra-Speed Pan is the fastest film obtainable. They 
use it because it provides its extreme sensitivity with- 
out serious loss of other desirable characteristics. 

For normal production, Agfa Supreme also offers 
supersensitive speed with fine grain, and an improved 
color balance and gradation. 

If you have not worked with either of these great films 
— you're due for a pleasant surprise. Try them soon! 
Agfa Ansco Products. Made in Binghamton, New 
York, U. S. A. 



6424 Santa Monica Blvd., Tel. Hollywood 2918 


245 West 55th Street. Tel. Circle 7-4635 


International Photographer for March, 1941 


They sAy*" 

• Lee Garmes is the proud father of baby 
girl No. 2, Carol Lee, born Christmas 

• Ray Jones, Universal, who rates Class 
A amongst still cameramen, is considered 
one of the most efficient men in the studio 
business because of the fine manner in 
which he runs Universal's still department. 

• The valley studios. Universal, Warner 
Bros, and Republic, were going at top 
speed, while across the pass the studios 
had the men between promises. 

• Allen Davev and Eddie Snyder, first 
cameramen, and Rube Boyce and Nelson 
Cordes, assistants, off to Miami shooting 
scenes for 20th Century Fox on a picture 
of the same name. 

• Joe Kealy, so well remembered as a 
member of Local 659, and now of Local 
728, is recovering from a serious ailment 
at the Veterans' Hospital, Sawtelle. 

• On to Sun Valley for 20th Century Fox 
we find J. O. Taylor and Eddie Cronjager, 
first cameramen; Joe MacDonald and Bill 
Abbott, second cameramen; Paul Mohn 
and Henry Cronjager, assistants and still- 
man Anthony Ugrin. 

• George A. Yager, field examiner for the 
N.L.R.B., Los Angeles, is a member of 
Local 250, IATSE. 

• Roy Ivev. Bill Heckler, Jimmie Higgins 
and Curly Linden are married to members 
of Local 705, IATSE. 

• Scotty Welbourne, Skippy Sanford, 
Jos. Knott and Hal Mohr married to mem- 
bers of the Screen Actors' Guild. 

• Mel Stamper, formerly in the camera 
department at Paramount is now super- 
visor in the contact department of the re- 
search laboratory at Lockheed Aircraft. 

• Sam Landers of Landers Camera Rent- 
als knows a lot of secrets about how pic- 
tures were made in D. W. Griffith's time. 
He promises to talk some day. 

• Russell Harlan who photographs the 
"Hop-A-Long Cassidy" pictures once had 
an opportunity to be a Western star. To- 
day he does more shooting than all the 
Western stars. 

• Eric Mayell of Fox Movietone News is 
back after two and a half years spent in 
the Orient, where he saw war. pestilence 
and revolution — and little regard for 

• Norman Alley writes from Rio de Ja- 
neiro that it is the closest thing to Holly- 

• Paul Ivano off to Buenos Aires as first 
cameraman for one of the largest South 
American producing companies. Paul has 
agreed to act as South American corres- 
pondent for International Photographer. 

• Our deepest sympathy to Les Rowley 
in the loss of his dear wife; Joe New, his 
beloved daughter and William Cooper 
Smith, his dear brother. 


• Jack Greenhalgh who owns a Luscombe 
P-50 monoplane is interested in forming 
a Local 659 Flying Club. He suggests that 
those interested in flying communicate 
with him or obtain information at the 
office of the local. 

• Congratulations to Harvey Gould upon 
formation of partnership known as Mr. 
and Mrs. Harvey Gould. 

• John R. Olsen, Salt Lake City, in town 
with the Missus looking over Hollywood 
and the motion picture studios. 

• Roy Hunt and Russ Cully off to Fort 
Benning, Ga., where they will be joined by 
other members of Local 659 and members 
of Local 666, Chicago. 

• Everett G. Burkhalter, assemblyman 
from the 42nd Assembly District, is a 
member of Local 728, IATSE. 

• Buddy Weiler passing cigars on the ar- 
rival of a baby girl, making the count one 
and one in his family. 

• John C. Leeds, Jr. about to be called to 
service by the United States Army Corps. 
John's dad is an assistant cameraman now 
doing special work in connection with the 
defense program. 

• Esselle Parichy sends greetings from 
Miami to his many cameramen friends 
on the West Coast. He will be remembered 
as a member and contributing editor of the 


(Continued from page 23) 
speed. Even at the end of the winding I he speed 
was still so close as to cause only a very slow 
"creep" under the stroboscope. This is so ac- 
curate that time intervals for most scientific pur- 
poses can be obtained merely by counting frames, 
without the necessity for supplementary timing 
devices. The value of this for all research work 
is apparent but the new camera will be found 
very useful for sport pictures such as analyzing 
one's golf stroke. 

24 Speed Added to Two B&H Cameras 

Bell & Howell announces the addition of a fifth 
speed to the Filmo Auto Master (Turret Head), 
and the Auto Load Speedster, B&H 16mm. maga- 
zine loading cameras. This new speed gives these 
B&H cameras a speed range of from 16 to 64 
frames per second. There are now five speeds — 
the normal 16-speed, for general use; 24-speed, 
for sound to be added later, etc.; 32-speed, for 
shooting from moving vehicles and for fast action 
shots; 48-speed. for semi-slow motion; and 64- 
speed. for beautiful, analytical slow motion study. 

B&H New Quick Shift Attachment 

Said to permit the owner to approximate many 
professional Hollywood trick shots, the new 
Ouiek Shift Zoom Attachment, now available for 
the Filmo Turret 8, makes possible a ([nick shift 
from one lens to another — ideal for changes from 
long range shots to close-ups — without slopping 
or moving the camera. This new Ouiek Shift 
Zoom Attachment is priced at $13.50 when or- 
dered as original equipment. Installed on the 
owner's camera now in the field, the price is 
$16.50. The attachment must be installed at the 
Bell & Howell factory in Chicago. 

New Eastman Suede Finish Paper 

• Two new grades of Kodabromide and Koda- 
lure paper, with an interesting new suede matte 
surface, and a choice of two base tints, are an- 
nounced by the Eastman Kodak Company, Koch- 

The new paper surface combines an absolutely 
matte finish with an extremely smooth surface 

A further virtue is the richness of the blacks 
these papers yield. The suede paper is so com- 
pletely matte that no specular reflection can be 
obtained at any angle of illumination, and this 
characteristic lends a strength and "punchiness" 
to the deepest tones that will be particularly 
prized in exhibition prints. 

The new Kodabromide listings are: Grade V, 
suede, matte, cream white; and Grade W, suede, 
matte, old ivory. Both are double-weight, and 
available in contrasts No. 1, 2, and 3. 

Kodalure listings are the same, in grade, finish, 
tint, and weight; but only the one contrast (nor- 
mal ) is available. Prices for the new papers are 
the same as for other Kodabromide and Kodalure 
surfaces in equivalent sizes and weights. 

Agfa Anseo Sound Recording Film 

A new high resolving sound recording 16mm. 
film has been introduced by Agfa Ansco which 
should go far to advance the standards for high 
quality sound reproduction in 16mm. motion pic- 
ture work. 

The principle of obtaining a surface image is 
similar to that employed in 35mm. motion-picture 
sound recording where "ultra-violet" recording 
has been adopted to obtain highest quality sound 
reproduction. Although well suited for 35mm. 
work, ultra-violet recording technique has not 
been so successful when applied to 16mm. equip- 
ment because of light-limiting factors imposed 
by the ultraviolet filter, smaller optical systems 
and light valves. Accordingly, the common "posi- 
tive" type emulsion has been in general use for 
16mm. sound recording. 

Made in Binghamton, New York by Agfa 
Ansco, the new Agfa 16mm. High-Resolving 
Sound Recording Film is obtainable through 
usual sources of supply in standard lengths. It 
may be handled under usual positive safelights 
and can be developed in any clean-working de- 
veloper producing good contrast, such as Agfa 
20 Positive Developer. 

Orson Welles to Produce 
"Native Son" 

Orson Welles and John Houseman to- 
day announced the stage production of 
"Native Son," from the best selling novel 
by Richard Wright under the auspices of 
the Mercury Theatre. 

Marking the renewal of stage activity 
for Welles, "Native Son" will be billed on 
Broadway as "A Mercury Production by 
Orson Welles," the same billing carried 
in his first RKO Radio motion picture. 
"Citizen Kane." 

Welles. went to New York recently to 
discuss the opening of "Citizen Kane ' 
and plans for his next production with 
RKO heads. While there, he completed 
the script for his second RKO film, which 
will be shot largely in Mexico and is as yet 
untitled. With an April 1 starting date 
for the new picture, Welles obtained per- 
mission from George Schaefer. RKO presi- 
dent, to direct "Native Son," which was 
dramatized by Paul Green. Canada bee, 
critically acclaimed in Welles" Federal 
Theater production of "Macbeth" with an 
All-Negro cast, has been signed for the 
"Native Son" lead, Welles announced. 



For Best Photography 

As determined by 
The Preview Poll — 

Bert Glennon 

Director of Photography 

William V. Skall 

Technicolor Director of Photography 

Guy Roe 

Operative Cameraman 

Paul Hill 

Technicolor Technician 

Paul Uhl 

Assistant Cameraman 

Technicolor Production 



Negative-Sound Track-Positive 


April, 1941 








Academy Award Winner for best sound recording in 1940 


Fine grain recording film used 
for original recording and 
re-recording prints. 

original recordings and re-recording prints 
have been made on DUPONT fine 
grain films since late 1939. 

Congratulations to Metro-Qoldivyn-Mayer 

m PONt 



Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corporation, Incorporated 

9 Rockefeller Plaza Smith & Aller, Ltd. 

New York . . . N. Y. 6656 Santa Monica Blvd. 

Plant . . Parlin, N. J. Hollywood . . . California 


Vol. XIII 

April, 1941 

No. 3 


World Through the Camera. Shackelford — Pages 3, 4, 5, 10 

Across the Bar, Sinkey — Page 7 

It's Coming!, McGregor — Page 9 

Studios' Still Photography Show — Page 12 

Mood Created by Filters. Greenhalgh — Page 12 


Gobi Desert, Shackelford — Page 6 
Tropical Isles, Shackelford — Pages 14, 15 


They Say, Retla — Page 18 
16 mm Department — Page 20 
Patents, Fulwider — Page 21 
Tradewinds — Page 22 
Television, Evans — Pages 24. 25 

Editor, Herbert Allek 

Business Manager, Helen Boyce. Art Editor, John Corydon Hill. 
Contributing Editors: D. K. Allison, George Hurrell, J. N. A. Hawkins, Roman 

Freulich, Ernest Bachrach, Alvin Wyckoff, William V. Draper, Fred Gately, 

George Scheibe. 
Copyright, 1941, by Local 659, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 

and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada. 

Entered as Second Class matter, Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

International Photographer, as the monthly official publication of International Pho 
tographers, Local 659, of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, not only 
represents the entire personnel of photographers engaged in professional produc- 
tion of motion pictures in the United States and Canada, but also serves technicians 
in the studios and theatres, who are members of the International Alliance, as well 
as executives and creative artists of the production community and executives and 
engineers of the manufacturing organizations serving the motion picture industry. 
International Photographer assumes no responsibility for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts or material. 

Subscription Rates: U.S.A., $2.50; Canada- Foreign, $3.00 per year. Single Copy, 25 cents. 
Australian Representative: McGill's News Agency, Melbourne. 

Office of Publication: 6461 Sunset Blvd. (Los Angeles P. O.), Hollywood, California 

Telephone: Hillside 9189 
Publication Date: 5th of Each Month 


Reading down: Off coast of New Zealand, 
shooting Warner Bros, color film, '"Sword- 
fishing"; making Kodachrome stills of the 
Keeper of the Sacred Forest in Bali and 
some of its inhabitants, a monk and her 
babe; photographing a "Tashmanian Devil" 
while two assistants with clubs and guns 
stand by; set-up in plane to film dropping 
of supplies to party of explorers on Shiva 
Temple expedition in Grand Canyon. While 
banking a turn over the temple the plane 
hit an air pocket and went into a thousand- 
foot side slip. Forward momentum carried 
Shackelford and his party to safety over the 
edge after just grazing the tree tops. 

See story on page 3 

International Photographer for April, 1941 

iwjm: study 

By William Mortensen 

the would through the camera 


• During 1935-36 Shackelford was on a twelve- 
months' world cruise with Tay Garnett. The 
backgrounds he shot during that trip now are 
being used by Garnett in "World Cruise," being 
produced at Universal Studios. Shackelford built 
a complete film lab on the boat in a space of 
only seven by seven by eight feet. The high 
humidity, sometimes ninety-five per cent, made 
drying of negatives and other details of process- 
ing very difficult. 

All climates were encountered on that trip, 
from freezing in Japan to the extreme humidity 
of the tropics and the burning dryness of the Sa- 
hara. Sixty-five thousand feet of film were shot 
and Shackelford said the report from the lab 
was one hundred per cent. 

He has some forty-odd camera lenses, some of 
them specially made and one that can be used 
for shooting directly into the sun. 

While in Egypt he picked up some specimens 
of flint that were identified as being used by a 
prehistoric race 50,000 years ago. These are now 
on display in the Museum of Natural History in 
New York. 

After visiting all of the so-called paradise 
spots: Fiji Islands. Bali. Hawaii and others, he 
says the place he likes best is San Fernando 
Valley, especially North Hollywood, where he 
has his home. (Chamber of Commerce, please 
note.) Shackelford says the average person has 
visions of the world's famous beauty spots as 
being ideal, but they have their bad points, too. 
For instance, while in Fiji it rained twenty-four 
hours a day for six weeks, without a let-up. 
Clothes and bedding became saturated from the 
moisture in the air and refused to dry during that 
period. "Glamour isles have about ninety per cent 
of their glamour in books," says Shackelford, and 
he ought to know. 

On his South Sea cruise with George Dromgold. 
author of "Two Lugs on a Lugger," and illus- 
trated by Shackelford, part of the time they had 
a cannibal crew of nine. When asked if he felt 
any fear he replied that he felt safer in all his 
contacts with savages, stormy seas and wild beasts 
than on the streets of Hollywood. 

He has in mind other adventures, mentioned in 
his story below, but expects to remain around 
the film capital during the summer. He is one of 
the early members of Local 659 and reports that 
the work of its members is known all over the 
world. A card is a good introduction even in New 
Zealand and on the Sahara. — (Editorial Note.) 

My experience in this motion picture game 
dates back more than thirty years, just how 
much more I'd hate to say. Anyhow, I 
, can remember one of my first jobs was 
assistant cameraman with the old St. Louis 
Motion Picture Company, who were on 
location in southwestern Oklahoma making 
a picture called "The Renegade," or "Cus- 
ter's Last Fight," one of those double title 
affairs. The technique was very crude 

Getting a close-up of the Sphinx with a 
real Sheik for an assistant; in New Guinea, 
where 125 canoes and 1,200 natives were 
used for picture sequence with close-ups and 
long shots with Mitchell and Akeley cam- 
eras; on location in New Guinea at the edge 
of a coral reef, eight miles off shore. Fifty 
feet to the right the shoals drop off to 700 
fathoms. On the bottom platform is Me] 
Ward, of Sydney, Australia, who had charge 
of the scientific side of the expedition. Mel 
is an expert swimmer and diver and here 
was standing by for an emergency. 



International Photographer for April, 1941 

"Dawn over Kali" on a path through a rice paddy; sonic of the native kids used 
village shots in INew Guinea; New Guinea canoes. Pari of the Heel of 125 used 
a South Sea picture. 

compared to our present day methods. En- 
tire sequences were shot from a single 
camera setup and without a lens change. 
The camera was an unwieldy box affair 
about three feet square mounted on a four- 
legged platform with two-by-fours for legs. 
Levelling was accomplished by the use of 
wedge shaped sticks. 

My first follow or pan shot was made 
by putting bed castors on the bottom of the 
camera. The castor wheels were guided in 
a circular track made of two willow sap- 
lings tacked to the three-foot-square tripod 
top. A two-by-four was nailed to the side 
of the camera for a pan handle. I believe 
I was one of the first cameramen to make 
a successful pan shot and the first to 
popularize the pan or trucking shots now 
so common in every present day picture. 
I know I was the first photographer to use 
an Akeley camera in either newsreel or 
photoplay production. 

It was over twenty years ago that I made 
the startling follow shots of the auto races 
at the old Sheepshead Bay track on Long 
Island, the first Akeley shots to be used 
in a news reel and about the same time I 
used the Akeley on a picture called "Ann 
of the Green Gables," with Mary Miles 
Minter, and directed by William Desmond 

The whole Akeley idea was so radically 
different from the photographic methods 
used at that time that the skeptics sadly 
shook their hands and remarked: "It is just 
a passing novelty." But nevertheless, out 
of its introduction evolved the slip head 
tripod, without which a picture today just 
couldn't be made. 

Speaking of cameras, among the many I 
have used are the Moy, Pathe, Schustig, 
Ereneman, Universal, DeBrie, Sept, Russell, 
Eyemo, Gaumont, Neuman-Sinclair, Bell & 
Howell, Mitchell and a couple of my own 
make. The Bell & Howell and Mitchell are 
now the world standard and are used by 
all good cameramen everywhere. In my 
wanderings, I have found them in some 
really out of the way spots. 

People often ask me if I don't get tired 
of these treks; if this roaming around 
doesn't get monotonous at times. No, not 
when one is afflicted with an insatiable 
curiosity to know what's just around the 
corner; what is on the other side of the 
mountain; what is over there in the forest; 
what is up, or down, that street or how far 
one can see from the next hill, and, too, 
the exciting things that happen every once 
in a while keep a person alert as to what 
may occur next. And of course there is 
that yen to record everything in a motion 
picture camera. 

Would you be bored if caught in China's 
"No Man's Land," between two opposing 
armies, both popping at you with auto- 
matic rifles? That I escaped with a whole 
skin was due to their atrocious marksman- 

One time after making camp on a small 
atoll in the Fiji Islands we found that the 
coral cliffs under which we camped were 

alive with poisonous sea snakes that came 
pouring out by the hundreds at high tide. 
I Yes, we moved. ) 

Again, we were caught in a hundred mile 
hurricane that swept the Black Hole off 
Japan and forced our boat to heave to for 
twenty-four hours. 

Hooking and landing a 450-pound 
i swordfish off the north coast of New Zea- 
land kept me too busy to be bored. 

Being nearly swamped in a mountainous 
' surf off the coast of Ceylon may have 
dampened my enthusiasm for a while. We 
'were attempting to enter a river in a small 
boat over a treacherous sandbar and es- 
caped only by the rarest chance after being 
' badly battered about for hours and finally 
'beating it out to sea again. 

I was in Spain at the start of the last 
| revolution and witnessed a mass funeral in 
i Malaga of some of the first rebels knocked 
! off. When our pearling lugger struck a 
I coral reef in a blow off New Guinea, rip- 
ping off the copper bottom and nearly cap- 
sizing. I was aboard. 

Two typhoons occured in the Yellow Sea 
while en route from Nagasaki, Japan, to 
Peking, China. One lasted three days and 
the little Jap boat I was on hove to the 
'entire time. 

On one of the four expeditions to the 
Gobi Desert we discovered the bones of 
the ninety million year old dinosaur, as 
well as those of the largest land mammal 
that ever lived. 

Being charged by a deadly King Cobra 
while filming a picture of a Hindu snake 
charmer in Singapore made me wish for 
a few minutes that I knew something about 
the "charmer's" art. 

Unknown to the Secret Service, I was 
^concealed in the bushes of the White House 
grounds and got pictures of President Wil- 
Json during secret experiments during the 
early stages of ground to plane radio con- 

I have participated in a midnight burial 
at sea in mid Pacific; dug up the bones of 
one of Genghis Khan's warriors in Mon- 
golia and now have them in my garage; 
had myself and camera gently ejected from 
sacred grounds while trying to film a Mo- 
hammedan ceremony in India; tried a bath 
in the famous beach at Bali, but was dis- 
couraged by sharks; was caught in a sand- 
storm outside Aden, Arabia, that just about 
put the finishing touches to my camera 
equipment; felt the guilt of a small bov 
when I dropped a rock from the Leaning 
Tower of Pisa in Italy, to see how much 
it did lean, and nearly beaned a gendarme. 

In Australia two of my assistants saved 
me from attack by a giant kangaroo and 
they held him off while I filmed a herd 
of two hundred of them. 

In Marseilles, France, I got mixed up 
in a taxi strike and was kept busy dodging 
rocks and clubs, but by dodging up alleys 
(Continued on Page 10) 

A Balinese dancing beauty; one of the temp'e dancers 
being "made-up." Everything is changed from ihe skin 
out for this special ceremony. 

International Photographer for April. 1941 

On one of Shackelford's trips to Mongolia they had a caravan of 130 camels. This upper scene is at 
the base of the Flaming Cliffs of Shahrak Usu, where was discovered the remains of the Dune Dwellers 
and dinosaur many millions of years old. And by the way, this spot is only a thousand miles from a 
railroad. Itelow are the sand dunes on an 8, 000-fool plateau in the Gobi Desert with Roy Chapman 
Andrews and his camel leader. Taken on one of Shackelford's four trips to Central Asia. 

Across tUe Bar 


A surly wind is whipping the mouth of the 
Columbia River into white-topped furrows. 
It is mid-January, and the sunshine has a 
vague, insincere aspect, as though it could 
hardly wait to duck behind an ominous 
bank of clouds rolling in from the north- 

At Point Adams, the U. S. Coast Guard 
station, storm warnings beat muffled tattoos 
on the gusts of a rising gale; the blue-uni- 
formed men go about their business with 
an air of expectancy. 

For this is a "Second Tuesday," and ev- 
ery other Tuesday, come rain or shine, the 
Coast Guard boys load up their small, 
efficient life-boat, the Triumph, and journey 
forth eighteen miles at sea. There, oppo- 
site the rugged Oregon shoreline, they ap- 
proach Tillamook Rock. 

Nine times out of ten the Triumph rides 
into heaving swells that break and eddy 
about the towering rock, like a dizzying 
maelstrom. Never does the boat make ac- 
tual contact with any part of this formid- 
able outpost, for there is nothing but sheer, 
stone-grey walls and the sea rushing in, 
only to surge out again, as though intent 
upon keeping this spot apart from all of 
the rest of the world. 

And yet, man has already won, over the 
sea, for a great light revolves, one hundred 
and sixty feet up, atop this menacing but 
natural foundation. Six men spend shifts 
of lonely days and nights on Tillamook 
Rock, keeping the light burning, guiding 
ships that pass; and every sea-faring man 
knows that were it not for these men, his 
craft might be added to others that have 
been dashed upon treacherous shoals in 
this graveyard of ships. 

When the Triumph edges in on the 
swells, a swinging boom reaches out to grab 
supplies. Men who are landed or taken 
from the rock ride a breeches buoy, swung 
from this same boom. Occasionally the 
sea is too rough to make even this contact, 
but the Coast Guard boys always try! 

Today when the Triumph goes out across 
the bar, Movietone News' camera equip- 
ment will be tucked in with the mail and 
supplies. We've been waiting for just such 
a glowering day to make the trip. 

The commanding officer takes a last look 
at the barometer and signals us aboard. 
We button up our waterproof jackets, store 
the cameras solidly into a protected corner, 
and assume a nonchalant air as the small 
boat noses out of its mooring. 

A powerful surge of motors drones 
above the wind. Commander McCormick 
takes a wide stance behind the wheel. "The 
best boat in the whole service!" he savs 

Upper picture, at Tillamook Rock the men and supplies are taken to and fro by 

breeches buoy. Lower, every second Tuesday the Triumph edges in on the swells, 

to send supplies up on the swinging boom. 

International Photographer for April, 1941 

proudly. "She can stand a rougher gale 
than any other craft in these parts. 

"Remember that night when the Iowa 
went down — and every man on board was 
lost? Well, we were there, combing through 
the waves. Sometimes she was darn near 
standing on her beams, but the Triumph 
weathered the gale!" 

I take appreciative mental note of our 
motorized life-boat. She is some sixty-five 
feet long, with an all-metal hull. There is 
two-way radio equipment, one life-raft 
lashed above the compact deck. The Tri- 
umph was obviously not designed for com- 
fort, there are no upholstered corners for 
taking one's ease. Every inch of space 

As she throbs against the choppy harbor 
you get a strange feeling that she is a 
thing, alive; a gallant, fighting thing that 
challenges the sea. 

The Triumph might be called a glorified 
surf-boat. She has safety-compartments. 
In case she were dashed against a rock, 
she would be only partially disabled. Then, 
there is another cheerful thought — al- 
though she might capsize, the Triumph 
would right herself. 

"If we should get swamped," caution; 

Mac. "grab for a life-line and cling to the 
ship. We're practically indestructible." 

I move over a step to get out of the icy 
spray that is breaking across the prow, and 
divide my attention between the piling 
waves that keep rushing at us, and the mat- 
ter-of-fact sagas of the sea that Commander 
Mac is relating. 

Behind us, the five-mile expanse of the 
river's mouth merges into a last, stormy 
view of Astoria. Oregon — ahead, a per- 
sistant rumbling sound tells us that the 
breakers are pounding against the jetties. 
This is my first trip across the Columbia 
River Bar. 

Mac looks at us obliquely, as though he 
is secretly enjoying our private impres- 

Suddenly, we change our angle of prog- 
ress and head for a wall of sprav. This 
rises and falls, like Northern Lights. Still 
far away, it comes and goes, stretching 
high above the waves that surround us. 

"Feeling a little sea-sick?" ventures our 
host. "Don't let it bother you; it's all a 
state of mind." 

Which reminds me to get out a lemon 
that I brought along for just such an emer- 
gency. There s nothing like a good sour 



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lemon to bolster up your state of mind in 
a rough sea. The Triumph rises and falls, 
each lurch seeming to push us closer to 
the spray. 

Then it dawns upon me that this is not 
actually spray, but a solid wall of foam- 
topped, heaving water. It is the ocean, the 
storm-mad Pacific, rolling against its bar- 
riers, crushing the comparative calm of the 
river, which has come to the end of its 

We are about to cross the bar! 

The Triumph plunges into the first 
breaker; she strikes against it, and shivers. 
Then comes a lull, while she climbs to the 
top of a gigantic wave. With a sickening 
lurch, the boat seems to drop from under 
us. I pick myself off the deck and take a 
vicious bite out of the lemon. Mac is 

During the next lull, we hastily don life- 

"Just natural government precautions," 
says the commander. "Not that I am ex- 
pecting any trouble." 

Mac is really enjoying this. If Movie- 
tone wants pictures, he's the man who can 
provide the thrills. 

A couple of Coast Guard men help to 
anchor the tripods, and we go about the 
business of trying to capture the giant seas 
on film. This goes on for several min- 
utes, until finally the seas settle into a 
steady, rolling beat. Off the stern, the long 
jetties are disappearing in a driving rain. 

We have crossed the bar. 

My lemon is chewed to bits. 

I wonder just where Tennyson got his 
first-hand inspiration for the poem, that 

"May there be no moaning of the bar. 
When I put out to sea. . . ." 

And so, once more, the Coast Guard has 
gone through, where great ships fear to 

Heeding the storm-signals, all naviga- 
tion has halted outside the bar, until a 
safer time to pass. But the Triumph wal- 
lows heroically through the storm, for it 
is a "Second Tuesdav," and eighteen miles 
at sea is Tillamook Rock. 

There six men are waiting for mail and 
supplies. The Coast Guard boys will get 
through. Commander McCormick and the 
Triumph will not fail them. 

"Parachute Battalion"" 

• Paul Kelly and Richard Cromwell, two 
of Hollywood's most popular character ac- 
tors, have been signed for major support- 
ing roles in "Parachute Battalion," which 
Producer Howard Benedict sends before 
cameras at RKO Radio on March 25th. 
Leslie Goodwins will direct. 

John Twist and Capt. John H. Fite, U. S. 
Air Corps, collaborated on the screen play 
of "Parachute Battalion,' first motion pic- 
ture to be based on the dare-devil lives 
led bv Uncle Sam's new parachute troopers. 

it's coiviiNq! 

It's coming vacation time! That snap- 
shooting season when memories are stored 
away. Have you thought about it? Maybe 
you haven't because you're busy and time 
passes — you wonder where. Maybe the 
eyes aren't squinty yet, but they will be 
and you'll be askin' yourself: "Where can 
[ I go for a day — or a week — to get rid 
of this 'squinteye'?" 

What about the family? or, maybe you're 
a lone wolf and'll want to get away by 
yourself — where it don't cost much; some- 
where that'll help you find out what's both- 
erin' you — why you did it, or why you 
didn't: you just want to rest and not work 
at it. Take the snap-lense and a roll of 
film and beat it. 

There is one place in this blessed coun- 
try few people go to, a charming restful 
place at any time of the year — if you just 
want rest! Did I hear you ask: "Where 
is it?" "Frazier Mountain Park!" Ever 
hear of it? Not many people have. 

Well. Frazier Mountain Park is four 
miles west of Highway 99, on Route 368. 
forty-four miles south of Bakersfield and 
seventy miles north from Los Angeles in 
the midst of the Tehachapi Mountains, mid- 
way between Lebeck and Gorman. 

Visited by few motorists because only a 
few are aware of the location known only 
by word of praise from those who "week 
end" there to enjoy the wine purity of the 
air and cut down on the Scotch and soda 
desire and drink the clear water of crystal 
flowing springs and spread out in the rest- 
ful shade of spreading oaks and pine for- 
;est. Not a bad place to sneak away to for 
a day. a week, or longer. 

It is exceptional that in this great state 
of crowded tourist travel, a place combin- 
ing the natural health qualities of rare 
pure air and water, together with alluring 
natural beauty and convenience for outdoor 
sports through all the seasons, could be 
tucked away in the mountains so close to 
, home and so little known. 

Midway between Lebeck and Gorman is 
the junction of Route 368, well marked and 
curving off to the west of Highway 99. 

Ascending to an altitude ranging vari- 
ously from 4500 to 5100 feet, the wanderer 
reaches the entrance of the "Park." 

The settlement of Frazier Mountain Park 
' is unique in its apparent invisible govern- 
ment, and the fact that its citizens are 
peaceful and law abiding, without any- 
visible restraint of law enforcement. Dis- 
orderly conduct is not a disturbing ele- 
ment of this delightfully quiet community. 

No officer of the law is there to interfere 
with the "goings and comings" of visitors. 
The locking of doors, the closing of blinds 
and the drawing of shades has never be- 
come a habit. 

Until several years past, this "Honor" 

community governed its affairs by peaceful 
adjustment, until one day a newcomer ar- 
rived and became a permanent resident as 
well as a member of its Elders, and gave 
voice to his opinions. 

He brought with him from his "outside" 
world his possessions, material and mental, 
displaying stubbornly a cultivated sense of 

The simple trusting simplicity of his new 
environment caused him much uneasiness, 
which increased till he mistrusted his 
neighbors and became the community's first 
disturbing element. 

His long, insistent shout demanded that 
the safety of person, morals and property 
required the active presence of a law rep- 
resentative in their midst to insure security 
of mind. 

A delegation was appointed to make the 
proper application at the Sheriff's office, 
forty-four miles away at the County seat, 
resulting in the appointment of a deputy 
to enforce "Law and Order." 

Behind the authority vested in a new 
shining badge the deputy moved in and 
proceeded to perform his spying and peek- 
ing duties. And then trouble commenced 
to stalk grimly through the winding lanes 
of the settlement, crowding out the laugh- 
ter and pleasures of good neighbor gather- 
ings, unrest in the little cafes, and much 
whispering in secluded places. 

The tranquility of this Utopian com- 
munity was severely disturbed, culminating 
one evening when one of its young men. 
participating in a friendly gathering, de- 
parted to wend his way to his little cabin, 
happily singing his way through the light 
and shadows of a balmy full moon, per- 

By burr McGregor 

haps not too steadily, and too, the singing 
was a wee bit in discord, but he was happy; 
the dreadful burden of the new law had 
shifted, but it climbed back and perched 
unpleasantly, for the law sprang out of the 
shadows, and he was placed under arrest 
for disturbing the peace, whisked away to 
the Sheriffs office, jailed and sentenced to 
six months. 

The seething pot of brewing trouble 
boiled over — it couldn't take any more 
heat! The Elders of the community stormed 
into the Sheriff's office demanding the scalp 
of the ambitious deputy — the pelt was 
granted, and the objectional citizen moved 

Through this experience a judgment of 
peace again enveloped the community with 
sweet calm as the citizens proclaimed 
proudly to the "outside" world the cleans- 
ing of their honor. 

During the open hunting season the re- 
gions hereabout become a joyful stamp- 
ing ground for ambitious hunters. Being 
within the confines of Los Padres National 
Forest, all game is rigidly protected 
through the closed seasons and definite re- 
strictions imposed on the limit of game 
that can be taken. 

Deer are plentiful. So are quail — both 
the mountain and valley specie. 

Wild pigeons descend into the valley in 
clouds of great numbers during the season 
when the pine-nuts are falling, and leave 
as quickly as they arrived — all together. 

The immediate vicinity of the "Park" is 
closed to all hunting throughout the year, 
resulting, in the hunting season, of many 
deer rushing into the area, instinctively, 
for protection. 

International Photographer for April, 1941 

Flowing springs under spreading oaks. 

During the early '70's a wandering pros- 
pector known as "Old Frazier" uncovered 
a vein of gold at the base of the high 
mountain adjacent to the "Park." 

According to the legends of the oldest 
settlers, over a million dollars was taken 
from the workings of the discovery; the 
mountain was named after the old pros- 
pector and the settlement was put on the 
maps as "Frazier Mountain Park." 

One of the winter sport projects now 
being developed that will attract enthusi- 
asts from all over the country, and foreign 
places — what's left of them — is a ski-slide 
starting at the summit of Mt. Pinos, close 
by, that will follow the gentle slopes into 

the valley, a trifle over five miles. A State 
Highway has been surveyed to the summit, 
and then on down into the further valleys 
to connect with Coast Highways. 

The "Park" has a sprinkling of fine mod- 
ern cabins nestling among the old wide 
spreading oaks, and tall fragrant pines that 
blend in charmingly with the landscape. 
There is an abundance of clear crystal 
spring water, electricity and wood fuel for 
open fireplaces. 

For those enthusiasts who roam with a 
"Coach Trailer" there are spots of restful 
beauty and privacy. A vacation place that 
will make the old young again and keep 
the young in the vigor of their youth. 

would ThROuqh The camera 

(Continued from Page 5) 

and back streets, grabbed my boat just as 
it was pulling off. 

In one of our expeditions we discovered 
the remains of a people called the Dune 
Dwellers of Shabrak Usu, who had lived 
in the Gobi Desert twenty thousand years 

In Indo China I contracted a malady 
that made me deaf for weeks (but I can 
hear better than ever now ) . 

Some of my most terrifying hours were 
spent aboard our pearling lugger one black 
night during a hurricane, an eight-knot 
cross tide and our engine refusing to do 
more than five knots, and we right in the 
middle of the most dangerous waters of 
the Great Barrier Reef off Thursday Island, 
Australia. We spent the night on beam 
ends with tons of our gear and food crash- 
ing about and two drums of wood alcohol 

flooding the decks, which meant no lights 
of any kind, and every moment we feared 
that a spark from the lousy engine might 
set us off into Kingdom Come. With an- 
chors out we could do nothing but hang 
on by all fours like monkeys until morn- 
ing came. 

In the shadow of the Pyramids, in Egypt, 
I made the discovery of the remains of a 
prehistoric race that had lived there fifty 
thousand years before the Pyramids were 
built. For this I received an appreciative 
acknowledgment from the Museum of Nat- 
ural History in New York. They said the 
discovery firmed an important link in 
tracing distribution of "homo sapiens" on 
this good old planet of ours. 

Happenings like these do break the mo- 
notony and any one of these experiences 
would make a good story in itself. One 


Shackelford gets some close-ups of Balinese dancing girls. 

of these days, through the pages of Inter- 
national Photographer, I will tell you 
more of these "carryings on." It will not 
be long before you will see a collection 
of these tales in book form similar to one 
now published, called "Two Lugs on a 
Lugger," by George Dromgold, which nar- 
nates a year's picture expedition of Drom- 
gold and myself to the South Seas. 

My travels for picture material have 
carried me over 600,000 miles to many far 
corners of the earth, and I hope to double 
that mileage before I wrap up the old box 
for good. There are so many things yet 
to be photographed, unbelievable things 
that can only be proven through the med- 
ium of sound and color motion pictures. 

A few of the things I have listed in my 
little black book yet to be captured pictori- 
ally are: A practically unknown islet in- 
habited only by giant ants. There are over 
1,800 ant habitations on the island, aver- 
aging sixteen feet in height and sixteen feet 
across at the base, and so thickly built as 
to resemble a modern city of towering sky- 

Then there is a country where the hair- 
less ape roams about at will, walking up- 
right like humans and building his home 
in the tree tops. And speaking of apes, 
there is another place where monkeys swim 
under water and catch fish. 

And listed, too, in the little book is a 
cone shaped island rising nearly straight 
up out of the sea, where over 3,000 people 
have literally woven their houses into the 
tangled vegetation covering the cliff-like 
sides of the island. The natives lash their 
canoes to the precipitous slopes with vines, 
as there are no beaches and there is no 
walking around, as they can only climb 
about while ashore; the "island of human 
ants," I call it. 

Have you ever seen the place where the 
poultry peddler walks around with an enor- 
mous crate filled with four or five dozen 
live chickens picked clean of their feathers, 
the crate balanced precariously on his 
head? Handy for the housewife, no doubt. 

Then there is an island about two miles 
in diameter. From seaward it appears to 
be a ring of barren cliffs sixty to eighty 
feet high, but at low tide and after care- 
ful search you may find a winding entrance 
where you can go through in a small boat, 
and once inside discover a beautiful lagoon 
surrounded by smooth sand beaches and 
luxuriant tropical vegetation and inhabited 
by some two hundred natives. A friend of 
mine who was there a few years ago said 
the natives claimed he was the first white 
man they had seen in twenty years. 

I don't know why so many of my fellow 
camera explorers have passed up such in- 
teresting material, but I do know that as 
soon as the present unpleasantness involv- 
ing the different countries is over, I'll be 
on my way again, with a sound and color 



The Exemplar of the 
World's Largest and Finest Line of Motion Picture Sound Equipment 




NEW YORK (Established 191 3) HOLLYWOOD 


sTudios' stUI phoToqRAphy show 

As announced in last month's issue of 
International Photographer, the First 
Annual Exhibition of the Hollywood Stu- 
dios' Still Photography Show is being held 
•April 14 through April 27. 

Sponsored by the Academy of Motion 
Picture Arts and Sciences, the committee 
in charge of the exhibit are: Perry Lieber, 
Chairman: John Joseph, Howard Strick- 
ling, George Brown, Louis Smith, Harry 
Brand. Robert Taplinger, Frank Selzer, 
Jock Lawrence, John LeRoy Johnson, Don- 
ald Cledhill. 

Following is an analysis by studios of 
total entries submitted: 


Milton Gold 3 

Irving Lippman 11 

M. B. Paul 2 

A. L. (Whitey) Schafer 6 



Virgil Apger 19 

Frank Bjerring 4 

Milton Brown 6 

Clarence Bull 6 

Eric Carpenter 12 

Ed Cronenweth 9 

William Grimes 12 

Bert Lynch 4 

James Manatt 7 

xMerritt Sibbald 4 

Frank Tanner 11 

Lazlo Willinger 16 



C. Kenneth Lobben 8 

Hal McAlpin 7 

G. E. Richardson 4 

Eugene Robert Richee 14 



Ernest A. Bachrach 15 

Fred Hendrickson 7 

Alexander P. Kahle .. 24 

Gaston Longet 12 

John Miehle 22 

Oliver Sigurdson 6 

— 86 


Gene Kornman 17 

Clifton Maupin 13 

J. C. Milligan 11 

Ray Nolan 4 

Frank Powolny 12 

Emmett Schoenbaum 19 

Anthony Ugrin 11 

lurk Woods 10 

— 97 

Sherman Clark 7 

Ed Estabrook 14 

Roman Freulirh 19 

Eddie Jones 7 

Hay Jones 14 

William Walling 4 


Schuyler Crail 15 

Mack Elliott 6 

Elmer Fryer 13 

Mac Julian 19 

Madison Stoner Lacy H) 

Berl Longworth 23 

Micke) Marigold 13 

Fred R. Morgan II 

Berl Six 14 


Charles Scott 

Scotty Welbourne 12 


Thomas Evans 7 

Stax Graves 14 

Jerry Hester 7 


Robert Coburn 

Goldwyn 4 

Korda 9 

Lesser 5 

RKO Radio 2 

Warner Crosby 

Monogram 13 

Cathedral 2 

— 15 
Ira Hoke 

Hughes 8 

William Wallace 

Chaplin 11 

Ned Scott 4 

John Ellis 1 

Wanger 5 

Total Entries Submited 636 

Number of Photographers Submitting Entries 59 

The committee has announced that ama- 
teur camera fans are invited and may 
bring along their cameras if they wish. 

Mood CreatecI by 

Jack Greenhalgh, who has photographed a 
large number of pictures during the time he has 
been a first cameraman, has had varied experi- 
ence in exterior photographic work. Greenhalgh 
wishes to record for the benefit of his colleagues 
what he believes to be the rewards of experience 
which is the only school through which men can 
become cameramen. He maintains that there is 
no prepared formula to be laid down by which 
others might copy past performances. He recom- 
mends that one study the work done by another 
and then apply himself through a series of ex- 
periments by which he finally can attain the same 
effect. He will be more than glad to have others 
comment upon this article. We feel that perhaps 
others may elucidate or bring other points to bear 
and so create an open forum through which all 
may benefit. — (Editorial Note.) 

Filters can play as great a part in a 
screenplay as sets, scenery, or even actors. 
Bearing in mind that the primary purpose 
of a motion picture is to tell a story and 
the audience to concentrate mainly on the 
story, the cameraman should use everything 
at his command to help further this con- 
centration. Any artifice that he might use 
to distract the audience from the plot for 
the sake of obtaining a beautiful picture so 
he will receive compliments from others is 
in my estimation wrong. He should keep 
strictly within the mood of that particular 
part of the picture he is shooting. On in- 
teriors naturally he does this with his light- 
ing, but when shooting exteriors where to 
a certain extent the lighting is beyond his 
control he should do it with filters. 

Of course, every cameraman knows the 
degree of correction to be obtained with 
certain filters all the way down the line 
from an Aero 1 to a No. 72, etc. He knows 
the amount of exposure he should add for 
each filter. He knows what each filler will 
do to the scene he is photographing; how 
it will affect the sky, the clouds, the haze, 
the distant hills and mountains. He knows 
what each filter will do to the foreground 
of his scene and any highlight or shadow 


he might be using for composition. He 
knows how each filter will affect the snow 
capped mountains or the vast ocean. He 
knows what it will do to the trees and rocks 
and he knows what it will do to the faces 
and skin texture of the actors in the scene 
he is shooting. 

This is all well and proper and as it 
should be, because any cameraman worthy 
of his position should know these things. 
But that is not enough. This knowledge 
should be applied to furthering the con- 
struction of the story by playing up the 
particular mood in the sequence that is 
being photographed. 

For instance, a sequence that has com- 
edy for its basic theme must be light and 
brilliant; consequently a lighter filter such 
as Aero 1 or 2 should be used so the sky 
will not appear too dark nor the shadows 
too deep. Add to this brilliant lighting 
such as a crisp back light and a little 
warmer light in the face and I think the 
general tone will lend itself more to the 
feeling of lightness and snappiness which 
comedy requires. 

On outdoor pictures, such as Westerns, 
or where the scenery is supposed to lend 
a feeling of vastness to the picture, then 
a slight degree of over-correction should 
be used, particularly when there are a few 
clouds in the skv. 

Where the theme is heavy and dramatic 
the sky should be very deep and the sha- 
dows dense, filters of a deep red are ad- 
visable, such as No. 25 or 29. If pos- 
sible use heavy masses in composing the 
picture and avoid sparkling highlights. 
Thus the effect of the dramatic situation 
will be achieved. 

Of course, each particular scene has its 
own problems and solutions, but I feel 
that the mood of the story should be upper- 
most in the cameraman's mind when he 
records his scene. 


ured wl 

itk d5ox KJwice ^rppeal 

The picture above — "Gelaendesprung" by Ray Atkeson, ably illustrates 
the unusual capabilities of Speed Graphic cameras. Using his 4x5 
Speed Graphic at 1/825 second and f/8, Mr. Atkeson obtained not only 
"stopped action" but clarity of detail in both foreground and distance . . . 
plus a negative size that permitted great enlargement without loss of this 
detail. No wonder his picture was a prize-winner in the Action Class of the 
Graflex Golden Anniversary Picture Contest ! 

Dramatic pictures like this have real box office appeal. Standardize on 
Speed Graphic-made stills. See the new Anniversary and Miniature models 
at your Dealer's. Priced from $1 1 7.50 with American-made Kodak Ektar 
f/4.5 lens in Supermatic shutter. . . . When in New York City visit the 
Graflex Display Rooms at 50 Rockefeller Plaza. 

Here are two valuable reference books; 
Graphic Graflex Photography by Willard D. 
Morgan, Henry M. Lester and 20 other 
experts; and Photographic Enlarging by 
Franklin I. Jordan, F.R.P.S. — $4.00 and 
S2.50 respectively, at your Dealer's. 

International Photographer for April, 1941 

FREE GRAFLEX E/YTALOG For more complete 
information get the Graflex catalog. Free at your Dealer's 
or from us. Folmer Graflex Corporation, Dept. IP-2, 
Rochester, N. Y. (Western Division: 3045 Wilshire 
Blvd., Los Angeles.) 





In Tropical Isles with Shackelford 

On the Island of Gona Hara Bara. Shackelford left, Dromgold right, under what is called the rain tree. The 
leaves fold up at night, catching any moisture that falls, and upon slowly opening the next morning create a 
miniature shower lasting an hour or more. Here they went ashore for some of their most beautiful South 
Sea scenes, later to learn something that made their "flesh crawl." The place was literally alive with giant 
pythons. Luckily their habits are nocturnal. 


Headquarters in Fiji Islands, where Shackelford and his party were marooned for six weeks during a deluge 
that fell steadily, twenty-four hours a day, the entire time. In the doorway are Shackelford (left), Dromgold 
and Rota Pope, the Island Chief. Here they got their fill of tropical fruits and fish (sometimes as many as 
five kinds at dinner). They sampled everything that grew in the sea, from seaweed to sharks and slugs; crabs, 
crayfish, prawns, lobster and parrot fish of every hue. 


esseIIe pARichy, iviiAivii hosT 

Pat Comiskey "ofr-slaBe"; Lew Tendler (left) and llrnny Leonard dance a nice 

four rounds at the Itrii i-li American Ambulance dorps benefit fight at Miami; Pat 

Comiskey (left) with Domingo Valin on the canvas, first round — 2 minutes and 16 

seconds. (Leica pholtts hy Parirhy.) 


Dear Herb: 

As I wrote you before, "I have a ship 
that never goes to sea." What I'm trying 
to say is: Pat Comiskey, the coming giant 
heavyweight, from New Jersey, has been 
staying in the Ships quarters for the past 
month preparatory to his fistic bout with 
your California boy, Domingo Valin. 

The fight was held here in Miami, March 
9th, you know, for the benefit of the Brit- 
ish American Ambulance Corps. 

It was a very good show all around, 
Herb. While this is not a very good fight 
town they packed them in to a gross of 
14 G's. I got me a ringside, and it was 
worth it. Jack Kearns put on the show 
at the Biscayne Fronton. 

I've been housing Pat's stable mates here, 
too. His manager, trainer, sparring part- 
ners, and the lesser lights of the W. P. 
Daly Stable. There is another clever boy 
in the stable with Pat. He is Irish Eddie 
Pierce, from Cape Town, South Africa. He 
won his ten rounds over Ben Brown, from 

This show had Maxie Rosenbloom and 
Levinsky. They danced a good four rounds. 
Then Benny Leonard took on Lew Tendler 
for another four. The Great Jack Demp- 
sey, the oF Manassa Mauler, refereed the 
Buddy Knox-Melio Bettina ten rounder. It 
never got that far; Bettina gave Knox a 
powder in the fifth round. 

But the thrill of the night was when 
Pat Comiskey knocked out Domingo in the 
first round. It went only two minutes and 
16 seconds. Funny how the thing hap- 
pened — Pats left only traveled about six 
inches to Domingo's jaw. In the ring, Pat 
never telegraphs a punch. He just truns 
'em. He's left-hand crazy, that boy. Do- 
mingo "should'a stood in bed," or should'a 
stayed in California, as far as the fight 
was concerned. 

After the fight I went into Domingo's 
dressing room for his scratch. I got the 
whole program full of scratches. I'm a 
sucker for autographs . . . you know. I'm 
saving them for Sargasso Sam. Well, Do- 
mingo told me he never knew what hit 
him when Pat truned that left. Domingo 
is a nice guy. And he likes Miami. 

Sunday afternoon before the fight I 
went into the ship's quarters to talk to 
Pat. He was in the lower bunk, reading the 
funny papers. 

"Hello, Hercules," I said. "Listen . . . 
Pat. This morning out on the golf course 
a friend of mine gave me an even money 
bet . . . ten bucks . . . that the California 
bov will take you tonight. How about it?" 

Pat rolled over in his bunk and said: 
"Who's the sucker? Why . . . they're only 
giving 8 to 5 that I'll knock him out!" 

"Oh . . . this is just a spite bet . . . Pat. 
This guy I'm talking about will bet against 
me on anything. He's par-happy. I beat 


fylcvllt QneeyeA Median 

THE girl in the illustration above was caught 
in one phase of a whirl of fast dance routine. 
No human motion is too fast for this lamp. 
Models need not be posed, but may be caught 
in the rehearsal of a bit of action and "frozen" 
with wire-sharp definition. The light provided 
by the Kodatron Speedlamp flash is so power- 
ful that exposures must be made with small 
diaphragm openings, insuring depth of field. 


The Kodatron Speedlamp uses very little current and 
its gas-filled flash tube is good for over 5,000 fully efficient 
flashes before replacement is necessary. No special wiring 
or fusing is required for this lamp. Shutter synchroniza- 
tion is simple. A 50-watt lamp within the flash tube gives 
a preview of the light balance on the subject. 
Kodatron Speedlamp complete, including power 
unit, one Kodatron Flash Tube, 18-inch reflector, 
telescoping standard, and synchronizer cord . . . $400 
Kodatron Flash Tube (replacement) 30 

Descriptive circular will be gladly supplied on request 


International Photographer for April, 1941 


Esselle Parichy and Paul Ivano, taken on 

Paul's one-day stop at Miami en route to 

Argentina. The other picture is aboard 

Esselle's "ship that never goes to sea." 

him at golf, so he tries some other way to 
put the hooks in me." 

"Call the sucker up and tell him I'm 
going to take Valin in the first round for 
you. Want my gloves . . . after the fight?" 

"Oh . . . geeee, yes!" 

"Okay . . . pal." 

Well, Herb . . . that's how it was. Pat 
gave me the gloves he wore in the fight. 
They look new, too. Pat autographed the 
left one. I told you he is left-hand crazy. 

Well, yesterday I gave the gloves to 
Sargasso Sam. He's going to hang them 
up over Pat's picture in his den. 

Ivano Visits Miami 

While on the 9th hole of a golf game 
(very good game, too, a 41 up to that 
point) a telephone message was relayed 
to me that Paul Ivano, the "Volga Boat- 
man," and his very charming wife had just 
docked at Port Everglades aboard the S.S. 

It seems that Paul is South America 
bound, Buenos Aires his destination. (Of 
course you know all about this, Herb) for 
a year or maybe three on a picture deal. 

As this cruise ship only docked for the 
day, Paul and his wife did a whirlwind 
tour of our Magic City and its many at- 

This is not Paul's first visit. He has 
been here before with Lucian Ballard a 

number of years ago. Paul was amazed 
at the metamorphosis of the Greater Miami 

Of course, like all good photographers, 
we went to work with our Leicas. He got 
me to take to Buenos Aires in his camera 
and I am enclosing a couple of takes that 
came out of my magic box. Well, any- 
way, here are our pictures together. 

As I bid the Ivanos "Bon voyage" I 
felt a boaty feeling, and wished I were 
going on this attractive cruise, which 
touches at such intriguing ports as Nassau, 
Barbados, Rio de Janeiro . . . and all 
points south. 

But the only cabin I can occupy at this 
moment is my Ship's Quarters, Guest 
House, which I call the S.S. Consuelo, "the 
ship that never goes to sea." 

Oh, how I envy Paul Ivano, with the 
wind in his hair, sailing the tropic waters 
under the Southern Cross. And what a 
boat he is on . . . and what sights he will 
record in his camera. 

No doubt Paul will see the Duchess, in 
Nassau . . . Barbados, with its pirate lure 
. . . Rio, now there is a place . . . you 
name it, and like Aladdin's Lamp, it will 
produce your fondest dreams. 

It's nice to see old friends again . . . 
and it's hard to say goodbye. I wish Paul 
the best of luck in his new venture. 

Esselle Parichy. 

ThEy Say"' 


• Bill Clothier is married to a famous 
Cuban dancer. 

• Allen Thompson, enroute to Point Bar- 
row, Alaska, on an expeditionary trip with 
Mala, formerly known as Ray Wise. 

• Bert Willis will surprise the entire pho- 
tographic profession and perhaps the cina- 
ma industry with an invention which should 
be released next month. 

• At one time Jerry Ash performed magic 
on the stage. Look out, Jerry, or the boys 
will be coming to you for the same sort of 
stuff in getting them work. 

• Ernest Bachrach is a painter and can 
hold his own with many of the profession- 
als of that aesthetic art. 

for difficult shot* — THE ORIGINAL 

Scheibe's Monotone Filter 

INDICATES instantly how even- color and 
light value of a scene or object will be ren- 
dered in the finished print before taking 
the picture. •:• always ready. 



Gcorqo H. Schcibo 


1927 WEST 7BTM ST. 


• Arthur De Titta, who was in charge of 
the Fox Movietone Office in Paris and 
evacuated that city the day before its fall, 
tells us this interesting story: Being a mem- 
ber of the New York Local 644, he would 
from time to time mail in his check. After 
the outbreak of war and the mails became 
censored, each time stamps were placed in 
his card and same returned from the New 
York union offices, the governmental offi- 
cials in France would carefully examine 
the card and stamps, believing that he was 
some kind of a foreign spy and that the 
stamps were carrying code messages! De 
Titta is now stationed in Hollywood, Cali- 
fornia, in charge of the Fox Movietone 

• Charles Boyle heads the first of the 
group leaving for Ocala, Florida, where 
"The Yearling,' an M.G.M. location, will 
go into production in color for about three 
months. William Strafford, business repre- 
sentative of Local 666, is making prepara- 
tions in Florida to see that all works out 
well and that the members of Local 666 
receive some employment from this loca- 

• For some unknown reason, Florida 
seems to be the location spot for producing 
companies of Hollywood, Paramount, 

R.K.O. and M.G.M., as well as Fox, hav- 
ing been there within the last three months. 

• Elmer Dyer and Charles Marshall signed 
by Warner Bros, to be the aerial photogra- 
phers on "Dive Bomber." 

• The members of Local 659 express their 
deepest sympathy to the family of Fred 
Mayer in his departure to the Great Be- 

• Ray Fernstrom has just completed pho- 
tographing in color skiing on top of moun- 
tains in the Canadian Rockies, produced 
by Leon C. Shelly, who produced the 
travel novelty film, "Beautiful British Co- 

• The RKO troupe has checked in from 
Fort Bening, Georgia. Harry Perry also 
at RKO in New Orleans winging his way 
west to the home studio. 

• Off to Florida again is Dewey Wrigley, 
this time having assistant Ed Soderberg. 

• Danny Fapp, second cameraman at 
Paramount for many years, elevated to 
first cameraman; while Teddy Tetzlaff, 
first cameraman, was elevated to position 
of director. 

• Our sincere sympathy to John McCor- 
mick and George Fox on the loss of their 
beloved fathers. 


Improve Your Eyemo or Filmo 70 


Positive" Viewf inder 

i..- -■ . ■ ■■ , 

YES sir — the Eyemo or Filmo 70 Camera that you now have can 
be brought right up to date by fitting to it the new Bell & Howell 
Positive Viewfinder and Viewfinder Turret which mounts three 
matching viewfinder objectives. 

The new units are not expensive, and they're so designed that you 
can easily install them yourself. 

THE NEW "POSITIVE" VIEWFINDER magnifies rather than masks, 
with any lens. The entire finder aperture is filled with large-size, 
upright, sharply outlined image. Eye parallax is eliminated. Even 
■when your eye wanders from the exact center of the eyepiece, you 
still see precisely the field being filmed. 

NEW VIEWFINDER TURRET enables you to select matching view- 
finder objective unit with same speed you pick the lens. 

Mail the coupon now for details and cost of bringing your present 
Eyemo or Filmo 70 right up to the moment. Other new features may 
also be added — see coupon. Bell & Howell Company, 1849 Larch- 
mont Ave., Chicago; 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York; 716 North La 
Brea Ave., Hollywood; 13-14 Great Castle 
St., London. Established 1907. 

FILMO 70- D: 

Master of personal 
movie cameras — de- 
signed and built by the master crafts- 
men who make Hollywood's pre- 
cision equipment. Seven film speeds, 
including slow motion; turret head 
for quick lens changes; wide variety 
of optional accessories, all remov- 
able without tools — electric motor 
drive, external magazines holding 
up to 400 feet of film, and others. 
Coupon brings details. 




the Viewfinder will be 
projected on the screen 

No other camera offers the professional the 
versatility and dependability of the Eyemo. 
Swift change of lenses; conversion from 
100-film capacity to 200- or 400-foot maga- 
zines; tripod mount or light, easy-to-handle 
hand camera; change from electric to spring 
or hand drive; silent— or hookup for sound; 
slow-motion or silent or sound speeds, plus 
the two new features that assure accurate 
composition and quicker setup — "Positive" 
Viewfinder with Viewfinder Turret. 


1849 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

□ Send details about "Positive" Viewfinder for my 

□ Eyemo Model DK, DL-M, DN-O, DP-Q; nFilmo70. 

My Eyemo Serial No. is 

My Filmo Serial No. is □ Send in- 
formation on other modernizations for my particular 

Name . . 
Address . 

International Photographer for April, 1941 



Some Additional Notes on 

In our article last month on Kodachrome, 
appearing in these pages, we purposely 
avoided the discussion of filters for use 
with this medium, deciding to treat this 
in an article by itself. Filters, used with 
Kodachrome, have the ability of not only 
adapting the exterior-balanced emulsion for 
interior work, and vice versa, but also that 
of taking a variety of different color-tem- 
peratures of light and giving a final result 
of color balance and tone that is as con- 
sistent throughout scene after scene as 
though they had been photographed under 
one correct lighting condition. 

The two devices necessary are a color 
temperature meter, and a set of color com- 
pensating filters that Eastman puts out. 
The meter, if carefully used and corrected 
for the color sensitivity of the eyes of each 
individual, will accurately measure the 
temperature in degrees Kelvin. This busi- 
ness of color temperature might sound like 
a complicated affair to many amateurs; all 
that it is, is a "yardstick" placed against 
a color chart to give a definite number to 
that particular color so that we may dupli- 
cate the exact color of a given number. 
The need for this sort of system for pur- 
poses of correction will become apparent 
when we examine the delicate color sen- 
sitivity of the modern Kodachrome emul- 
sion. Couple this with another fact: Most 
of us have noticed how with ordinary elec- 
tric light bulbs one of them may seem par- 
ticularly yellow, or another rather white in 
light. This has nothing to do with the 
amount of light, because an automobile 
headlight having only a candlepower of 
32 or so may be considerably whiter than 
a house light of several hundred candle- 
power. This difference in color — or, spe- 
cifically, color temperature — will photo- 
graph correspondingly. 

The emulsion balanced for artificial il- 
lumination (Type B) is balanced for photo- 
floods. Photofloods have a measurable col- 
or temperature of around 3400 degrees 
Kelvin, depending on the voltage of the 
line, since the color temperature of a pho- 
toflood will vary roughly about five de- 
grees per volt. (The term "Kelvin" is used 


Light Testers — Polishers used by all Major 
Studios. We are the sole Manufacturers 
and Distributors. 

Manufacturer of 16mm and 35mm Record- 
ing Heads, Developing Machines, Bipack 
Color and Black and White Printers, Re- 
Special Machinery built to order. 


914 No. Fairfax HE 1984 

Hollywood, Calif. 

Cable Ai).lre«»: "CINEBARSAM" 


in the same sense as Fahrenheit, or Centi- 
grade, Kelvin being the scale which has 
for its zero point "absolute zero," that 
point at which all molecular activity 
ceases. ) The color temperature of a stan- 
dard mazda will run from 2800 degrees to 
3250 degrees, latter being intended for 
color photography. The color temperature 
of the light encountered on exteriors will 
be in the neighborhood of 5,000 degrees K. 
And since the Type B is balanced for 3,400, 
as noted above, it is evident that the wide 
variety of illumination that is apt to be 
encountered in the course of work with 
this medium will result in serious incon- 
sistencies in the finished film unless some 
means are used to equalize these condi- 

The color compensating filters mentioned 
above are intended to do this. Where the 
light is too blue they will hold back 
enough of the blue so that the temperature 
of the light reaching the film is 3,400 de- 
grees. Where it is too yellow, the filter 
will hold back enough of the yellow so 
that the temperature reaching the film is 
the same. It would be more nearly correct 
to say that the response of the colors in the 
scene would be the same as though light of 
3400 degrees K. were falling upon it. Re- 
gardless of what the temperature of the 
encountered light, within the scope of 
these filters, properly used, they will hold 
back that color in just the right amount to 
give the effect of raising the temperature, 
or dropping it. to the standard figure which 
will give perfect color reproduction. 

The expedient by which this is accom- 
plished is simplicity itself, once the ama- 
teur has had sufficient practice with the 
color temperature meter to assure himself 
that he is getting the correct readings. In 
this meter, there are two semi-circles which, 
when combined, form a complete circle. 
One semi-circle has a fixed color; the other 
one is variable, by means of a knob on the 
outside of the instrument, which is at- 
tached to a pointer on a scale. Looking 
into the eyepiece, with the meter directed 
at the source of the light, this knob is ro- 
tated until the semi-circle with the variable 
tone matches the semi-circle with the fixed 
tone. At this point a reading is taken, 
directly in degrees Kelvin — the color tem- 
perature of the light measured. When the 
readings obtained show 3,400 degrees the 
j-cene can be photographed without any 
compensation. If the readings obtained are 
below this figure, then the compensation 
filter will be one of the blue shades. Pick- 
ing out the lightest, this filter is placed di- 
rectly in front of the aperture admitting the 
source light, and the knob rotated in the 
usual fashion until a match is obtained in 
the semi-circles. Again the reading is 
taken. It will be found that this reading 
will have a higher value. If, however, it 
does not reach the 3,400 mark, the next 

deeper shade is measured, and this process 
continued until the filter chosen brings the 
reading to exactly the equivalent of photo- 
flood illumination. The filter found to give 
this correct reading is the filter used on 
the camera. Should the original readings 
without the filters go above 3,400 degrees, 
then one of the yellow filters will be 
necessary, and the procedure will be the 
same, except that the readings will be- 
come less and less until the point of photo- 
flood equivalent is reached. 

In using this equipment a few points 
should be remembered. Every person has 
a somewhat different eye-response to color, 
so the meter must be corrected against a 
standard candle for each individual. Also, 
the match, in order to have any practical 
value, must be extremely accurate, and the 
eye is prone to tell us that they do match, 
when actually they are slightly off. For 
this reason, as in the case with all scientific 
instruments where the possibility of human 
error is present, it is necessary to take sev- 
eral — sometimes as many as ten — readings, 
and these readings averaged up. The prob- 
lem of physical fatigue, and eye fatigue, is 
a considerable one, and must be reckoned 

Once these processes are mastered and 
the readings held to the optimum point, a 
consistency in fidelity of color reproduc- 
tion will result. The problem then resolves 
itself into one of keeping the scene illumi- 
nated by sources whose individual color 
temperatures are the same. Generally this 
is fairly easy if the bulbs are of the same 
type, are of similar age, and are operating 
from the same line source. If a change of 
voltage has occurred it will be the same 
for all the lamps, and an overall correc- 
tion at the camera with the filters will take 
care of the situation. Only unwanted day- 
light will then give a distorted rendition. 

Agfa Improved Indiatone Paper 

9 The warm-toned Indiatone paper which has 
been widely employed for both projection and 
contact printing is now being supplied by Agfa 
Ansco in a new. improved type. In addition to 
being richer in tone and easier to handle than 
that previously supplied, the new Indiatone dis- 
plays excellent stability and latitude characteris- 
tics and is marked by an improved gradation that 
exhibits softer highlight detail without sacrifice 
of shadow brilliance. 

New Wabash Bulletin 

# Camera fans who want the latest data on flash, 
flood and color photography may secure a copy 
of the new Wabash Exposure Bulletin, Form 
732P, just off the press. This bulletin lists all 
popular films with complete exposure tables for 
their use in flash and flood photography with 
between-the-lens shutters, as .well as focal plane 
shutters from the minicamera size to the largest 
4x5-inch Speed Graphic size. A special page i- 
devoted to color photography with the latest ex- 
posure data tables available for both indoor and 
outdoor use with flash and flood. Readers of 
International Photographer may secure a copy 
from Wabash Photolamp Corp., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Orr and Nan Wvnn in New Short 

• The first of "Warner Bros.' 1941-42 
shorts schedule to go into production will 
be "Those Good Old Days," co-featuring 
William T. Orr and Nan Wynn. Jean 
INegulesco will direct the two-reeler. 


Patent Attorney, Los Angeles 

No. 2,230,570— Reflex Scanner. Edward 
P. Kennedy, assignor to Motiograph Inc., 
Chicago, 111. Appln. March 19. 1938. 
8 claims. 
A projector having a film compliance 
drum which directly engages the film be- 
tween the supply and take up sprocket, and 
which is driven at synchronous speed with 
the sprockets. 

No. 2,230,590 — Color Photographic 
Process. John Eggert and Gerd Heymer. 
Germany, assignors to General Aniline 
& Film Corp. Appln. Dec. 30, 1938. In 
Germany Jan. 22, 1938. 1 claim. 
A method of making colored photographic 
prints by exposing a special multi-emulsion 
negative, and then copying it, layer by lay- 
er, on a special multi-emulsion printing 

No. 2,230,938 — Method of Obtaining 
Color Photographs. Anne Henri 
Jacques de Lassws Saint Genies, Ver- 
sailles, France. Appln. Dec. 29, 1936. 
In France Jan. 4, 1936. 2 claims. 
A method of obtaining colored photographs 
by exposing a lenticular negative and then 
chemically treating the film so that toning 
corresponding to that desired in the par- 
ticular monochrome element is obtained. 
No. 2,230,977— Single Solution Photo- 
craphic Developing and Fixing Bath. 
Garnet Philip Ham, assignor to Ameri- 
can Cyanamid Co., New York. Appln. 
April 4, 1940. 9 claims. 
A single solution silver halide developing 
and fixing bath comprising a silver halide 
developing mixture, an amino benzoate and 
a silver halide fixing agent. 
No. 2,231,378 — Motion Printing Ma- 
chine. Herbert Becker, Werner Bender 
and Walter Stroble, Germany, assignors 
to Kislyn Corp., New York. Appln. Aug. 
6, 1938. In Germany Aug. 11, 1937. 3 
A printer in which an image of the original 
film is focussed on the copy film by a con- 
cave mirror. 

No. 2,231,383 — Film Splicer and Re- 
winder. Jacob M. Goldberg, Denver. 
Colo. Appln. Sept. 12, 1938. 13 claims. 
A film splicer having a clamp for holding 
the film and a motor-driven rotary cleaner 
slidable across the film to clean its upper 

No. 2,231,384 — Film Rewinding Ma- 
chine. Jacob M. Goldberg. Denver, Colo. 
Appln. Feb. 27, 1940. 13 claims. 
A film rewinder having a motor-driven fric- 
tion disc which is contacted by a friction 
pinion at right angles to it and may be 
moved from the center to the edge to 

change the speed of the rewinding. 
No. 2,231,548 — Method of Projecting 
Pictures. Gerald F. Rackett, assignor 
to Technicolor Motion Picture Corp. 
Appln Sept. 20, 1939. 6 claims. 
A method of correcting films for use in a 
projector which forms a bright spot on the 
screen, consisting of making a positive of 
the projector-illuminated screen and print- 
ing the positive and the usual image-carry- 
ing negative on a single corrected positive. 
No. 2,231,663 — Neutral Gray Sound 
Track. Ralph M. Evans and Wesley T. 
Hanson, Jr., assignors to Eastman Kodak 
Co. Appln. May 6, 1938. 6 claims. 
The method of forming a sound track in 
photographic film which comprises devel- 
oping the sound track in a coupler develop- 
er containing a p-benzyl phenol coupler 
and an aromatic amino developing com- 

No. 2,231,665 — Loop Forming Member 
for Sprocketless Film Handling Ap- 
paratus. Henry N. Fairbanks, assignor 
to Eastman Kodak Co. Appln. July 22. 
1938. 7 claims. 
A sprocketless camera or projector having 
a pair of posts, each adjacent the end of 
the pressure plate, and located so that the 
natural resilience of the film forms loops. 
No. 2,232,056 — Production of Color 
Film Having a Silver Sound Track. 
John Eggert and Hans Friedrich Nissen. 
Germany, assignors to General Aniline & 
Film Corp. Appln. Nov. 26, 1937. In 
Germany Dec. 2, 1936. 7 claims. 
A method of producing a silver sound 
track image on multi-emulsion color film 
by exposing and converting one of the 
emulsions to a color and silver image, con- 
verting the silver to a different silver ha- 
lide, and then re-exposing and developing 
the silver bromide sound track and re- 
moving the silver halide. 
No. 2,232,144 — Method for Making 
Composite Motion Pictures. Ferdinand 
Method Sersen. asignor to Twentieth 
Century-Fox Film Corp. Appln. Nov. 
12, 1938. 6 claims. 
A method of making composite pictures bv 
taking a foreground negative, making an 
enlarged negative of it and manually 
opaquing the part to be seen in the final 
picture and bleaching the background, and 
then using this as master mask for both the 
foreground and background film. 
No. 2,232,774 — Method of Scanning or 
Projecting Motion Pictures and 
Other Pictures. Jacob Z. Deninson, 
New York. Appln. Feb. 7, 1938. 3 

A method of securing stereoscopic projec- 
tion with a single film having a single row 
of longitudinally successive and equal 
frames which have aligned edges and which 
show objects in different relative positions. 

Newsreel Equipment Stolen 

Dear Mr. Aller: 

Some newsreel equipment has been stolen 
from our sound car here in Chicago. I am 
enclosing herewith a complete list of the 
items lost and their serial numbers. Would 
you kindly post this list on your bulletin 
board, and also would like to have it pub- 
lished in the International Photographer. 
The insurance company is offering $250.00 
reward for its return. Because of the 
nature of the merchandise, it would be 
very difficult to dispose of this stuff except 
among professional operators. Any co- 
operation you give will be greatly appre- 

Sincerely yours, 
Jack Lieb, 

Midwest Bureau Mgr. 

News of the Day. 

1. Case containing Audio Akeley Cam- 
era No. G125, and focusing tube for same. 

2. Brown leather case containing Bell & 
Howell Eyemo Camera No. 4423, with 
Hugo Meyer Lens, F1.5, No. 294616; also 
six 1 6) 100-foot lengths of Super XX film. 

3. Utility case containing changing bag, 
two (2) 800-foot rolls of Super XX film; 
labels for shipping: caption sheets; batter- 
ies, etc. 

If all or part of the stolen equipment is 
discovered in your district, please notifv 
Mr. Allen, of the Commercial Union Assur- 
ance Co., Ltd., 175 West Jackson Blvd., 
Chicago. Illinois, bv wire collect. 

Efficient Courteous 




Professional and Amateur 


New and Used Equipment 
Bought, Sold and Rented 



Camera Supply Co. 

1515 North Cahuenga Boulevard 

Cable Address: 


International Photographer for April, 1941 



First Accessories Kodak Ektra 

# Six accessory items for the new 35mm. Kodak 
Ektra — including a special flash synchronizer, 
ground-glass focusing back, view finders for high, 
low, and right-angle work, a close range-and-view 
finder, and a special tripod clearance head — are 
anounced by the Eastman Kodak Company, Roch- 

The accessory Close Range and View Finder 
is intended for use with the 50mm. Kodak Ektar 
f/1.9 lens at distances from 3VL> feet down to 
IV2 feet; and with the addition of the Kodak 
Portra 3+ supplementary lens, down to 10% 
inches. The price is $40. This accessory can 
also be obtained, on special order, with a spe- 
cially-calibrated focusing dial for use with the 
50mm. Kodak Ektar f/3.5 lens. 

The High-Low Angle Finder permits the Kodak 
Ektra to be used conveniently from waist-level 
when used on a tripod or other firm support, as 
well as overhead — thus greatly extending the 
user's choice of viewpoint. It covers the field of 
the 50mm. lenses, slips into the universal acces- 
sory bracket on top of the Ektra, and will retail 
at $15. 

The Right-Angle Finder for the Kodak Ektra 
is of particular use in obtaining unposed shots, 
as well as for shooting in cramped quarters where 
it is inconvenient to face the subject. Its price 
is $10. 

The Ground Glass Focusing Back for the 
Ektra possesses several interesting design fea- 
tures, which fit it both for accurate and studied 
composition of general scenes, and for extremely 
critical focusing on close-up subjects — such as 
table-top scenes, medical specimens, and line or 
tone copy. The price is $25. 

The Ektra Flash Synchronizer attaches to the 
top of the camera by means of the Ektra's ac- 
cessory clip, and the tripper unit is simply 
screwed into the cable release opening of the 
camera. The price is $17.50. 

The Kodak Tripod Clearance Head for the 
Ektra is a compact, inexpensive unit which raises 
the camera a short distance above the tripod 
head. This allows the hinged cover of the Maga- 
zine Back to be opened for loading or unloading, 
or another Magazine Back to be substituted, 
without removing the camera from the tripod. 
The price of this unit is $1.25. 

Agfa Ansco Adopts 68 
Temperature Standard 

# After lengthy study of all factors involved, a 
new temperature standard has been adopted by 
Agfa Ansco, specifying a value of 68° Fahren- 
heit (20° Centigrade) for the development of 
Agfa films and papers. Recommendations have 
formerly called for a developing temperature of 
65° F. with films, 70° F. with papers. 

Chief among the reasons for establishing t he 
new temperature standard has been the desire to 
simplify existing separate recommendations on 
film and paper development which have in the 
past been a source of some confusion. Related 
to this condition has also been the realization 
that developing solutions can usually be main- 
tained more easih al 68° than 65°. 

It is expected that photographers using Agfa 
materials will experience little <>r no difficulty 
in changing over to the new standard and main- 
taining uniform quality in their results. Current 
issues of instruction --heels and booklets for Agfa 
photographic materials will obviously not be in 
agreement with the new temperature standard, 
hut this situation will be corrected as new edi- 
tions are printed incorporating the 68° F. tem- 
perature standard. 

New G.E. Photoflash No. 50 

G. E. 'Speed Midget" 

9 Development of a new and revolutionaiy 
photoflash lamp producing a flash so brief as to 
freeze moderate motion and so fast as to greatly 
simplify synchronization was announced by Gen- 
eral Electric's lamp department at Nela Park. It 
is called the G-E Mazda Speed Midget Photo- 
flash Lamp SM. 

Although the SM has the same shape and size 
as that of the popular G-E mighty midget No. 5 
flash lamp, it comes to peak of flash in l/200th 
of a second. In other words, the flash of the 
new "speed midget" lamp reaches its peak four 
times faster than does the flash from the No. 5 
or the flash of any other G-E synchro-press lamp. 

The new source produces only about one-fourth 
as much light as does the G-E No. 5 midget bulb. 
Nevertheless, the SM's flash has been found to 
be ample when used with the improved films 
now available. Thus the SM fits into the trend 
toward ever-faster film speeds, better lenses, and 
smaller equipments. 

Human and animal subjects photographed by 
the new speed midget seem to be less aware of 
its mild flash of short duration than they are of 
flashes produced by other photolamps. 

Unlike other types of photoflash lamps, the 
G-E SM lamp employs no aluminum leaf, free 
wire, or shredded foil within its bulb. Instead, 
a small amount of chemical paste applied to the 
ends of the lead-in wires (in an atmosphere of 
oxygen) produces the SM's rapid flash. List 
price 13 cents. 

Beattie Hollywood Hi-Lite 
New Catalog Ready 

A new catalogue of magazine type is now com- 
ing off the press for Beattie's Hollywood Hi-Lite 
Co., manufacturers of fluorescent and incande- 
scent lighting equipment for photographic studios. 
The publication is said to include reproductions 
ill the liner work of some of the nation's leading 
Mill photographers, illustrations and methods for 
obtaining dramatic lighting effects, as well as a 
complete and informative description of the new 
models brought out this year by this firm. 

Copies are free on request to readers of Inter- 
national Photographer at the main offices at 

1560 North Vine Street, while a Beattie equipped 
studio is open for the inspection of both profes- 
sionals and amateurs. 

Kodachrome Processing Now 
Possible at Three Places 

• Kodachrome Film in the 35mm. and Bantam 
sizes can now be processed at laboratories in 
Rochester, Chicago, and Hollywood, and should 
be sent to the nearest one, the Eastman Kodak 
Company announces. The addresses are: 

Eastman Kodak Company, 1017 N. Las Palmas 
Avenue, Hollywood, California; Eastman Kodak 
Company, 1712 Prairie Avenue, Chicago, Illinois; 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York. 

New Address Landers Camera Rentals 

• Landers Camera Rentals has moved and is 
now located at 6373 DeLongpre Avenue, near 
Ivar Street, Hollywood. This is only a few blocks 
from the old location and the phone number re- 
mains the same. Sam feels that his customers and 
friends will find it easier to park their cars near 
the new DeLongpre address. 

Powerful New G. E. Photoflash 

• A new powerful photoflash lamp — designed es- 
pecially for the taking of color photos and news 
pictures of scenes covering considerable area — 
has just been announced by General Electric's 
lamp department at Nela Park, Cleveland. 

Designated as G-E Mazda Photoflash Lamp No. 
50, the new source is rated at 100,000-120,000 
lumen-seconds of light output. Its peak lumens 
are given as 5.5 millions. Light output of this 
new lamp, therefore, is double that of the famil- 
iar G-E Mazda Synchro-Press Lamp No. 21, is 
two-thirds that of G. E.'s huge No. 75 foil-filled 
photoflash lamp. 

That so much light can be generated by a 
flashbulb not much larger than the No. 21 lamp 
is attributed chiefly to the shredded foil with 
which the new No. 50 is filled. The No. 50 
comes in an A21 bulb, has a maximum over-all 
length of 5% inches, and is equipped with a 
medium screw base. 

The G. E. No. 50 comes to peak of flash in 
.03 seconds. It has a list price of 22 cents. 

New Agfa Film for 
Fluorescent Screens 

• Agfa Ansco announces a new film known as 
Fluorapid, which is ideally suited to the direct 
photography of fluorescent screens. It is available 
in various lengths of perforated 35 mm film 
stock. Further information may be obtained by 
writing Medical Film Division, Agfa Ansco, Bing- 
hamton. New York. 

Agfa Minipan and Minipositive Films 

• Photographers and documentary technicians 
engaged in microcopying will be interested in two 
current developments affecting Agfa films used 
in their work. The films involved are Minipan 
and Minipositive. 

Agfa Minipan film, the new and yet already 
popular film of high resolving power for micro- 
copying, is now supplied at a new, lower price. 
The 100-foot darkroom-loading and daylight-load- 
ing 35mm. spools now list at $5.25 each. 

Agfa Minipositive, a new film with an emulsion 
having special characteristics essential for micro- 
copying, is now available to complement the 
function of Agfa Minipan. The standard 100-foot 
length, perforated or imperforated, darkroom- 
loading spool of Minipositive lists at $3.75. For 
prices on other sizes and additional information 
address Graphic Film Division, Agfa Ansco, Bing- 
hamton, New York. 


Process Photography 

colli lox, 


• The use of carbon arc foreground 
lighting in process photography insures 
perfect blending with the light coming 
through the screen. Modern studio art- 
lamps supply light of daylight quality, 
the same as the bigh intensity arcs used 
for projecting the background scene. 

Avoid contrasts in light quality that 
destroy the perfect illusion sought in 
process photography. 


Unit of Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation 

Carbon Sales Division, Cleveland, Ohio 

30 East 42nd Street, New York, N. Y. 

New York, Pittsburgh, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco 

International Photographer for April. 1941 




No truer word was spoken than that bro- 
mide of the screen, "There's Gold in Them 
Thar Hills!" and a direct implication to 
the hills of Hollywood and their immedi- 
ate hilltops, which today are swiftly being 
converted into telecasting tower sights. Al- 
ready has the Don Lee Broadcasting Sys- 
tem completed their elaborate three story 
station, W6XAO, atop of Mount Lee. This 
physically represents the first of several 
stations to follow for the telecasting of 
sight and sound images to a patiently 
awaiting audience, and we say patiently, 
for only too often has this writer or that 
precocious personality predicted that "Tele- 
vision was Just Around the Corner!" 

Just to the west of the Don Lee site 
stands another two thousand feet high hill 
top with its 900 acres adjoining, which has 
been acquired by the Howard Hughes or- 
ganization and recently surveyed for ex- 
tensive development in keeping with the 
announcement that the Hughes' interests 
had acquired a telecast license and had 
planned to immediately invest over a mil- 
lion dollars in experimental research. What 
comes off the Hughes draughting board 
remains to be seen, but from past perform- 
ance we can bet that it will be nothing 
short of stupendous. 


Not to be caught napping, some enter- 
prising Hollywood realtor has already in- 
serted an ad in the local paper that reads: 
"For Sale: Television Enthusiast, here is 
an opportunity to acquire unexcelled build- 
ing site in direct line with Station W6XAO. 
Phone Hollywood 0000." 

Today, television has arrived. It is here, 
and with it a fellow newcomer to the scene. 
Frequency Modulation, that staticless com- 
panion, approved by the Federal Com- 
munications Commission for furnishing 
pure tone quality, together with the flick- 
erless pictures. And that constitutes tele- 
vision as approved after six months of 
deliberation: after the "Go" sign was given 
and then turned off officially. The recom- 
mended 441 lines of scanning per picture 
remains, as well as the succession of 30 
pictures per second. Thus, receivers al- 
ready in use will be able to continue in 
use without having to have changes made 
in the picture transmission circuits. But. 
as the advent of FM for the transmission of 
the sound will necessitate revision of the 
receiver sound circuit, then Chairman Flv 

Captain William L. Prager lecturing on Dimtoni Cathode-ray Tube, 

of the Federal Communications Commis- 
sion was justified in holding back the sale 
of receiver equipment as of six months 
ago, which would have required revision of 
construction and consequent added expense 
to that of an already expensive piece of 
equipment. Of course, this will have to be 
done to those receivers formerly in opera- 
tion with Amplitude Modulation. 

What has the cameraman done to pre- 
pare himself to take his place within the 
ranks of television production? It is 
highly enlightening to look back over the 
pages of The International Photogra- 
pher, and note how closely the editors 
have followed the progress of television. 
Also to note the constant reference to that 
most important position of tele-cameraman. 

Therefore, we quote William L. Prager, 
as of February, 1935: 

"It will be a little longer before the 
studio cameraman need worry about his 
presently secure position. But, at the same 
time, my advice to him is to be prepared 
to then come into his own, for, with the 
coming of television — and it is coming, just 
as sure as fate — the cameraman who in the 
past has often shouldered the added tasks 
of radio operator and even navigator on 
many a film expedition, must now be men- 
tally equipped to meet the requirements 
for the taking of 'film transcriptions' for 
television broadcast as well as the shooting 
of 'direct pick-ups,' otherwise there are go- 
ing to be many new faces seen behind the 
cameras of the future." 

Six short years have come and gone, and 
today many a cameraman has taken advan- 
tage of an opportunity to try his hand at 
operating one of the television cameras at 
the Don Lee Studio, or as a guest of an 
Eastern station. 

As we go to press, Television stands 
ready to give a good accounting for itself. 
Only the setting of a date as to when tele- 
casters may sell picture programs to ad- 
vertisers remains. The National Television 
Systems Committee, as set up by the Radio 
Manufacturers Association, has given back 
to the FCC and the industry a set of stan- 
dards that they could not but accept. 

As for the future, let us lift our eyes to 
the mountains, for from the tops of these 
"hills," there is to be presented to America 
a new medium of entertainment, only lim- 
ited in scope by the actual mechanical ad- 
dition or construction of television image 
booster stations, accompanied by their per- 
fected audible companion, Frequency 
Modulation, which will in much resemble 
the beacon stations of the airways of today 
from ("oast to Coast. 


Herman a. dg vRy, pioneer 

Herman A. DeVry, founder and president 
of the DeVry Corporation of Chicago, is 
credited with being one of the real pioneers 
in the Motion Picture Equipment and Elec- 
tronic field. 

One of his activities in particular, brings 
out the progressive far-seeing qualities of 
the man. 

For some time past, Mr. DeVry has been 
impressed by a situation in the technical 
side of the Electronic business. He felt 
that far too few young men were preparing 
themselves for skilled work in this field. 
He was aware that not only he, but also 
various other manufacturers in the growing 
field of Electronics must have trained men 
to manufacture, install and service equip- 
ment in order to help the industry as a 
whole prosper. 

It was this situation that prompted Mr. 
DeVry to sponsor and finance a modern 
training program for preparing young men 
for this type of work. Accordingly, he es- 
tablished DeForest's Training, Inc.. 2533 
N. Ashland Ave., Chicago. 

This industrial training organization has 
a practical and modern training laboratory 
set up for this purpose — and just recently 
a new plan of training has been worked 
out that is another important step forward. 
The methods employed are thorough and 
highly effective. They are based upon prac- 
tical facts gained while actually preparing 
voung men for a successful career in this 

In addition to the use of loose-leaf as- 
signments covering the necessary theory, a 
young man is provided with visual instruc- 
tion by means of motion pictures in his 
own home. He is also loaned a series of 
reels of film which contain animated dia- 
grams and drawings. This feature helps 
to present important fundamentals in the 
training in a way that is far more interest- 
ing, more easily understood, and much less 
likely to be forgotten. 

But theory and visual training make up 
only one part of the training program. For 
to help a young man get the valuable prac- 
tical experience so important and necessary 
today, the program provides for actually 
setting up a laboratory in the home of the 
student, so that he can make his own ex- 
periments on a variety of electronic equip- 
ment. Also, the student has at his disposal 
the organization's own very fine laboratory 
in Chicago. Being a practical man him- 
self, Mr. DeVry has thus made generous 
provisions for giving young men an im- 
portant practical background. 

Naturally, such a combination of benefits 
in one training program is bound to bring 
significant results. There are undoubtedly 
a large number of young men in this coun- 
try who would greatly desire the fine op- 
portunity to prepare for Electronics 
through the medium of an organization like 


DeForest's Training. But Mr. DeVry in- 
sists that only the proper type of young 
man should have this opportunity — the 
young man who seems to have certain 
qualifications that should tend to make him 

successful in preparing for and making a 
start in this work. 

DeForest's Training today is a tribute 
indeed to the far-sighted thinking and pio- 
neering that has made Herman A. DeVry 
a leader in the field of Electronic Equip- 
ment and education, for so long a period 
of time. 

Those wishing to enter this field may 
secure information by addressing the 
author, care of International Photographer. 

The Don Lee Television Station, W6XAO, with the highest television antenna in the 

world. Two thousand feet above sea level, seven hundred feet above that of the 

Empire State Building in New York City. (Photo by Al ISimigean.) 

SMPE Spring Convention 

• New scientific advances which have or 
will shortly benefit the movie goer in every 
part of the world will be presented and 
discussed at the 1941 Spring Convention 
of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 
scheduled for May 5 to 8, inclusive, at 
the Sagamore otel, Rochester, N. Y. Em- 
ory Huse. recently elected president, will 

International Photographer for April. 1941 

An important feature new to this con- 
clave is a day-long joint session with the 
Acoustical Society of America, during 
which a symposium of papers by engineers 
of the Bell Telephone Laboratories will be 
presented at the morning and afternoon 
sessions. In the evening the two groups 
will witness a demonstration of stereopho- 
nic sound by the Bell Telephone Labora- 
tories at the Eastman Theatre. 



By Robert M. Parker, 

Instructor of Photography, Frank Wiggins Trade School. 

America is known as a nation producing 
volume. In the "roaring twenties," the ver- 
satile man did not necessarily enjoy many 
advantages. Men were trained for a spe- 
cific operation and in the performance of 
that operation they became remarkably 
adept. A man employed, for instance, in 
a large automobile plant, learned to per- 
form his single duty with such speed and 
ability that he himself was like a smoothly 

functioning cog in a vast machine, pro- 
ducing machines. He did ONE thing and 
he did it well. 

What he did not realize was the fact 
that it was not enough. His single skill 
did not safeguard his future. It was fine 
while it lasted, but when the depression 
came it left many such men on an island. 
They became the great army of the unem- 
ployed and the lesson of over-specialization 

became the lesson for an oncoming genera- 
tion to heed. 

The Frank Wiggins Trade School, a free 
public school, conducted by the Los An- 
geles City Board of Education, is an out- 
standing example of how an educational in- 
stitution can be made a cooperative enter- 
prise and be integrated with the social and 
industrial life of the community. 

The principal of this unique institution 


(1) Student sighting through rang*- finder. This young photographer knows not 1 
only how to use his camera; he knows how it works. (2) Interior of Kalart 
workshop in Hollywood, the facilities of which are available to students at Frank 
Wiggins Trade School. (3) The school. (4) Students working out a problem. 

is Leslie G. Stier, its vice principal in 
charge of women's trades is Miss Estella 
L. Churchill. 

The school's curriculum includes a 
course in photography which is recognized 
as outstanding in California. The objec- 
tive of this school is to prepare people for 
skilled occupation and at the present time 
it is serving 3,400 individuals in fifty-five 
different occupations, comprising some 203 
employment levels. 

In the photographic field, in particular, 
the lesson of specialization will mean that 
our young photographers must be trained 
in self reliance and an understanding of 
the scope of photography, as well as in 
the skills that supplement it, in order to 
contribute to its successful performance. 

For photography is a strange admixture 
of artistry and ingenuity. The part referred 
to as ingenuity covers a remarkably large 
territory, from the building of sets and 
backgrounds to the adjustment and repair 
of mechanical devices. 

To the uninitiated this is surprising. For 
instance, at Frank Wiggins Trade School, 
we find that most applicants for a photo- 
graphic course are puzzled when asked if 
they have a knowledge of the following: 
Woodwork, machine shop practice, sheet 
metal work, bookkeeping, business manage- 
ment. They can understand the questions 
concerning art, chemistry, camera opera- 
tion and processing; but where, they ask. 
will they be using machine shop practice 
as well as work in wood and metal. 

The commercial photographer, however, 
is well aware of the advantages of possess- 
ing such skills, for there are many occa- 
sions which require the fashioning of sets 
and backgrounds, or the adjustment, re- 
pair, and even the construction of various 
mechanical devices. If he is an expert and 
experienced man, he realizes the impor- 
tance of keeping things in working order. 
When a job is promised it must be deliv- 
ered on time, and the photographer may 
be forced to use his ingenuity to overcome 
unexpected obstacles. 

The present day photographer often 
finds it necessary to repair his own camera 
and shutter and since other new devices 
have become aids to his work, there, too, 
in this close contact with the tools of his 
trade a man acquires a respect for his 
material and equipment, sort of reverence 
if you like, for the finely balanced, deli- 
cately precise mechanisms with which he 
deals. He knows what he can do with his 
equipment, and he knows how he can do it. 

It is our problem, then, to supplement 
the training of students in our photogra- 
phic classes with as much experience in 
photo mechanics as is feasible. The young 
man of today, living as he does in a world 
of machines, has a certain natural curiosity 
concerning them, but insufficient opportun- 
ity for close acquaintances, especially in 
the field of fine mechanics. In meeting this 
situation and supplying a need that daily 
grows more acute in the present day crisis 
in world affairs, the Frank Wiggins Trade 

School has played an important role and 
offers a wide variety of courses both ex- 
tensive and intensive and designed to train 
as many students as possible in various 

In the field of Photo Mechanics the 
Frank Wiggins Photographic class has been 
particularly fortunate in obtaining great 
cooperation from the Kalart Company of 
New York and Hollywood. Miss Dubin 
and Mr. Weston of the Hollywood branch 
have made it possible for the students to 
round out their course of training in Photo 
Mechanics. The instruction is given by 
Mr. Weston and the students report to his 
laboratory in Hollywood, where they are 
given a thorough training in assembly, in- 
stallation, adjustment and repairing of 
range finders and flash synchronizers. Miss 
Dubin keeps a record of the progress of 
each student and recommendation is made 
in respect to the future of each. 

In some cases it has been found that 
the student develops an exceptional apti- 
tude for this work and if he desires to fol- 
low it for a vocation, a place in the indus- 
try usually is found for him. Those others 
who do not follow Photo Mechanics as a 
vocation discover that their experience 
helps them to keep their equipment in good 

"Dive Bomber" Troupe 
Working at Naval Base 

• Headed by Errol Flynn and Fred Mac- 
Murray, a company of 150 actors and 
technicians from Warner Bros, studio has 
left here for an extended stay at the U. S. 
Naval Base at San Diego, where many 
scenes of the Technicolor special, "Dive 
Bomber," will be filmed. 

Capt. J. M. Popham and Commander 
Seth Warren have been assigned by the 
Navy Department to advise Michael Curtiz, 
director of the picture, on all matters of 
naval and aviation technique and pro- 
cedure in connection with production of 
the film. 

Beattie Lites 

For Dramatic Effect 

From the great new Beattie line for 1941, 
you may select a lighting system exactly 
right for every type of still photography. 
Fluorescent and incandescent floodlites in 
main source and auxiliaries, the now fa- 
mous Boom-Lite, spots in several sizes. All 
backed by an experience of twenty-three 
years in design of lighting apparatus 
expressly for the still photographer. See 
these great lamps in our demonstration 
studio. See how quality as well as appli- 
cation may be varied to suit subject and 
style. See how they do "what the photog- 
rapher wants them to do". 

NEW CATALOG ... now coming off the 
press, magazine-type catalog packed with 
information for the professional and top- 
flight amateur. Call, write or phone foi 
free copy today. 

Subject: Lois Ranson, jeatured in "Angels with 
Broken Wings", a Republic Production. 

ffeattui ((&£&/ utovtt Mfitole fa 



Landers Camera Rentals 


Blimps, Dollies, all Accessories 





Hillside a-jti n i a HEmpstead 

6373 De Longpre Ave. 

8333 Near Ivar Street 1311 


International Photographer for April. 1941 


Motion Picture Equipment 

Studio and Laboratory Tested Since 1929 



New Address: 

1515 Cahuenga Blvd 

Hollywood, California 


Cable address: ARTREEVES 



' f:2.7 and f:3 


for regular and color 

movies of surprising 

qualify. High chromatic 

correction . . . 

Focal lengths 15mm to 100 mm — can be fitted 

in suitable focusing mounts to Amateur and 

Professional Movie Cameras. 


— Patented — 
for 16mm Movie Camera users — voids PARAL- 
LAX between finder and lens — provides full- 
size ground-glass image magnified 10 times. 
Adaptable to lenses 3" and up. Also useful as 
extension tube for shorter focus lenses for 
close-ups. Extensively used in shooting surgical 
operations, small animal life, etc. 

COERZ Parallax-Free FOCUSER 

for Filmo 121 and Simplex-Pockette, no more 
off-center pictures, magnifies 4 and 8x. 
For itftailfil Inftirmatittn Atldrett 
Of ill. IP I 

C. P. Coerz American Optical Co. 

317 East 34th St., New York [ 

American Lens Makers Since 1899 









1600 Broadway New York City 

Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable : CINEQUIP 

1600 Broadway New York City 

Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable: CINEQUIP 
FOR SALE: Like new. H.C.E. "Hollywood" Com- 
bination 35 mm. and 16 mm. automatic one-man 
developing machine. Operating capacity 3000 feet of 
positive or 1500 feet of negative per hour. Price 
CHANGE, 1600 N. Cahuenga Blvd. 
ute. B. B. RAY 

12. LIKE NEW. Up to the min- 
, 300 W. Durante Road, Arcadia, 

sound system, new, 
noise reduction ami 
for immediate use, 
Newsreel recording 
era, complete with 
corder with B. & 
$2. r >0.00. Cash or v, 
camera equipment. 
Ave., Tuekahoe, N. 

quality modern portable .double 
Berndt-Maurer Galvanometer and 
lifier, W. E. microphone, complete 
$2,000.00. Single system R.C.A. 
head for Mitchell Standard Cam- 
motor. $250.00. Finely built re- 
H. Magazine, no Galvanometer, 
ill trade for Mitchell or B. & H. 
DON MALKAMES. 40 Standish 

Tay Garnett Signed by RKO 

• lay Garnett, for many years one of 
Hollywood's top megaphonists, has been 
signed to direct RKO Radio's "Unexpected 
Uncle," which Erich Pommer will place in 
production about May 1st. 

Garnett, who recently directed "Cheers 
for Miss Bishop," has a lengthy list of 
splendid pictures to his credit, including 
such successes as "Seven Sinners," "Slight- 
ly Honorable" and "Eternally Yours." 

TrIANk yOU, 

qREqq TolAisd 


Our congratulations to Gregg Toland for 
his article on "What is Good Photogra- 
phy?" in the March issue of Interna- 
tional Photographer. At last here is 
some light, for information is a form of 
light, and a word of encouragement to the 
other members of the photographic divi- 
sion ; men who do not receive Academy 
awards; men who never are given screen 
credit; men who seldom are mentioned in 
publicity, but men who valiantlv have 
fought and labored for better photography. 

Do they ever get a good word? Seldom! 
Instead it is mostly destructive criticism, 
such as "this is out of focus," "too much 
headroom," "hurry up with that camera," 
"let's get a Western load," "correct that 
slate," "bad composition." 

Do they receive instruction or even a 
hint on what is good photography? Hardly 
ever. Just because we did not receive any 
help in any of our days ( who was there 
to give any? ), just because our bosses kept 
exposure on exteriors so childishly secret, 
is no reason why we should not help these 
"'boys," some of who are now grey haired. 

When a doctor discovers a serum he pub- 
lishes information on it; he lectures on it; 
he does everything possible to make it 
known in order that mankind may benefit. 
Why are discoveries on light so often kept 
in the dark? 

Toland reminds us of El Greco, the fam- 
ous Spanish, Greek-born painter. Other 
maestri of light might well follow the steps 
of "El Greggo" by giving us lectures and 
articles on their experiences with light, as 
well as instruct their assistants and discuss 
the subject with them. Then when the time 
comes land I am sure it will) when they 
are promoted and hand over their jobs to 
these younger men, they will be proud of 
them as having been their students. 

A truly great artist of photography 
should know that the sun, our chief source 
<>( light, does not stop with each sunset; 
but a day has gone that never will return. 
There are many things we can stop, but not 
old man Sol. As time goes on cameramen 
of today should be promoted and become 
the directors, writers and producers of to- 

So let's instruct these younger men, lets 
give the boys a chance. They are entitled 
to it and they have waited long enough. 
Let us see today's cameramen in higher 
positions and as time marches on see to il 
that seconds, assistants, loaders and candi- 
dates to loaders should become tomorrow's 



DEFT treatment and dramatic lighting con- 
tribute much to modern screen productions. 
Unusual effects receive competent support 
from the wide latitude and exact uniformity 
of Eastman negative films. They always can 
be depended upon to meet director and 
cameraman more than halfway. Eastman 
Kodak Company, Rochester, ]\. Y. 

J. E. BRl LATOUR, INC., Distributors 
Fort Lee Chieago Hollywood 


for general studio use when lit tie light is avuilable 


for backgrounds and general exterior work 


1515 No. Cahuenga 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Again and Again! 

For Best Photography 

By popular vote of The Critics 
in the preview poll of 


Proclaims the achievement of 



For the Twentieth Century-Fox Production 



Directoi ol Photography ^'^^^'^ 


Operative Cameraman ifl| \+ i - 


Assistant Cameraman 


and Daily Prints 


Twentieth Century-Fox ^m 
West Coast J^M 


Brulatour Service 

MAy, 1941 


w i 



,*. f i« 


.„.., , 

,«.. - ■< 



* ,& *» J S'"-"" -; m 


* * 

= r . : w* 


A big step forward 

Du Pont tyine. Giain Positives 

These new films record and reproduce 
sound with greater fidelity. They enhance 
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Vol. XIII 

May, 1941 

No. 4 


The Cinema Triangle, Miller — Page 3 

"Art" on a Mountain Top, Fernstrom — Page 5 

"Necessary Evil" Get His First Break — Page 7 

S.M.P.E. Convention— Page 10 

Up in the Air, McGregor — Page 16 

Moving Mountain at Warner Bros. — Page 26 


-Page 2 

Study for Wood Panel, De Angelis- 

Some of the Winners in Still Photography Show — Pages 6, 8, 9 

"Lady from Cheyenne," Jones and Freulich — Pages 13, 14, 15 


16 mm Department — Page 20 
The Say, Rella — Page 21 
Tradewinds — Page 22 
Television — Page 24 
Patents, Fulwider — Page 25 

Editor, Herbert Ali.ek 

Business Manager, Helen Boyce. Art Editor, John Corydon Hill. 
Contributing Editors: D. K. Allison, George Hurrell, J. N. A. Hawkins, Roman 

Freulich, Ernest Bachrach, Alvin Wyckoff, William V. Draper, Fred Gately, 

George Scheibe. 
Copyright, 1941, by Local 659, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 

and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada. 

Entered as Second Class matter, Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

International Photographer, as the monthly official publication of International Pho 
tographers, Local 659, of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, not only 
represents the entire personnel of photographers engaged in professional produc- 
tion of motion pictures in the United States and Canada, but also serves technicians 
in the studios and theatres, who are members of the International Alliance, as well 
as executives and creative artists of the production community and executives and 
engineers of the manufacturing organizations serving the motion picture industry. 
International Photographer assumes no responsibility for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts or material. 

Subscription Rates: U.S.A., $2.50; Canada-Foreign, $3.00 per year. Single Copy, 25 cents. 
Australian Representative: McGill's News Agency, Melbourne. 

Office of Publication: 6461 Sunset Blvd. (Los Angeles P. 0.), Hollywood, California 

Telephone: Hillside 9189 
Publication Date: 5th of Each Month 



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International Photographer for May, 1941 


By Luigi de Angelis 


By Virgil E. Miller 

i It's a far cry from the Holy Trinity to 
the more or less unholy tripod, but be- 
tween them lies the gamut of triads, tri- 
angles, and trinities, involving the mystical 
number "three", that enters so largely, and 
sometimes uncannily, into the world's af- 
fairs. Our every day, our life cycle, our 
Universe, our religions, our Physical Sci- 
ence, and other phases of life's phenomena, 
may be graphically represented by our 
mathematical triangle and its adaptations. 
The triangle is symbolic of strength and 
symmetry; it lends itself to our conception 
of the completed cycle. 

That much for generalities. We will now 
look for a specific analogy in the work of 
producing motion pictures — the triangle 
that must obtain for a perfect producing 
organization. Needless to say, that tri- 
angle exists; sometimes equilateral, but 
too often irregular, thus giving rise to 
some of the problems of the studio. 

To complete the analogy: It is evident 
that the author, the scenario-writer, and 
the results of their labor, — the STORY, 
form one leg of our triangle. Looking 
further, we recognize the director as being 
very important, his work must be allotted 
a leg in our hypothesis. The third leg of 
this important triangle must be comple- 
mentary to the other two legs, but just as 
important if the triangle is to become a 
strong, symmetrical whole; it must merge 
the story and direction into the perfect 
product, fusing them into a tangible asset, 
the picture on the screen. 

Thus we come to the DIRECTOR OF 
PHOTOGRAPHY. He must be the instru- 
mentality joining the fundamentals of the 
other two sides, which, taken with their 
correlated angles (all other studio help) 
form our producing organization. 

Much could be written concerning the 
relation to each other of the three sides 
and three angles; each is dependent on the 
other, but, being variables, the dependence 
varies, hence our irregular triangles. 
Should any one of our three angles become 
obtuse (try to take in too much territory), 
the other two, by mathematical law, must be- 
come acute (suffer at the other's expense). 
In other words, should the author, the di- 
rector, or the cameraman develop a case 
of ego that is permitted to manifest itself 
to the detriment of the others, they and 
their product suffer, their work loses it's 
intended value. A perfect story, perfectly 
directed and perfectly photographed, gives 
us the perfect picture — the perfect triangle. 
This should be the aim of these three most 
important units, but this consummation of 
their united efforts calls for perfect co- 
operation. Such co-operation most natur- 
ally manifests itself between the writer and 
the director; again, between the director 

and the cameraman ; seldom has it been 
apparent between the writer and the cam- 
eraman. No doubt this is accounted for in 
that the writer and the cameraman are not 
nearly so closely associated in their work 
as the other two groups, but it can be 
shown that their work is interdependable. 
and that they can be of much assistance to 
each other, to the benefit of all. 

Space does not permit of our dwelling 
upon the relation existing between the first 
two groups, only insofar as is necessary 
to present the relation between the writer 
and the director of photography — the gen- 
eral theme of this article. 

To be an author (and this includes the 
scenarist), presupposes a creative imagina- 
tion, but a creative imagination unsup- 
ported by a knowledge of the cameraman's 
magic is terribly handicapped, for such 
knowledge equips him with the power of 
visualization; visualization is the picture 
alchemist's secret in the transmutation of 
thought into action. This crystallized 
thought-action is passed on, through the 
medium of the screen, to the audiences 
whose ultimate reactions are a measure of 
box-office returns, the only criterion of 
success or failure in this mighty industry. 
The cameraman-sculptor, with chiseled 
light and object composition, is the me- 
dium of this thought transference; if the 
screen fails to properly present the writer's 
thought, there is an evident weakness in- 
herent in the structural set-up, the triangle 
is un-equilateral. 

Is this condition due to a certain dis- 
respect accorded the cameraman because 
his work in the past has been partially 
manual? Perhaps, and if so, it has been 
reflected back in the lost potentialities of 
both story and direction. I do not like to 
think that the above condition exists at the 
present time, but I do believe that the cam- 
eraman has not received and does not re- 
ceive the credit due him in the success of 
a picture; he too often has been considered 
a mere mechanic, instead of a person best 
fitted to clothe the writer's thought that 
it may be best presented to the world at 

A knowledge of the manual labor con- 
nected with the photographing of a pro- 
duction, and a general understanding of 
photographic terms and equipment, does 
not prove of much worth to the writer; he 
must know, or be told, of the ultimate re- 
sults that may be obtained through trick 
work, composition, color values, and most 
of all, the multitudinous values of light 
and shade, for after all, photography is 
but the recording of light and its many 
manifestations. Let him master these 
fundamentals and he can then consider 
himself in a position to work more smooth- 

ly with the man responsible for bringing 
to life his brain children. But since most 
writers do not have the time or inclination 
to master the details of cinematography, 
they should not ignore the help that a 
cameraman is always ready to give, not 
so much in plot-building, but in the ren- 
dition of characters and creating the prop- 
er atmosphere in which they work. 

As the writer's success is dependent on 
the screen success of his brain-children, we 
can readily see how poorly rendered char- 
acters, in an atmosphere that doesn't "ring 
true," will greatly off-set the picture's suc- 
cess, even with an excellent story plot, for 
the audience does not see the picture con- 
ceived in the writer's mind. The Director 
of Photography, knowing the desires of 
the author, can transfer them to the screen 
in such a way that the audience lives and 
laughs and cries and forgets that they are 
merely beholding a story's unfoldment. He 
can light his "sets" so that the intangible 
thing called "atmosphere" becomes tan- 
gible and real ; he can heighten any char- 
acterization or portrayal by lighting it in 
such a way that the audience associates it 
with their own ideas of such visioned en- 
vironment; it exists as they imagine in 
their own experiences, and you have a sym- 
pathetic audience. 

It is not for me to detail the various 
types of lighting necessary in creating 
"atmosphere"; an underworld "den" may 
be weird, shadowy, and suggestive; under- 
lighting, or from beneath, is associated 
with infernal fires, and so on through the 
whole gamut of effects. Suffice to say that 
the cameraman who can most nearly 
"bring to life" the visualization that a 
creative writer must possess in order to 
create, will most truthfully invest the char- 
acters and their environment with their 
proper and most believable picturization. 

The camera's magic and "untruthful- 
ness," properly understood by both writer 
and director, may be made to augment the 
writer's conception as he writes; incorpor- 
ating them in the original thought, they 
are not weakened as in the case of being 
added later as "lean-to's" or afterthoughts. 
Process backgrounds and projection print- 
ers make possible the impossible of a few 
years ago; they are the Aladdin's Lamps 
that transport us into the past or the fu- 
ture; make fantasy real and turn realities 
into fantasy. These things are possible 
because the camera can be made to tell 
untruths, but in "lying" it speaks a great 
truth. The camera is only a thing of metal, 
a dead thing until touched by a Midas of 
Thought. Guided by the cameraman's 
knowledge of its functionings, coupled 
with his years of experience in properly 
"balancing" the composition of objects 

International Photographer for May, 1941 

and light, the camera performs its miracles 
that transforms the writers abstract 
thought into concrete images, that he who 
sees may enjoy what another man may have 
only thought. 

It is such knowledge as this that the 
writer must have or be able to obtain to 
enable him to further his story values and 

give his audience cause to see more of his 
visualized thought. If the Director of Pho- 
tography can, with his lighting, illusions, 
and controlled "atmosphere," enable the 
writer to better his product by more close- 
ly co-operating during a story's inception, 
he immediately simplifies the director's 
problems and enables him to turn out a 
better product. 

In other words, this tri-mutual effort on 
the part of the writer, director, and cam- 
eraman, should strengthen the triangle of 
co-operation so necessary to the ultimate 
benefit of their combined as well as in- 
dividual efforts, and result in a better pic- 
ture for the producer whose money makes 
such "triangles of effort" possible. 


{Based on reports of the Bureau of the 
Census, Department of Commerce.) 

Motion picture production in the United 
States, measured by dollar cost, has in- 
creased approximately three-fold in twenty 
years. The annual production budget now 
exceeds 215 million dollars a year, com- 
pared with 77 million dollars in 1921; 86 
million dollars in 1923; 93 million dollars 
in 1925; 184 million dollars in 1929, and 
197 million dollars in 1937. The figures 
released by the Census Bureau covered the 
year 1939, as reported for the Decennial 
Census of 1940. 

The costs listed include laboratory work 
and positive prints, but do not include any 
part of the cost of distribution and exhi- 
bition. (A Census report recently issued 
showed the annual intake of motion-picture 
theatres at $673,045,000. ) 

The unique nature of the picture produc- 
tion industry is indicated in the Census re- 
port. More than 93 million dollars was 
paid out in executive, supervisory, clerical 
and star salaries, representing nearly 50 


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per cent of all production costs. Wages 
paid to skilled and unskilled manual labor 
amounted to less than half of the salaries 
paid to executives and creative talent. 

Of the $215,664,929 total cost of produc- 
tion, pictures produced in California cost 
$186,848,971. The amount expended in 
New York State was $18,059,670. 

The report does not permit a determina- 
tion of the average cost per negative be- 
cause $38,031,356 represented investments 
in unfinished productions at the end of the 
year. The number of feature subjects in- 
cluded 493 in black and white and 27 in 

Approximately $6,000,000 was expended 
for short subjects, a substantial increase 
over 1937; $6,415,573 was expended for 
positive prints, and nearly $4,500,000 for 
news reels. 

Industrial films produced during the year 
cost more than $2,100,000, compared with 
$855,782 two years earlier, and educational 
films expanded to over $725,000 from 
$320,000 two years earlier. 

Although the production of motion pic- 
tures is not a manufacturing industry, its 
commercial importance is so great that data 
in regard to it have been collected at the 
biennial censuses of manufactures for 1921 
and subsequent years. 

The "Motion pictures, not including pro- 
jection in theatres" industrv, as constituted 
for census purposes, embraces all processes 
and activities connected with the produc- 
tion of motion-picture films, such as the 
preparation and photography of scenes, the 
development of exposed films, the printing 
of projection films, and other studio and 
laboratory work necessary in connection 
with the production of projection films for 
use.. It does not, however, include the dis- 
tribution of these films and their projection 
in theatres. No data are included for estab- 
lishments that reported less than $5,000 
as the cost of work done during the census 

The salaried personnel reported for this 
industr) comprises officers of corporations, 
supervisory and clerical employees, and 
also many productive employees, such as 
scenario writers, unit managers and assis- 
tant directors, actors, technical employees, 
and extra talent. The wage earners are 
those engaged chiefly in skilled and un- 

skilled manual labor, and comprise car- 
penters, painters, prop makers, laboratory 
and wardrobe workers, property men, etc. 
This item includes the cost of work done 
in 1939 on films that were completed after 
the close of that year, but does not include 
the cost of work done prior to 1939 on 
films completed within the year. It does, 
however, include receipts for laboratory 
and other work done for others, and for 
use of studio facilities. 


Inadvertently, in our March issue, cer- 
tain points which should be of interest to 
our readers were not mentioned in Ira 
Hoke's article, "Some Historical Facts." 
Therefore, we quote a letter received from 
Agfa Ansco, Binghamton, New York: 

"Mr. Herbert Aller, Editor 

International Photocrapher, 
6461 Sunset Boulevard, 
Hollywood, Calif. 

Dear Mr. Aller: 

"In looking over the March issue of In- 
ternational Photographer, we noticed 
an article entitled "Some Historical Facts," 
by Ira Hoke. 

"This seemed to neglect completely any 
historical facts regarding Agfa Ansco or 
our contributions to the photographic in- 
dustry, which of course includes the fact 
that we own the original patents on roll 
film or 'flexible' film and that our Super- 
pan Press and Ultra Speed Pan were the 
first modern high-speed films as we know 
them today. 

"Naturally with 99 years of history as an 
American manufacturer, there is a pretty 
sizable list of firsts that are attributable to 
us, and of course a great deal of the mod- 
ern improvements in photography are the 
results of our research. Therefore it seem- 
ed a little peculiar that in this article, 
"Some Historical Facts," no mention was 
made of this. 

Cordially yours, 
Robert M. Dunn, 

Advertising Department." 


Back in 1928 when I was still a newsreel 
cameraman, the boss used to say, "Cut out 
the ART and get the picture!" But, after 
all, I thought, what was the use of study- 
ing all over Europe ( there was one then ) 
the art of the great masters unless I found 
an outlet for the knowledge I was sopping 
? It seems I was in the wrong end of 


the game, so I cut the news and strove for 

| art. Sketching and painting were slow for 

!,my temperament, but color intrigued me. 

In 1930 I was back in Europe shooting 

travelogues in color, thus having a lot of 

fun combining my studies with actual 

practice. All the patterns, balance, forms 

and curves provided by Nature, from the 

floor of the desert to the highest mountain 

tops, and the habitation upon them, were 

'. the subjects painted by my camera. And 

i the top of a mountain was one of my most 

recent subjects, animated with the flying 

! feet of a dozen expert skiiers. 

Leon C. Shelly, who produced the novel 
travel film "Beautiful British Columbia," 
, sent for me to produce his latest, one on 
sports. Having just finished four other 
color shorts on sporting events for Del 
Frazier at Warner Bros. I guess Mr. Shelly 
thought I must be in such fine fettle that 
he need not explain exactly what the sport 
was to be. All I knew was that he had 
some snow stuff in mind. I thought we 
would drive out in his car to some snowy 
location, set up, shoot, and rush back to 
the hotel and re - - - lax. That was about 
the speed with which we shot each sequence 
last summer and aforesaid reel of "Beauti- 
ful British Columbia" ended up with 187 
such snappy scenes, more or less artistic, 
depending upon whether you and the audi- 
ence like my style of art with a color 

With black and white we grab ourselves 
the various films we want, a flock of filters 
from the palest yellows to deep brown, 
reds that compete with the spectrum, dif- 
fusers of our choice and a lot of burned 
gauzes, as well as other colored filters and 
graduates. In color we are really begin- 
ning to do the same thing. Personally, 
still striving for that art, I utilize prac- 
tically as many pieces of glass and cloth 
as do many of the camera gentry of the 
major studios of Hollywood. It doesn't 
make a bit of difference as to the color 
process being used. For example, on many 
scenes of "Beautiful British Columbia" I 
had as many as four elements of glass and 
cloth in front of the lens. My pet is a 
neutral density polaroid disk that Land, 
the Boston inventor, made for me back in 
Boston when I shot a "Popular Science" 
subject of his business, Polaroid. There 
is no color at all in this disk and it is one 
of the best color gadgets available for 
color shooting when the angles of light 

International Photographer for May, 1941 

and shooting prove right by visual check. 
With experience it is easy to know the best 
times of day the sun angles for Polaroid 
so that the artist can get the utmost "paint- 
ing" with this aid. This, combined with 
other filters to balance the exposure in 
scene and sky, another to correct for the 
color of daylight, plus gauzing for edges 
where sharp tree branches might give one 
ocular lacerations, really brings out the 
most beautiful aspects of a particularly 
pleasing composition. At least it pleases 
the photographer, and if many who see it 
are pleased you get a slow elation of not 
having wasted years of art study with pen- 
cil and brush. 

We know that all nature is beautiful, 
but the photographer who really can lay 
claim to being an artist is the one who 
chooses for the composition of his scene 
that most beautiful position and angle 
from which to shoot. Then he selects that 
lens which will gather in the greatest 
amount of beauty in the compositional 
limitations of the Academy projection 
aperture limits. My camera has a ground 
glass which shows me exactly what the 
projection screen area is going to be. Thus 
I see on the ground glass exactly what the 
audience is going to enjoy or reject. So . . . 
in my search for beauty . . . and beauty is 
my business, I answered the call of Shelly 
and hopped a train for Canada. 

Too late I found out that our location 
was the top of a mountain ! We had to 
climb it, Mt. Revelstoke, up near the Can- 
adian Rockies, a climb of five miles to 
6500 feet at the summit. There was a chalet 
where we were to live ... we had to pack 
the equipment on our backs . . . and make it 

By Ray Fernstrom 

on skiis. I hadn't been on skiis since I was 
a kid. What a herringbone, or reasonably 
accurate facsimile. I pounded into the up- 
ward path of that mountain ! After eight 
hours we finally made it. Wolfing supper, 
I went to bed and slept like a pretzel until 
dawn. Awakened by "Come and get it," I 
joined the galloping throng in to break- 
fast, but my gallop was more the waddle 
of a sidewinder. I felt as if I'd slept with 
skiis, pack and poles on. 

Breakfast was good and the scenes 
through each window the most magnificent 
picture material ever laid before me. The 
snow-capped Canadian Rockies, balsam 
trees ( picture trees, I called them last 
year), now heavily laden with thick new 
snow, all against a gorgeous blue sky and 
fleecy clouds here, thunderheads there. 
Dessert before breakfast. 

The temperature outside was near zero, 
so I had to wash the oil out of the camera. 
Naturally one never takes equipment into 
warm rooms, so no difficulty was experi- 
enced at any time in regard to the camera. 
We rigged a skii sled for toting the outfit 
about the top and upper slopes, but the 
boys had a hard time of it. Skiis did not 
work while towing or pushing the sled, so 
we tried snow shoes. Without these we 
sank to our hips through the crust. 

Shelly, the producer, is an expert skiier 
and raved about the snow as being the most 
perfect he'd ever seen for sport. To me it 
was all pretty pictures. Art came easy at 
first. We worked slowly away from the 
chalet, shooting in all directions as paint- 
ings presented themselves. 

All we had to do was animate them with 
(Contnuied on page 12) 

Ray Fernstrom and producer Leon C. Shelly 


A few of the Winners 

Deanna Durbin, photographed by RAY JONES, Universal. 
First prize (gold medal), Novelty in still picture. 

Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney by ED CRONENWETH. 
First prize, best action still, Metro Goldwyn Mayer. 


Brenda Joyce by FRANK I'OWOLNY, 2()ih Century Fox. 
Second place winner, best fashion still. 

Marlene Dietrich by HAY JONES, Universal Studios. 
First prize for best action portrait. 

"(NECESSARy EVil" QETS his fJRST bllEAli 

A letter to International Photographer anent First Annual Salon of 
the Still Photographers of the Motion Pieture Studios of Hollywood 

Since the writer appears to be more or 
less well known to the membership of 
Local 659 and prefers to speak his alleged 
mind without fear or favor, let or hind- 
rance, and will in all probability take a 
few candid shots at his friends WHO 
promised Jim Doolittle that this letter will 
be published anonymously. — Editor. 

Dear Sirs: 

The other day while giving my desk a 
long threatened cleaning I came across the 
announcement of Hollywood Studios' Still 
Photography Show. 

"Phooey," phooied I, in my open minded 
manner, just a bunch of production shots, 
the hold-it-for-a-still stuff that retards sche- 
dules, makes a deficit in the budget, gives 
the assistant director one more excuse for 
an intense hatred of mankind, and finds its 
way into some trade journal that nobody 

Calling the City Engineer's Office I found 
that Gordon Street is a tributary to Holly- 
wood Boulevard and so neatly concealed 
on the map I had a feeling it was just the 
proper place to hide a flock of motion pic- 
ture stills! 

Arming myself, figuratively, of course, 
with a hammer and a couple of fistfuls of 
adobe, I set out to do some scientific 
knocking and slinging. In fact, as I drove 
along, I developed the impulse to out- 
fiddle Fidler and out-wince Winchell. Thus 
you can sense the largeness of my purpose. 

Finally I arrived at 1455 Gordon Street 
and entered the portals of the Academy of 
Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 

So, figuratively, of course, I reached for 
my hammer and took a quick squint at the 
catalog to see whom should I take the first 
poke at. Nice-looking piece of printing, 
was my first impression of the guide book; 
big numbers just like on the prints and the 
photographers' names spelled right out 
loud with credits for the studios and pro- 
duction. Looks funny to see a still photo- 
grapher getting top billing with the stars' 
names in teeny-weeny letters! A bit of 
bravery on the part of the Academy to try 
and sell catalogs, I thought, when all the 
dope is pasted on the photographs them- 
selves ! 

To give the works a quick once-over 
seemed the thing to do in order to get a 
sort of perspective. Half an hour of this 
and I had the feeling that while there were 
no high spots, neither were there any 
chuck-holes. A good, level bunch of taking 
and picking, as much a credit almost to the 
judges as to the photographers. But I 
thought the Board much too big-hearted 
in hanging about twice as many prints as 

International Photographer for May, 1941 

rather cramped quarters would accommo- 

It's my idea that an exhibition piece 
needs what we call "carrying quality." 
Ihere's a whole lot of difference between 
the effect of a shot seen at arm's length 
and the same one viewed from across the 
room. Therefore simplicity is the thing. 

On the other hand, I realize that most 
production stills necessarily contain a mass 
of detail essential to the story that cannot 
be rubbed out just to make the shot "arty." 
Cliff Maupin gets pretty close to my tastes 
along this line of reasoning with his back- 
stage shot of Alice Faye as "Lillian Bus- 

Before I got down to looking at the prize 
winners, I thought, "Here's my chance to 
conk the judges with my little hammer!" 
But to my amazement I had no trouble in 
perfect agreement with their award to 
Emmet Schoenbaum for his portrait of 
John Carradine. And I would have been 
glad if he'd gotten something for his "Man 
in the Moon" with Charley Grapewin mak- 
ing some lunar observations through a 
ventilator of the "little house." 

I could easily have gotten into a tangle 
with the committee on classifications. John 
Ellis' "Assassination Scene" is listed as a 
posed production shot and has about as 
much action as I've ever seen. Number 
269, by Eric Carpenter, is called an action 
portrait and shows Judy Garland comfort- 
ably resting in a lawn chair! Number 256, 
by Hal McAlpine, has a nice lot of swing, 
pleasing decorative quality which Miss 
Virginia Dale couldn't have spoiled if she'd 
tried. She's carrying too much shrubbery 
and underbrush in her arms, however, to 
give the shot desirable simplicity. James 
Manatt's action portrait of Igrid Bergman 
stopped at the proper instant, for had his 
shutter faltered I should have felt it my 
duty to march right over to the Hays' office! 

Doesn't Ann Sheridan own any ward- 
robe? Some day I'm going to run across 
a picture of her all dressed up. Maybe I 
have and didn't recognize her. Schuyler 
Crail picks up where George Hurrell left 
off and does all right by her, too. If "gam- 
ma" is the Latin for "gams" I'm going to 
brush up on my mathematics and would 
like nothing better than to do it the way 
Gaston Longet goes about it in his arrange- 
ment of highly adequate hosiery filling 
from a scene in "No, No, Nanette." Anna 
Neagle doesn't take a thing away from the 
picture either. 

Alexander Kahle's "Campaign Speech," 
with Orson Welles, has everything, but the 
print isn't being helped any by being 
mounted cock-eyed and all gowed up with 
penciled "art-work" ( ? ) Lucille Ball is 

practically "gone with the wind" in Kahle's 
shots of her standing over an up-draft. 

Gene Bichee didn't miss a point in his 
portrait of Claudette Colbert. Entirely free 
from the conventions of theatrical photo- 
graphy, he has photographed Claudette just 
as she is and as we are accustomed to see- 
ing her from the loges. 

Lazlo Willinger could have had little 
trouble in merely photographing Bosalind 
Russell as she is. To a susceptible mind, 
she requires few of the artifices of the 
camera. Background's a bit too messed up, 
though, for simplicity. 

The most compelling exhibits were in the 
color section. Though not in competition, 
they represented the only advance since the 
beginning of the cinematographic calendar. 
Ray Jones' shots of Irene Dunn and Peggy 
Moran, while not offered in competition, 
ought to get more recognition than these 
few words of intended commendation. Over 


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"Choir Scene" from "Our Town" by ROBERT COBURN, 
Lesser, UA., second place winner, best posed production still 

'Moderne," Brenda Marshall bj CHARLES SCOTT WELBOURNE, from 
'Footsteps in the Dark," Warner Bros. First prize, best fashion still. 


on the other wall Net Scott gets less atten- 
tion than he's entitled to with four 14 by 
17's of Paulette Goddard. Perfect photo- 
graphy and color. As a dabbler in the 
medium, I was excited to the point of won- 
dering why we don't see more of this work. 

Scotty Welbourne solves a problem for 
me. I always thought defunct flash lamps 
were a total loss the moment they were 
popped. But now I know all one has to 
do is to get Rita Hayworth and sprinkle 
some of these G.E.'s about and there you 
have a picture. Scotty made nice work of it. 

Maybe the Academicians will create an- 
other classification next year and give some 
of the color boys a break. 

About this time my shoes were getting 
a bit hard on the botom, so I took a seat 
to redistribute the weight. John LeRoy 
Johnston must have had the same idea, for 
he edged in alongside and asked me how 
I liked the set-up. Well, I hadn't much 
use for my little hammer up to now and 
I thought I ought to give it a bit of a 
work-out. "It's a credit to all concerned, ' 
I was glad to say. "But . . ." 

"Shoot," he says. "But what?" 

Well, I thought, as I said a while back, 
(here are too many prints shown in rather 
cramped quarters, arrangement of the 
screens a bit confusing and so near together 
that, if several folks are each trying to see 
the same print, there's a traffic jam. 

Classifications always baffle me just as 
they have here. I don't see what difference 
it makes to the public or to the studio 
either, for that matter, whether a man 
makes a picture with a speed-gun, 8 by 10, 
or a brownie, provided he gets the stuff. 
Of course, I'm willing to defer to the fact 

that 8 by 10's are necessary in production 
work, but I'm speaking of exhibition ma- 

The front page of the catalog looks like 
the credit titles on a half a dozen super- 
specials. Too many judges. I cannot see 
'how so many could possibly have gotten 
together on a single subject! A jury of 
• one man would be ideal, except I'm will- 
ing to concede the likelihood that a terrible 
squawk would go up from all over. Not 
more than three would be entirely practical 
and they ought to be photographers, not 
executives from the several branches of the 
industry. These latter had their say when 
the pictures were first made. 

Then I'd suggest that, during the year, 
the individuals have the privilege of sav- 
ing out certain shots they think might be 
good exhibition stuff before it gets lost in 
the archives. He would then be able to 

have some jurisdiction in the matter of 
!i . . , . . . . 

ms particular tastes in cropping, printing 

and mounting. Too much of the art shown 

looks a bit factory made. In some instances, 

■•it's my guess that the chap who might 

have had some good stuff to show "don't 

work here any more." 

Anyway, John, I do like the salon im- 
mensely and since it isn't damned with 
being an "art exhibit," it's entertaining. 
If it gets around, I'll bet next year it'll 
prove a sensation, especiallv in centers 
where the back-stage scene is still a novelty. 

And if it doesn't wake up an interest 
among the still photographers and give 
them the itch to do better work and more 
of it, I'm sure there ought to be a few 
new names in next year's catalog. 

Wonder where I laid my little hammer? 

International Photographer for May, 1941 

"Skiers on Mountain" from "The Mortal Storm" by MERRITT SIBRALD, 
Metro Goldwyn Mayer. First prize, best action production still. 

Portrait by Baby Sandy by ED ESTABROOK, Universal Studios. 
Second place winner (Certificate of Merit), best posed portrait study. 




MAY 5-8, 1941 

The Papers Committee submits for the consid- 
eration of the membership the following abstracts 
of papers to be presented at the Spring Conten- 
tion. It is hoped that the publication of these ab- 
stracts will encourage attendance at the meeting 
and faciliate discussion. The papers presented at 
Conventions constitute the bulk of the materia! 
published in the Journal. The abstracts may there- 
fore be used as convenient reference until the 
papers are published. 

A. C. Downes, Editorial Vice-President 

S. Harris. Chairman. Papers Committee 

G. A. Chambers, Chairman, IP est Coast Papers 

P. Arnold P. J. Larsen 

F. T. Bowditch G. E. Matthews 

F. L. Eich W. H. Offenhauser 

R. E. Farnham R. R. Scoville 

C. Flannagan S. P. Solow 

E. W. Kellogc W. V. Wolfe 

Five New Models of 16-mm Sound Koda- 
scopes; W. E. Merriman. Eastman Kodak Co.. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

A new line of Eastman 16-mm sound projectors 
identified by the model numbers, F, FB, FB-25, 
FS-10, and FB-40, will be described. The picture 
mechanisms and sound-heads of all models are 
identical. The difference among the models lies 
in the finish, the carrying cases, the power output 
of the amplifier, and the speaker equipment. The 
first three models will operate on alternating or 
direct current; the last two are for 50-60 cycle 
duty. Some of the standard features of these pro- 
jectors are a 750-watt projection lamp and a 2- 
inch projection lens of F/1.6 aperture. There is 
a focus adjustment on the scanning optics lo 
permit satisfactory reproduction from either re- 
versed negative or positive contact prints. A care- 
fully designed rotary stabilizer is common to all 
models. A rotary snap switch, which turns on the 
pilot light, motor, and projection lamp in the 
proper sequence, is also standard equipment. 

Air-Conditioning Safety Device for The- 
aters; E. R. Morin, Connecticut Stale Police, 
Hartford, Conn. 

A new fire damper release and method of pre- 
venting smoke from being recirculated or pumped 
into a theater auditorium through the air-condi- 
ticning system in the absence of heat or flame 
has just been developed by the Motion Picture 
Division of the Connecticut State Police, and will 
he described in the paper. 

Some Properties of Polished Glass Sur- 
faces; F. Jones, Bausch & Lomb Optical Co., 
Rochester, N. Y. 

A discussion of work done at Mellon Institute 
as the Bausch & Lomb Fellow on the investigation 
of the durability of polished glass surface;- ex- 
posed to ordinary atmospheric attacks; efforts to 
perfect accelerated tests so as to permit rapid 
determination of the durability characteristics of 
different kinds of glass; the application of this 
phenomenon to increasing light transmission; and 
to the artificial stabilization of surfaces on glass 
normally not very durable. 

Improvements in Methods of Surface 
Treatment of Lenses; W. C. Miller, Vard Me- 
chanical Laboratories, Pasadena, Calif. 

As early as 1892 it was known that the reflec- 
tivity of polished glass surfaces was reduced and 
the light transmission increased when a suitable 
thin film was present on the surface of the glass. 
Many efforts to produce such a thin film arti- 
ficially met with only partial success. In the last 
five years two different methods were discovered 
which achieved the desired results. Only one of 
the processes, however, was satisfactory for com- 
mercial application. Great improvements have 
been made in the durability and weather resist- 
ance of the thin films deposited on the lens sur- 
faces by this process. Lenses coated with these 
improved methods require no more careful hand- 
ling than any good lens is entitled to, and finger- 
prints and dust can be removed without detri- 
mental effects to the coating. The thin films can 
not be scratched with anything less hard than a 
metal point. By this process reflectivity can be re- 

Looking Things Over al North American Aviation Plant. 

Left to right: Buzz Holland, head of Photographic Division; Lew Kerkes, electri- 
cian; Len Powers ("al ease" hehind camera); Lester Schorr and (Jus Peterson, 
President of Local 659, IATSE. 


duced from 5 per cent for untreated polished 
surfaces to as low as 0.5 per cent for treated ones. 
Experiments show that even greater reductions are 
possible and should be available in the near 

New and Old Aspects of the Origins of 
96-Cycle Distortion; J. O. Baker, RCA Manu- 
facturing Co.. Camden, N. J., and R. O. Drew, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

The work of previous investigations is reviewed 
and correlated with the results obtained in a com- 
prehensive study of 96-cycle distortion due to the 
presence of sprocket-holes adjacent to the sound- 

This distortion has been known for some time. 
Much improvement has been made by the adop- 
tion of the magnetic-drive recorder, the non-slip 
printer, and the rotary stabilizer sound-head for 
the purpose of overcoming the problem of slip- 

Recording of sound on doubly perforated film 
will introduce 96-cycle disturbances of both am- 
plitude and frequency modulation because of the 
film flexure- and possible variations of film speed 
at the sprocket-hole rate. 

Processing of sound records on doubly perfor- 
ated film will introduce a 96-cycle hum and am- 
plitude modulation depending upon the process- 
ing technic. 

Printing of sound records on doubly perforated 
film introduces 96-cycle hum and disturbances of 
both amplitude and frequency modulation, due to 
film flexure and variations of film speed at sprock- 
et-hole rate. 

Reproducing of sound records on doubly per- 
forated film introduces 96-cycle disturbance be- 
cause of film flexure. 

The use of doubly perforated film for any one 
of the four steps of recording, printing, processing, 
or reproducing will result in a 96-cycle disturb- 
ance of the reproduced sound. 

Since it has been proved that the presence of 
the sprocket-holes adjacent to the sound-track is 
the source of all 96-cycle distortion, and the 
omission of the sprocket holes entirely eliminates 
this distortion, it becomes obvious that singly per- 
forated film should be used throughout all phases 
of sound recording and reproduction if complete 
freedom from 96-cycle distortion is to be obtained. 

A substantial improvement can be realized if 
the singly perforated film is employed only for 
the original negative, master positive, and re- 
recorded negative, and doubly perforated film for 
the release prints. 

The use of singly perforated film throughout all 
phases has a decided advantage of providing ad- 
ditional space, without affecting the picture di- 
mensions for a double-width sound-track or two 
sound-tracks, one for control or other purposes. 

An All-Purpose Sound-Track Printer; 

G. M. Best, Warner Brothers-First National Stu- 
dios, Burbank, Calif. 

When Warner Bros. Studio changed the type of 
recording from variable-density to ultraviolet 
variable-area several years ago, existing printers 
were unable to handle more than one type 01 
printing on a production basis. Hence, certain 
printers had to be set aside for variable-density 
printing only, to take care of the sound-effects 
library; others for ultraviolet printing only; and 
one was segregated for white-light and blue-light 
printing of fine-grain duplicating negatives and 
positives. As all these printers were from twelve 
to seventeen years old, they were not capable ol 
producing prints completely free from weave or 
slippage, so under the supervision of A. J. Ton- 
dreaii. head of the camera and laboratory repair 
shop at the Studio, a completely new printer was 
designed and built to handle all sound-track print- 
ing, both for the studio and release printing. 

Incorporated in one printing head is a novel, 
ium-slip film movement, a selection of filters for 
ultraviolet or fine-grain negative printing at the 
turning of a dial, accurate regulation of light 
I over a scale nearly three times as broad as pre- 
vious printers, and equipment for variable density 
printing. Negative and positive weave is limited 
to ipO.OOl inch, the negative setting being adjust- 
able to take care of negative shrinkage. Operat- 
ing at nearly twice the speed of previous printers, 
four of the new machines provide adequate ser- 
i vice with ten companies shooting and three or 
i more pictures in the clubbing and release stages. 

Some Equipment Problems of the Direct 

16-mm Producer; Loyd Thompson, The Calvin 

Co.. Kansas City, Mo. 

The increased use of direct 16-mrn. production 

for industrial and educational use has caused a 
'■ need for more and better equipment. A great deal 
I of the 16-mm equipment on the open market has 
i been designed for amateur use. Most of this 

equipment gives perfectly satisfactory service even 
[ when used for industrial purposes. However, 

much of it could be redesigned and built better 
j so that it would stand up under hard use and 
; would also allow the user to work faster and 
' easier. A limited survey was made among the 

16-mm film producers to find what was most 
■ wanted in 16-mm equipment and film. Some sug- 
! gestions are made for improvements in film stocks, 

cameras, and sound-recording and projection 
' equipment. Improvements are also suggested for 

16-mm. laboratory service. 

Some Recent Advances in the Photogra- 
phic Process; C. E. K. Mees, Eastman Kodak 

i Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

A popular discussion of recent advances in our 

1 knowledge of what happens when photographic 
materials are exposed and developed. 

The Stereophonic Sound-Film System — 
General Principles; Harvey Fletcher and E. C. 
Wente, Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York, 

i N. Y. 

The general requirements are discussed for an 
ideal recording-reproducing system as determined 
by the characteristics of hearing of a typical group 
of persons listening in a typical concert hall or 
theater. Quantitative values are set down as ideal 
objectives. Although microphones, loud speakers, 

i and amplifiers which had been developed for the 
stereophonic transmission system were available 
for meeting these objectives, no recording medium 
was known which would record the wide dynamic 
range of intensity levels which the objectives in- 
dicated was necessary. However, this wide inten- 
sity range objective was met by using a com- 
pandor in the electrical system. A general dis- 
cussion is given of the reasons for choosing the 
particular compandor used, for using variable- 
area rather than variable-density on the recorded 
film, for using three instead of a greater or lesser 
number of channels. A general description of the 
stereophonic sound-film system is given, including 
the enhancement feature. This feature makes it 
possible to re-record from the original recording, 
at the same time making any desirable changes 
in the dynamic range or frequency response in 
each of the three channels. 

Mechanical and Optical Equipment for 
the Stereophonic Sound-Film System; E. C. 

Wente, R. Biddulph, L. A. Elmer, and A. B. An- 
derson, Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York, 
N. Y. 

The same mechanism is employed for propell- 
ing the film in both recording and reproducing. 
To permit recording of the longer orchestral se- 
lections without interruption, the machines are 
designed to handle film in 2,000-ft. lengths. Spe- 
cial features of the film-propulsion system for 
obtaining great uniformity of speed at the trans- 
lation points are described. The three signal and 
one control-channel currents are recorded by 
means of light-valves of identical construction. 
All four tracks are exposed while the film is 
passing over a free-running supporting roller, 

mounted on the same shaft with a new type of 
internally damped impedance roller. In reproduc- 
tion, each track is exposed through an objective 
of high aperture to light from an incandescent 
source. After passing through the film, the light 
from each track is carried by a glass rod to a 
photoelectric cell. 

The Stereophonic Sound-Film System — 
Theory and Performance of Compandor 

Systems; Harvey Fletcher and W. B. Snow, Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, New York, N. Y. 

The general theory of compandor systems is 
developed and shows that the intensity level of a 
group of signals can be compressed and then ex- 
panded without distorting the signals. It indi- 
cates the conditions necessary for obtaining this 
result. Various types of compandor systems ap- 
■( Continued on page 18) 

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International Photographer for May, 1941 


''art" on 


(Continued from page 5) 

skiiers. Everywhere was virgin snow. 
Here was a chance to sketch patterns, com- 
pleting the composition with effective de- 
signs written by the skiis of our experts. 
To get exactly the effect I wanted a sketch 
was made of each composition as seen in 
the finder. Then I'd sketch in the lines I 
wanted the skiiers to make on the slopes of 
virgin snow. They would pick out land- 
marks and soon the scene was completed. 
Almost every one was identical with the 
original sketch, plus the ACTION. We 
were struggling to obtain pictures in mo- 
tion and the stuff I saw on the screen here 
was most gratifying considering the diffi- 
culties we had to get exactly what we 
wanted. Often the ideal set-up was just a 
few feet out over a cliff, or half down an 
alp, but the boys there were just as anxious 
as we were to get the best, so no job was 
too tough. 

Great areas of white snow, splashed 
with brilliant sunshine, gave us color pho- 
tographers an interesting problem. To aid 
in obtaining the utmost color without flar- 
ing the snow, I went so far as to use com- 
binations of neutral density filters together 
with the polaroid which in addition to its 
other powers of cutting haze, darkening 
skies and cutting glare is a perfect neutral 
filter. The skiiers wore colorful suits and 
we wanted those colors, but we had to hold 
down the snow in order to expose for the 
suits. The combinations did well. 

Fortunately I carry a wide variety of 
graduated neutral densities from clear to 
black and by jamming a collection of them 
from all sides and leaving the costumed 
areas clear, we captured all the color there 
was in the skii suits. Wish I had two of 
those gadgets Joe Walker invented that 
slide graduated neutral filters from both 
sides. I would have used one top and bot- 
tom and the other from the sides. For- 
tunately I had Harrison glass filters, which 
are flats, and no distortion appears even 
when four of them are shot through at one 

Shooting the picture was absolutely 
nothing; my worries began when I thought 
of getting down that mountain on skiis. 
The boys packed the stuff on their back- 
packs and took off at breakneck speed into 
the snow depths below. I had visions of 
film, camera, lenses splattered against trees 
to the right and left! I stood at the sum- 
mit watching them disappear down the 
mountain and no one fell. I felt better, but 
very lonely. Finally it dawned on me that 
I was alone up there and five miles of ski- 
ing down . . . for me to DO . . . before I 
could even find out if all was well. 

Worry about the stuff soon made me 
desperate, so I shoved off, grasping fran- 

tically at all the bits of advice about skiis 
that I had picked up. Keep your knees to- 
gether . . . lean forward . . . stem to slow- 
up .. . but I couldn't make a snow plow 
out of those skiis . . . at all . . . faster . . . 
faster . . . then . . . POW ... I submerged. 
He's down; he's up; down . . .up; finally 
I didn't know whether I was climbing up 
or sliding down. Four hours later I reached 

A hot bath, food, aboard the train we 
climbed, safe and partly sound; but the 
stuff was okay. Nothing wrecked but the 
cameraman, and the woods are full of 
them; you can even find pieces of one on 
the trees that marked my descent, not ar- 
tistically, down that mountain. If the pic- 
ture is not ART, no one can say I didn't 


"Citizen Kane" as a whole is a noteworthy 
achievement in the cinema world and is 
recommended as a "must" picture on your 
list. Welles and his cast are more than com- 
petent; they are great performers and they 
should give us a continuance of pleasurable 
moments in future production. 

The photography is strikingly real; it 
differs from everything that speaks of mod- 
ern tradition and daringly resorts to some- 
thing which seldom ever has been tried. It 
seems that the angle employed has a tend- 
ency of bringing the characters closer to 
the audience and makes the observer feel 
that he is participating in conversation and 
action taking place on the screen. Whether 
this is accomplished by devising low ceil- 
ings and shooting upwards or at times 
angling the camera so it photographs part 
of a man whose back is turned to the 

screen and full view of another who is 
speaking is a matter which the reviewer 
will not try to discuss. He merely cites the 
reaction, fiery and stimulating, which must 
be acknowledged as caused by something 
different than that which the average pic- 
ture is approached from. Let it be said 
that the reviewer has not noticed this be- 
fore, although it has happened in many 
other cases. Let it be said this is nothing 
new and has been done before. No matter 
what is said, the fact remains that there is 
something terribly exciting about the way 
the camera approached the subject in this 
picture and that is the story you will read 
when you comply with this "must" instruc- 

Gregg Toland received photographic 
credit and Vern Walker is credited for spe- 
cial effects in photography. 

— H. A. 


A previous article in International Pho- 
tographer discussed candid photography 
in its various phases. The pictures which 
appear on pages 14 and 15 have a specific 
meaning to the average layman as well as 
to the magazine patron. They are not pic- 
tures; they are photographic stories so con- 
structed as to satisfy a public curiosity and 
at the same time prove to the person so 
interested in motion picture performance 
that the players respond to the normal, 
natural reactions as do the men and wo- 
men in average life. At the same time it 
permits one to explore a careful study of 
life on location, the hardships and trials of 
trying to work under strained conditions 
when the players must accustom them- 
selves to outdoor life whether or not it 
be pleasant. 

In spite of it all, these pictures bring be- 
fore us the characters in their most natural 
poses. At no time is Loretta Young strained 
or camera shy. In fact, she responds in a 
most unreserved manner, throwing her emo- 
tions aside, expressing her instantaneous 
reaction to the immediate situation. 

Under normal worldly conditions the 
photographer can get along from day to 
day without fear of criticism or worry that 
he is not creating enough interest in pic- 
tures he is shooting, but with the war re- 
moving everything from the front page 
and war pictures holding the interest of all 
readers, the photographer today is faced 
with the formidable problem of preserving 

the interest of readers with type of pic- 
tures, not so much as to the type of pho- 
tography, which will cause one to peruse 
the pictures a second time. 

Thus photographs must speak for them- 
selves and the accompanying words and 
stories be of such secondary importance 
that they are relatively unimportant. 

It is the writer's conviction that the pho- 
tographer on "The Lady from Cheyenne" 
has given us the very thing we have dis- 
cussed here. Had there been gun play, tank 
movement or cavalry charging we could 
then say it was comparable to any war 
picture: but the conditions being entirely 
different we say that it has action, move- 
ment, realism and all other attributes to 
hold the interest of the reader as com- 
pared to other pictures of everyday events 
which are able to create interest merely be- 
cause they are dealing with the subject con- 
tinually on everyone's mind today. 

— H. A. 

Naval Commander to Supervise Movie 

Commander Clyde Lovelace, U.S.N., has 
arrived from the San Diego Naval base to 
serve as technical assistant to Director 
Arthur Lubin during the filming of Uni- 
versal's "Abbott and Costello in the Navy." 

Commander Lovelace is said to have 
supervised the reconditioning at San Diego 
of many of the destroyers turned over to 
Great Britain bv Uncle Sam. 



"Lady from I -lie venue 

The time, about 1870; the place, frontier Wyoming. Top, read- 
ing, left to right: Steve (Robert Preston) and Jim Cork (Edward 
Arnold) start the crooked land auction; Annie (Loretta Young) 
the naive school teacher from Philadelphia to whom Steve in a 
burst of gallantry sells one of the choice lots; bullets tossed into 
the saloon stove frighten two of the bad men; dancing with 

International Photographer for May, 1941 

Stills by Eddie Jones, Roman Fleulich and Ray Jones (portraits). 
Samuel S. Hinds as "Governor Howard," Annie greets Steve, 
who scarcely recognizes her as the dowdy school teacher; hench- 
men of Cork waylay Annie's train to capture her; Mrs. McCuiness 
(Jessie Ralph), who has launched Annie in her plan to rid Lara- 
ville of the Jim Cork gang, triumphantly joins Annie in leading 
the women's parade, while Jim Cork and Steve lead the men. 



THE LADY FROM CHEYENNE," Frank Lloyd Productions 

Loretta Young and Robert Preston on location near Mo- 
jave, California, where much of the picture was shot. 

Loretta Young, who stars in the title role of Frank Lloyd's 
new frontier comedy, "The Lady From Cheyenne," chats 
with Alma Lloyd, daughter of the movie-maker. 

The most photographed street in the world, Universal's 
"Western Street," serves as a Wyoming frontier town. 

Producer Frank Lloyd lines up a lug location scene. He is 
speaking to several hundred extras while the giant camera 
boom swings into line for the "shot." 

Hundreds of Hollywood extra players are served a hot 
lunch in the middle of the Mojave desert of California. 

Stills by Eddie Jones, Roman Freulich and Ray Jones (portraits) 

"Come and get it!" Food in special trucks was dispatched 
daily from Hollywood, more than 100 miles, to the location. 

Relaxing between "takes" of outwitting a gang of crooked 
politicians, Loretta Young practices the age old feat of 
walking on a rail. 

Up llM ThE AIR 

All names used in this story are purely fictitious. 

The S. S. Alexander has just passed 
through the Golden Gate, outward bound, 
and turned south with San Pedro listed 
for the next port. 

We were up forward on the main deck, 
smoking and relaxing from a hard spell 
of work along the Embarcadero of San 
Francisco, where we had photographed 
scenes for the "She Wolf." 

When I say "We," I am referring to the 
camera crew of the Great Feature Play 
Corporation, of Hollywood. 

As the ship passed through the "Gate," 
the big China Clipper, inbound from the 
Orient, passed close overhead, and that 
lead the conversation into the events of 
the Air Races at Ceveland, Ohio, and the 
death of "Bud" Johnson, formally known 
as Lieut. Johnson. 

My assistant, Bill Stevens, asked if it 
was the same Johnson that helped me with 
the scenes used in "The Great Race/ and 
that brought forth a new recital of the 

It was, perhaps, one of the most out- 
standing experiences in my career of dan- 
gerous situations, an experience in which 
impulses acted automatically for self-pres- 
ervation with a realization of the danger 
into which I had been thrown. Not until 
it was all over did I realize the conse- 
quences I would have suffered had I lost 
my ability to think — automatically, in- 

Looking back twenty years, when auto 
racing with big heavy cars, traveling 
around bowl shaped wooden tracks was 
in vogue, I was faced with a moment for 
action that packed a lifetime in about 
twenty seconds of chill-weakening thrill. 

I was a cameraman in production at the 
time, for one of the major producers, en- 
gaged in photographing a thrilling race 
picture featuring a prominent male star 
of that day. 

A sequence had been written in that re- 
quired a scene showing a group of racers 
huddled together, fighting for place, while 
running at top speed around the track. 

A popular track, situated a short distance 
west of Hollywood, was pulling off the 
last race of the season, a sort of handicap, 
with entries of many well known drivers. 

I suggested to the director that I photo- 
graph the entire race from an airplane, 
using long focus lenses that would bring 
the action close up. Well, I had asked for 
something and — got the assignment. 1 
was given a free hand to make all the ar- 
rangements I thought necessary to carry 
through successfully. 

Lieut. "Bud" Johnson, a fine fellow, 
flat nosed, gray-blue sharp eyes and scarred 
from several encounters and crack-ups 

By Burr McGregor 

while flying in France, was idling around 
the lot trying to work up a job of stunt 
flying; he was called into conference with 
the director while we went into the details 
of the story requiring the stunt we wanted 
to get. 

It was arranged that Johnson would 
scout around and find a plane; "crate," 
as he called it. that could be maneuvered 
easily into the positions required; zoom- 
ing, fast climbing and steep banking. 

The morning of the day of the race, 
Johnson called me on the phone and said 
he had secured a pretty good "crate" but 
could get no parachutes. I said I was will- 
ing to take a chance if he was as I wouldn't 
know what to do with a parachute if I had 
one. "0. K.," he said, "meet me at the 
flying field right after lunch and we'll 
rigg'er up." 

With my assistant, I drove to the field 
and unloaded the equipment and waited 
for Johnson. Half an hour later he came 
zooming toward us out of the sky in a stiff 
dive and then leveled out, roaring over 
our heads, or what would have been our 
heads had we not flattened out on the 
ground, then he made a fast climb, circled 
around and landed. He seemed well satis- 
fied that the "crate" would carry us around 
and get what we wanted ; I took his word 
for it since he would be at the controls 
while I did the photographing. 

In those days we did not have the elab- 
orate equipment for working in the air that 
has since been developed, but after a lot 
of fussing we managed to strap and secure 
a tripod in the rear cockpit that would 
hold the heavy camera secure in any posi- 
tion for working over the side and point- 
ing down. 

All set to go, we had to work out signals 
that would enable me to tell him what posi- 
tions to get into. 

First, we decided to do our general work 
from an altitude between five and a thous- 
and feet, but we would go up four thous- 
and feet for a nice full view of the track 
and the crowd. 

"What kind of signals do you want to 
use when we get up," I asked. 

"Well, I'll tell ya," he said, and went 
into a moment of thought. "Ya see, the 
sky's goin' to be crowded t'day and I'll 
have to keep a pretty sharp lookout for 
those amateurs floatin' around: can't never 
guess how they're goin' t'move an' I don't 
want 'em too close." 

"No," I said, "we want racing automo- 
biles in this picture." 

"Well, it's like this," he said. "You're 
in back'v me an' I won't have time t'look 
'round, an'f I did we couldn't hear nothin' 

through the helmets, so I'll tell ya what 
ya do. 

"When we get up high, I'll level out so 
ya can spot around an' see what ya wanna 
get. If ya wanna go left, tap me on the 
left shoulder; right, on the right shoulder: 
If ya wanna zoom down, tap me on the 
bean; if ya wanna level out, knuckle me 
on the back between the shoulder blades, 
— get me?" 

"I get it," I said, "Let's go!" 

I pulled on the overalls and clapped on 
the helmet and goggles and climbed into 
my seat along side the camera. 

Lieut. Johnson looked me over and said, 
"Now listen, kid; keep your feet away 
from those control cables an keep your 
seat strap tight; no tellin' what kind'v a 
stunt I might have ta dive into up there, 
an' quick-like, t'keep away from those 
monkeys with the fancy crates; mind now, 
keep that strap tight or ya might bail outa 
here an' I won't have time t'get under ya!" 

"Don't worry," I said, "I'll keep it tight: 
you just keep lookin' ahead till I rap you 
some place!" 

He climbed into his seat and signaled 
the ground man to turn over the propeller, 
threw in the switch and yelled "Contact." 

With the motor warmed up it only took 
a few turns to get into action. A blast from 
the exhaust, and then a smooth rhythm of 
flowing power as the motor was throttled 
down told us it was hitting smooth and 

Heading into the wind we raced down 
the field and lifted off the ground and 
climbed in circles till we were up to alti- 
tude and sailed over toward the high hills 
north of Hollywood and a position north 
of the track. 

Several flyers came in close to see what 
we were doing, and I thought, "The same 
old nuisance. All you have to do to draw 
a crowd is to set up a motion picture 
camera, even in the desert, and folks'U 
gather 'round and ask if you're making' 
motion pictures!" Here they were doing 
it up here in the air. Lieut. Johnson sig- 
nalled to keep off for maneuvers and they 
sailed away. I reached over and touched 
him on the left shoulder, he looked around 
and I pointed toward the track. 

The atmosphere was clear and crisp, 
visibility perfect, with light and shadow 
conditions just right. In a short few mo- 
ments the track spread out below us with 
thousands of race fans gathered and more 
coming from all directions along every 
road; it was a beautiful sight. Some of 
the racing cars were warming up, spin- 
ning around the track; they looked like 
the little toys of racers displayed in win- 
dows before Christmas. I ground off about 


a hundred feet of film and then signaled 
to go down and level out over the track. 

As we reached the five hundred foot 
level we heard a gun crack, looking down 
we saw the race start. A wonderful view! 
Twelve cars, four abreast in three lines. 
What a roaring bunch as they broke away 
from the line, and what a jockeying sight! 
I swung in a six inch lense and went after 
it. Johnson held the ship beautifully while 
I ground out several hundred feet of film 
• — just what we wanted! 

I was using small magazines to cut down 
wind pressure and now had to reload. 
While I did this Lieut. Johnson climbed 
up to altitude again and flew around till 
I was ready. 

All set, I looked at the track and saw 
that the cars were now pretty well strung 
out, then all of a sudden one of the cars, 
pretty well back, shot out and commenced 
to pass cars like they were standing still 
till it reached the three leaders, and then 
a battle commenced that kept him in a 
pocket; what a moment! 

I reached over and touched Johnson on 
the helmet and pointed out what I wanted 
to get. He nodded — and — we dropped — 
and — my stomach bounced up in my throat 
— I thought. At four hundred feet he lev- 
eled out with my game right below me! 
Was I excited? 

I was so excited I forgot where I was. 
I was so cramped for room that I un- 
strapped my belt and proceeded to crawl 
out on the fuselage so I could get the 
lens aimed at the proper angle; in doing 
so, my left foot touched Johnson's right 
shoulder, and as arranged, he thought I 
wanted him to bank around to the right — 
and he went into a steep bank — and there 
was I — ready to slip off the fuselage to 
drop on the track below. As I started, I 
made a wild grab for the camera and 
reached it with both hands and welded 
them to it in a grasp that couldn't break 
while I hung on the outside of the fuselage 
fluttering like a piece of cloth in the wind ! 
Luckv that camera had been fastened 

By the time Lieut. Johnson wondered 
why I didn't signal to straighten out, he 
looked around. Through his goggles I 
could see his eyes grow wide, like small 
saucers, and then we bounced into an air- 
pocket that almost jerked my arms out as 
the plane hit it. I just hoped I wouldn't 
fall on the track and get run over by one 
of the cars. Silly, what thoughts we get in 
the midst of a dangerous situation. 

Johnson banked sharp to the left, throw- 
ing me against the fuselage, giving me 
a chance to crawl closer to the rim of the 
cockpit, but I hesitated to dive in for fear 
I'd get tangled in the controls, so I just 
laid there on top of the fuselage and hung 
on while he leveled out for the field and 
landed and came to a stop with the motor 
shut off. I wish he had kept the motor 
running so I couldn't have heard his vo- 
cabulary — it was certainly choice and orig- 
inal, but I couldn't answer; now that it 

was all over I was as limp as a rag as my I missed the crack-up on the track, but 

grasp melted off the camera. prevented another by hanging on. 


By Charles R. Ferryman feeding time, stretched across the valley 

After covering the dog races at Ashton, as far as one could see, was a vast sea of 

Idaho, the New York office sent me on to heads, ears and antlers. The feeding strip 

Jackson Hole, Wyoming, to get some pic- is several miles long. 

tures of the elk herds which are fed each The hay is pitched off a moving horse- 
winter by the United States Government. drawn sleigh. The elk are perfectly quiet 
Over 12,000 of these animals were fed and contented as long as the sleigh keeps 
last winter by the Department of the In- moving, but as soon as it stops and a per- 
terior. When the winters are severe the son gets off and starts to walk the elk scat- 
elk come down to these feeding grounds ter in panic. They seem to think that a 
in great numbers and a good many thou- walking man is their enemy, but that a 
sands of tons of alfalfa is required. At horse and sleigh can be trusted. 




No. 22184 
4516 Sunset Boulevard Night SUnset 2-1271 

International Photographer for May, 1941 


S. M. p. E. 

(Continued from page 11) 

plicable to single and multiple-channel systems, 
both with and without pilot control, are discussed. 
Particular emphasis is given to copper oxide- 
varistor types of compressors and expandors, and 
it is shown how they can be used with vacuum 
tube-type rectifiers to obtain very desirable char- 
acteristics. An expandor has been produced hav- 
ing a remarkable property — it introduces a gain 
into the signal channel which is equal to the 
increase of the current in the pilot channel. This 
linear relationship holds through the wide inten- 
sity range of about 50 db. In other words, if the 
electrical power in the pilot channel is increased 
tenfold, the signal leaving the expandor is in- 
creased tenfold. The current in the pilot channel 
may be increased as much as 300 times and still 
t lie signal current going from the expandor will 
be increased by the same factor. Methods have 
been devised for gradually balancing out from the 
signal channels any distortion effects coming 
from the pilot channels. 

The Stereophonic Sound-Film System — 
Pre- and Post-Equalization of Compandor 
Systems; J. C. Steinberg, Bell Telephone Lab- 
oratories, New York, N. Y. 

In order best to fit the volume range of the 
program material into the volume range available 
in sound-film, it is generally advantageous to pre- 
equalize the program material before recording, 
and to compensate for the equalization by means 
of a complementary post-equalizer on reproduc- 
tion. The type and amount of pre-equalization 
depends upon the properties of hearing and on 
the characteristics of the program material and 
the film noise. This paper discusses the relations 
between these quantities for systems using com- 
pandors, where the film noise varies up and down 
in level as the compandor gains vary. Ideally, 
different types of pre-equalization are needed for 
different types of program material, and a com- 
promise must be made if a single type is to be 
used. The considerations leading to the choice 
of the pre-equalization used in the stereophonic 
recording and reproducing system are discussed. 

Electrical Equipment for the Stereophonic 
Sound-Film System; W. B. Snow and A. R. 
Soffel, Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York, 
N. Y. 

An electrical system is described which permits 
the use of sound-film, with its limited signal-to- 
noise ratio, as a recording medium for wide-range 
stereophonic reproduction of symphonic music. 
Noise reduction is accomplished both by pre- 
equalization, rising to 18 db above 8.000 cycles, 
and by automatic signal compression and expan- 
sion of 30 db. 

To secure maximum suppression of noise and 
freedom from distortion, a pilot-operated, flat-top 
compandor system was selected. In each channel 
low level signals are recorded on a separate track 
with constant gain 30 db above normal, which 
places them above the film noise. Higher-level 
signals cause automatic gain reductions and are 
recorded at substantially full modulation. These 
signals vary the intensity of a pilot tone, which 
in turn controls the compressor gain. There is a 
pilot frequency for each of the three channels, 
and the three are combined and recorded together 
on the fourth film-track. During reproduction 
the) an' separated by filters, and operate ex- 
pandors which restore the signals to their original 
forms Inn reduce the noise to inaudible levels. 

The compressor and expandor gains are made 
proportional to pilot level in db, and the ex- 
pandor ranjir over which this relation holds is 
45 db. Therefore a 15-db variation in average 
pilot level during reproduction causes a corre- 
sponding average level change but no distortion. 
This is used to allow expansion of the original 
signal intensity range during recording or re- 

recording by simple gain controls in the pilot 

This paper describes a light-valve incorporating 
developed to accomplish these results, and dis- 
cusses the frequency, load, distortion, noise, and 
dynamic characteristics of both constant and 
variable-gain elements. Also included are consid- 
erations of microphone and loud speaker arrange- 
ment and equalization to secure high fidelity of 

A Light-Valve for the Stereophonic Sound- 
Film System; E. C. Wente. R. Biddulph, Bell 
Telephone Laboratories. New York, N. Y. 

This paper describes a lightvalve incorporating 
large electromagnetic damping and operating di- 
rectly through the ribbon resonance region. Res- 
onance response is only 5 db above low-frequency 
response and so permits easy equalization. A suit- 
able equalizer provides uniform string displace- 
ment per unit driving voltage over the band 30- 
14,000 cycles with very nearly constant phase- 
shift per cycle. Problems of structure and size 
have furnished a mechanical design having sev- 
eral interesting features, among which are me- 
chanical robustness, protection against dirt and 
moisture, built-in ribbon and optical adjustments, 
and an optical system integral with the valve struc- 
ture, thus permitting rapid replacement of valves 
in the recording machine. This unit has proved 
a rugged, stable, light-modulator especially free 
from intermodulation products. 

Internally Damped Rollers; E. C. Wente 
and A. H. Muller, Bell Telephone Laboratories, 
New York, N. Y. 

Special damping rollers, capable of damping 
oscillations of rotating shafts without adding a 
steady load, were first devised by Prof. H. A. 
Rowland. These rollers had either an annular 
channel along the periphery filled with a liquid, 
or a wheel mounted loosely on a shaft co-axially 
fixed in an outer shell, the interspace being filled 
with a liquid. The theory of the action of such 
rollers in reducing fluctuations in the speed of 
rotation caused by disturbances from either the 
load or the driving side is developed and the 
results are illustrated by graphs. A new form of 
roller is described in which liquid filling an annu- 
lar channel within the shell of the roller is 
coupled to the shell by a mechanical resistance. 

A Non-Cinching Film Rewind Machine; 
L. A. Elmer, Bell Telephone Laboratories, New 
York, N. Y. 

Cinching, or the sliding between layers of film 
within a reel, produces scratches and surface 
abrasions which increase the film noise level. 
Cinching is more likely to occur in rewinding 
than anywhere else in the normal usage of sound- 
film. At the beginning of rewinding, when the 
supply reel is full and the take-up reel is empty, 
a small amount of torque is needed for rotating 
the take-up reel. Under this condition the film 
will be wound rather loosely. When the supply 
reel is nearly empty, relatively high film tension 
is required to produce a given torque on the 
supply reel. The torque to be applied to the 
take-up reel will then be high, on account of both 
the high film tension and the large radius arm 
of the film spiral on the reel. This high torque 
is almost certain to cause cinching in the loosely 
wound bottom of the reel. The conditions to be 
satisfied, if cinching is to be avoided, are ana- 
lyzed. A power-driven rewind is described which 
meets these requirements. The film tension is 
controlled by the weight of the film on the supply 
reel at all times during the rewind. 

The Subjective Sharpness of Simulated 
Television Images; M. W. Baldwin, Jr., Bell 
Telephone Laboratories. New York, N. Y. 

Small-size motion pictures, projected out ol 
locus iii simulation of the images reproduced by 
home television receivers, are used in a statistical 
study of the appreciation of sharpness. Sharpness, 
in the subjective sense, is found to increase more 
and more slowly as the physical resolution of the 
image is increased. Images of present television 
grade are shown to be within a region of dimin- 

ishing return with respect to resolution. Equality 
of horizontal and vertical resolutions is found to 
be a very uncritical requirement on the sharpness 
of an image, especially of a fairly sharp one. 

Development and Current Uses of the 
Acoustic Envelope; H. Burris-Meyer, Stevens 
Institute of Technology. Hoboken, N. J. 

The acoustic envelope was developed in August 
of last year for Paul Robeson. Its purpose was 
to produce on the concert stage a zone in which 
acoustic conditions would approximate those of 
a small, highly reverberant studio. Such condi- 
tions were considered desirable since in them 
the artist hears himself easily and makes no 
unusual effort to project. The lack of such condi- 
tions, usually the case in the concert hall, may 
lead to tension and the technical faults incident 

The technic consists in reproducing in the re- 
stricted zone the significant harmonics of the 
voice or instrument. The area within which the 
harmonics are audible must be limited since, for 
concert use, it is generally requisite that the audi- 
ence hear nothing emanating from an electronic 
device. The technic has been employed by Mr. 
Robeson in all his concerts this season, in halls 
of widely varying acoustic characteristics, accom- 
panied by piano and by full symphony orchestra. 
It has also been employed experimentally with 
full orchestra and settings on the stage of the 
Metropolitan Opera House; for a violin solist 
with piano accompaniment; and for choruses of 
over one hundred voices. It can be used without 
affecting radio pick-up. 

Notes on the Mechanism of Disk Record- 
ing and Playback; O. Kornei, The Brush De- 
velopment Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

A theory is developed to explain the well-known 
amplitude losses, in particular of the upper fre- 
quency range, occurring in the transcription of 
lateral-cut sound recordings. These losses may be 
attributed to two different causes, one based upon 
the recording, and the other upon the playback 

The recording loss is due to the effect of the 
mechanical load imposed by the record material 
upon the cutting stylus. The influence of this 
cutting load upon the cutter performance is dis- 
cussed briefly, the experimental determination of 
the load is described, and an empirical law for 
it is established. 

The playback, or translation loss, is caused by 
the elastic deformation of the sound groove under 
the influence of the static and dynamic pick-up 
stylus forces. The resulting deviation of the 
stylus excursion from the actually recorded value 
is, according to the theory, equal to the difference 
betwen the lateral components of the elastic de- 
formations at the convex wall and the concave wall 
of the record groove and can be calculated. The 
playback loss may be positive, zero, or even nega- 
tive, depending upon the conditions. The theory 
is set forth, its limitations and accuracy are dis- 
cussed, and experiments for its verification are de- 
scribed. Calculated curves are shown for the 
translation losses to be expected under various 

Certain general conclusions are derived with a 
particular view to proposed construction prin- 
ciples for pick-ups with reduced translation loss. 

In contradistinction to an ideal pick-up with in- 
finitely small vertical force and stylus impedance, 
the conditions in a practical pick-up with finite 
vertical force are found to call for a certain defi- 
nite stylus mass and a low resonance frequency 
in order to counteract the playback loss effec- 
tively. The necessary stylus mass is found to 
increase with the vertical pick-up force and stylus 
radius and to decrease with the record velocity. 

It is shown that in systems with constant rec- 
ord groove velocity, perfect elimination of the 
translation loss is possible. In other systems, the 
loss can not be avoided completely but may be 
reduced, and the absolute level of the high-fre- 
quency reproduction may be raised. 

Analytic Trealment of Tracking Error and 


Notes on Optimal Pick-Up Design; H. G. 

Baerwald, Brush Development Co., Cleveland, 

A complete analysis is given of a class of dis- 
tortions arising in the reproduction of lateral-cut 
disk recordings. These are due to the varying 
angular deviation between the direction of the 
pivotal axis of the pick-up stylus and the groove 
tangent, commonly referred to as "tracking error." 

As long as the overall distortion present in the 
reproduction is moderate, the system is "almost 
linear," and it is permissible to superpose the 
different components of distortion. This permits 
separate treatment of the tracking error distor- 

In the simple case of a sinusoidal signal, the 
complete Fourier spectrum of the pick-up signal 
is obtained. For general signals, an explicit ana- 
lytical expansion is obtained for the picked-up 

The kinematical effect of the tracking error is 
an alternating advance and delay of the picked- 
up signal with respect to the recorded one. The 
harmonic distortions may thus be characterized 
as side-bands of phase modulation of the signal 
by itself. Compared with the ordinary type of 
non-linear distortion as, e. g., met in tubes, which 
can be correspondingly characterized as amplified 
auto-modulation, the spectral distribution of the 
tracking error distortions is different by empha- 
sis on the higher frequency components. For the 
second-order distortion, which is the prevalent 
type, this emphasis is proportional to frequency. 

The analysis shows that the distortions due to 
tracking error are considerably greater than com- 
monly assumed, regarding both their absolute and 
their nuisance value. Some values given in the 
literature are more than 50 per cent too small, 
due to the omission of rigorous procedure. The 
recording characteristic does not affect the rela- 
tion between ordinary type and tracking distor- 
tions. The distortion is given approximately by 
the weighted tracking error which is inversely 
proportional to the grove radius, and is referred 
to the mean groove radius of the record. 

The pick-up design should reduce the weighted 
tracking error as much as possible. The optimal 
design is uniquely determined as soon as the type 
of approximation is prescribed. It is argued that 
the Tschebychew approximation, which is com- 
monly used in the design of electric wave-filters, 
is also adequate for the present case. For pick- 
ups without offset angle, only second-order ap- 
proximation is possible, while with the right value 
of offset angle, third order approximation becomes 
possible. In the first case, sufficiently small values 
of distortion can barely be obtained with conven- 
tional arm lengths, and in order to avoid un- 
necessary distortions, the pick-up should be care 
fully mounted to obtain the optimal underhang. 
With an offset arm, distortion can easily be re- 
duced to negligible magnitude. The right mount- 
ing is again fairly critical, while the optimal offset 
angle is not. 

Simple design formulas of immediate applica- 
bility are developed covering the whole practical 
field of record sizes, speeds, and arm lengths, and 
the effect of deviations from the optimum designs 
is given. The magnitude of the centripetal effect 
in offset arms is also investigated. 

Judith Anderson in "Lady Scarface" 

Judith Anderson, whose brilliant work 
in "Rebecca" made her a nominee for the 
Academy Award to the best supporting 
actress of 1940, has been signed by RKO- 
Radio Pictures to play the title role in 
"Lady Scarface," which has just gone into 
production with Dennis O'Keefe and 
Frances Neal in the romantic leads. Cliff 
Reid is producing, with Frank Woodruff 
handling the megaphone. 

I like tNeim 

By Ralph Stauh 

Short subjects, long the stepchild of the 
motion picture industry, are coming into 
their own. 

Not only are they getting unprecedented 
shooting schedules, player value and story 
consideration, but ace cinematographers 
are being assigned to short subject units to 
insure their continued excellence. 

Here's a little inside information on the 
new set-up in the short subject field which 
should prove illuminating to those men 
and women whose time is engaged in mak- 
ing movies. When a man is allowed to 
spend 30 days making a one reel film 
where previously he had been compelled 
to get eight reels of film in the can in 
eight days or less, he is pretty happy to 
continue making shorts. That's why I 
like them short. 

When I started making short subjects, 
almost a decade ago, I was a one-man 
operation, producer, director, cameraman, 
actor and often the off-stage voice which 
explained sequences in the picture. 

Now, back with Columbia as producer 
of the Screen Snapshots, I have the pick 
of competent men and women in all spe- 
cialized fields of movie-making to work 

I left the Columbia short subject depart- 
ment to head a similar unit at Warner 
Brothers primarily because I had ambi- 
tions to become a feature picture director. 
That ambition was later realized, but 
sweating blood to get 8,000 or more feet 
of film completed in less than eight days 
doesn't come under the heading of recrea- 

So I'm back at Columbia, with my own 
unit, most of the biggest stars in the busi- 
ness to work with and thirty days to make 
a picture which will run 10 minutes on 
the screen. 

Naturally I like short subjects. They not 
only provided me with my start in this 
business, but they also taught me just 
about everything that can be learned about 
the motion picture industry. 

It looks as if shorts are going to occupy 
an increasingly important place in the 
cinema sun. Not only are they testing 
grounds for stars, or experimental labora- 
tories for technical improvements in all 
fields of the movie industry, but they are 
getting longer runs, increased attention 
from theater men. 

The shorts are probably important to 
every specialized unit in a studio. They 
provide cameramen with opportunities of 
testing innovations; they give directors a 
chance to test new theories and the allow 
little known players an occasion for trying 
their wings. 

I like them short. 

Ralph Staub 

"A Yank in the R.A.F." 

Betty Grable. who has been climbing the 
movie ladder at a fast clip in recent 
months, will co-star with Tyrone Power in 
"A Yank in the R. A. F." which Darryl 
F. Zanuck will produce for 20th Century- 
Fox as one of his costliest films of the 

Henry King will direct the film under 
the associate producership of Lou Edel- 
man. The British Air Ministry, the R.A.F. 
and the British Air Commission are co- 
operating with Zanuck and some of the 
footage will be shot by R.A.F. pilots over 
Germany, France and England. 

Gene Tierney Gets Title Role 
in "Belle Starr" 

Gene Tierney, acclaimed by critics as one 
of Hollywood's most promising young 
actresses, was selected by Darrvl F. Za- 
nuck to play the title role in "Belle Starr," 
drama of the most colorful feminine out- 
law in history, which 20th Century-Fox 
will film in Technicolor. 

This culminates a search which has held 
back production for a year, during which 
forty-seven actresses were tested. Her se- 
lection follows close upon her fine per- 
formance as El lie May in "Tobacco Road." 
The importance of "Belle Starr," in which 
she will share honors with Randolph Scott, 
is expected by the studio to raise her to 
stardom in her own right. 

International Photographer for May, 1941 




Many amateurs with whom we have 
spoken have put the question, "What am I 
doing now that I shouldn't be doing?" and 
point to a strip of film that is a failure. 
Others, when pointed out that a failure is 
due to a violation of a fundamental rule of 
photography, counter with, "But I've seen 
pictures made by people who claimed they 
broke every rule in photography making 
that scene." 

It may be true — in fact, it undoubtedly 
is true — that some very successful shots 
have been made by breaking some of the 
"rules" of photography. But "rules" must 
be broken by experts — professional or 
amateur — who know how to break them, 
why they are breaking them, and aren't 
breaking them just to be breaking a rule, 
but have some definite idea in mind that 
can be executed only by the breaking of a 
certain rule, or rules. It's like an ambu- 
lance racing down the street at a break- 
neck speed in an attempt to get an ailing 
patient to the hospital in time to help him. 
He is breaking the speed laws and many 
other driving laws for a definite reason, 
with an objective in mind. And yet, if we, 
as ordinary motorists, raced down the 
streets at that speed, we might find our- 
selves in the clutches of the law. 

One of the most common mistakes en- 
countered (unless you have a "coated" 
lens ) is the one of shooting without a lens 
hood. This sounds trivial, and many people 
will point out that they've made some very 
good pictures without it. A lens hood is 
NOT trivial, as we will point out in a 
moment, and while some good pictures may 
have been made without it, tbese pictures 
could have had an improved clarity and 
definition had the hood been used. Even 
when there is no direct sunlight hitting the 
lens, the light hitting it from an open sky, 
or reflected from a glaring sidewalk or 
street will be accepted by the lens' outer- 
most component and will be dispersed, re- 
flected, and refracted within the compo- 
nents of the lens and will finally reach the 
film as an overall haze. The extent of the 
haze will depend on the strength of the 
light hitting the lens and the characteris- 
tics of that particular lens. Some lenses 
will offend more than others. If direct sun- 
light should hit the lens a "flare" will lie 
set up in addition to this haze. We are 
all familiar with the haze that appears on 
an object if we attempt to look at it when 
the sunlight is hitting our eyes, even when 
the sun is ;il quite an angle. It is the same 
in a lens. Except that there are more ele- 
ments in a camera lens to aggravate the 
condition. This defect in lenses has been 
overcome by the coating recently developed 
foi that express purpose, but unless your 
lens is coated a lens hood is a MIST. And 

even with the coating, the lens hood is still 

Another common fault amateurs are 
guilty of so frequently is panning too fast. 
We probably should have even said just 
panning. To begin with, the less panning 
in a scene, the better. Panning should be 
used ONLY when absolutely necessary, 
such as when following action. A land- 
scape should never be panned; it should be 
broken up into individual scenes. If, for 
any reason, it is panned, it should be done 
slowly. And smoothly- In panning rapidly 
the individual frames are blurred, due to 
the movement of the camera not having 
been stopped by the shutter, and this blur 
will reproduce on the screen. When fast 
moving action is photographed, obviously 
the moving object followed will be sharp, 
and the fast moving background is blurred. 
But in this case the blur actually adds to 
the value of the scene because it gives the 
added feeling of speed. 

While on the subject of pans, a word 
about lenses. A lens having a compara- 
tively short focal length should be used. 
Lenses of long focal lengths take in only 
a small part of the landscape, and while 
the speed of the pan may be slow enough 
it will photograph much faster. This phe- 
nomenon can best be illustrated by an ex- 
ample of an automobile traveling, let us 
say, 70 miles an hour. If we are close to 
a certain lamp post, and watch it as it 
passes this lamp post, it will appear to be 
fairly flying by. If, however, we are watch- 
ing a whole scene, a little distance from 
the road, and watch this car driving down 
the street, it will seem to be going rather 
slowly. Now, if the scene we are photo- 
graphing is being made with a short focal 
length lens, we will have a wide-angle of 
acceptance and include a large part of the 
landscape, a situation comparable to the 
one where we were watching the automo- 
bile driving down a long stretch of street. 
If, however, and by leaving the camera in 
its same position, we place a long focal 
length lens on the camera, this lens having 
the narrow angle of acceptance characteris- 
tic of them, will merely see the lamp post 
we mentioned. And when the car goes by 
it will appear to be whizzing by. ANY 
movement is exaggerated by a telephoto 
I long focal length) lens, and panning with 
a lens of this type will exaggerate any 
minute inequalities of the movement of the 
camera and make it appear jerky. This 
would pass unnoticed, and be indiscernible 
when the shorter focal length lens is used. 

True, there are times when a very fast 
pan across a certain scene, with the result- 
ant blur that ensues, can be the height of 
a dramatic effect; or it can form an excel- 
lent means for a transitional effect, but this 
must be used knowingly, at the right time, 
and in the right place. 

Another difficulty we have seen with 
amateur films is the lack of proper length 
of scenes. While we expect to go into this 
very important subject at a later date and 
devote the entire article to it, a few words 
here are in order. 

Many enthusiasts will merely point a 
camera and shoot an undetermined amount 
of film, regardless of the subject. The re- 
sult is that many scenes that should rate 
no more than five or six feet of 16 mm. 
footage are dragged out, and when they are 
viewed on the screen the interest will lag 
after this five or so feet has passed. When 
a succession of scenes of this nature are put 
into a picture, the result is a boring film. 
Yes, an editorial job can remedy the situa- 
tion, but more frequently than not the en- 
tire footage is included in the finished pic- 
ture. True, they might hold a certain fas- 
cination for us because they represent a 
record of something that might be of great 
personal interest. In which case the un- 
necessary footage is quite justified — pro- 
vided we keep that film for our own per- 
sonal purpose. But as a picture, something 
we can show to others and keep their inter- 
est, it will be a failure. 

On the other hand many an abortive shot 
is the result of just shooting a few feet, 
either to conserve film, or because the im- 
portance of the scene and the interest it 
could hold has not been given due consid- 
eration. When scenes of this nature are put 
together in a finished film the result is a 
meaningless hodge-podge that becomes so 
confusing that interest lags after the first 
few minutes of running. 

And, in closing, another important thing 
that shouldn't be done: Don't shoot with 
the camera in the hands, unless a tripod is 
entirely impractical. And when this is the 
case don't use a long focal length lens, for 
reasons already mentioned. The key-note 
of modern cinematography in all of its 
phases is smoothness. And shooting with- 
out a tripod is not conducive to the achieve- 
ment of this goal. 

Light-Plane Engine Manufacturer 
Sponsors Aviation Photo Contest 

That the fast-growing aviation industry 
recognizes the wide-spread interest in ama- 
teur photography is indicated in a snap- 
shot contest conducted each month by "The 
Lycoming Star," monthly publication of 
the Lycoming Division of Aviation Manu- 
facturing Corporation, manufacturers of 
aircraft engines and propellers, in Wil- 
liamsport, Pennsylvania. 

The contest is open to all readers of 
"The Lycoming Star," whether or not they 
are affiliated with aviation. Every entrant 
is presented with a gold-plated Lycoming 
wing lapel emblem and the winner of each 
month's competition receives a check for 
$5.00. At the end of the year the monthly 
prize-winning snapshots will be judged for 
a grand prize of $25.00 which is to be 
awarded the photograph voted the best of 
the year. 

A wide variety of aviation scenes are re- 
ceived each month, for the only stipulation 


They Sxy* 


• George Browne, President of the IATSE, 
sits with IA delegates and visiting IA 
brothers at all A. F. of L. Conventions, 
thus establishing a custom seldom followed 
by any IA presidents. 

• Hal Mohr back at General Service, this 
time with Edward Small Productions, and 
of course his good man Friday, Len Pow- 
ers, will be with him. 

• The independent field is coming to life. 

• The unusual amount of pictures being 
photographed in Technicolor at the present 
time point to the fact that color is on the 

• Charles Van Enger working at Univer- 
sal, where it appears he has a permanent 

• Harry Neumann moving from Mono- 
gram to Republic, with Mack Stengler cov- 
ering for him at Monogram. 

• Marcel Grand doing very nicely after 
an appendectomy. 

• Harry Jackson, first; Henry Imus and 
Henry Kruse, assistants, off to Havana, 
Cuba, for backgrounds for Twentieth Cen- 
tury Fox. 

• Leon Shamroy resting after completing 
"Miami" for Twentieth Century Fox. Sham- 
roy has been going at a furious pace. Col- 
laborating with him on "Miami" was ge- 
nial Allen Davey. 

made in the contest, is that entries in some 
way convey the thought of "power by Ly- 

Judges in "The Lycoming Star" Snap- 
shot Contest are Frank J. Gilloon, in 
charge of World Wide Photos, New York 
Times, Cavio F. Sileo, head of Interna- 
tional News Photos and Stanley A. Hed- 
berg, Director of Public Relations of the 
Aviation Manufacturing Corporation and 
former news photo editor of Associated 
Press Photo Service. 

© James Manatt finally got away to Ocala, 
Florida, where he will shoot stills on the 
MGM production, "Yearling." 

• Many of the members of Local 659 have 
received their photographic rating from 
the United States Civil Service Commis- 
sion. It seems that 659 passing at one hun- 
dred per cent rate so far. 

• George Krainukov, who has been a 
newsreel cameraman in the Orient for 
many years and now is visiting in this 
country, tells the wierdest stories of the 
sense of honor of Mongolian bandits. For 
instance, one time when he was kidnapped, 
instead of taking all his money away from 
him, they bargained with him as to how 
much he should pay, and when the sum 
finally was agreed upon they allowed him 
to pay the ransom fee set and then depart. 

• Irby Koverman covering a Fox Movie- 
tone for A I Brick, whose sudden departure 
to parts unknown still remains a mystery. 

• Mervin Freeman making shorts for Pete 
Smith, with Marge Freeman, his charming 
wife, receiving credit as co-director. 

• Mr. and Mrs. Sam Rosen expecting a 
blessed event. 

• Special effects in "Citizen Kane" recom- 
mended for some kind of special award. 

• Duke Green hunting locations in the 
Ozark Mountains for Twentieth Century 
Fox Productions. 

• Bud Fisher, now with Sersen's Depart- 
ment at 20th Century-Fox Studio, and who 
was formerly head of the Camera Depart- 
ment at that studio, managed the 20th Cen- 
tury basketball team which won the A.A.U. 
national championship for 1941. 

• Roy Hunt, First Cameraman at R.K.O. 
and now photographing a parachute pic- 
ture, was a photographer in the British 
Army under the Department of the Minis- 
try of Information in World War No. 1. 

• Harold Smith, Business Representative, 
Local 695, probably is boasting that he is 
the father of a draftee for the year 1965. 

• Larry Kairns, assistant cameraman, 
RKO, is father of a seven pound nine 
ounce boy. 


Landers Camera Rentals 


Blimps, Dollies, all Accessories 




Hillside a -j 7 t n i a HEmpstead 

0373 De Longpre Ave. 

8333 Near Ivar Street 1311 



i f:2.7 and f:3 

f for regular and color 
movies of surprising 
quality. High chromatic 
correction . . . 

Focal lengths 15mm to 100 mm — can be 
in suitable focusing mounts to Amateu 
Professional Movie Cameras. 

r and 


— Patented — 
for 16mm Movie Camera users — voids PARAL- 
LAX between finder and lens — provides full- 
size ground-glass image magnified 10 times. 
Adaptable to lenses 3" and up. Also useful as 
extension tube for shorter focus lenses for 
close-ups. Extensively used in shooting surgical 
operations, small animal life, etc. 

COERZ Parallax-Free FOCUSER 

for Filmo 121 and Simplex-Pockette, no more 
off-center pictures, magnifies 4 and 8x. 

For Detailed Information Address 
Dppt. IP 5 

C. P. Coerz American Optical Co. 

317 East 34th St., New York [ 

American Lens Makers Since 1899 

OWNERS only! 


Are Easy With 


Here's an instrument designed by news pho- 
tographers especially for Super-Speedflash Pho- 
tography — it's the Kalart Sistogun. Today — ace 
photographers use and endorse this focal plane 
Shutter Synchronizer for 3V4 x ^ l A and 4x5 
Speed Graphics. 

The Kalart Sistogun is a compact, precision 
instrument which really completes your Speed 
Graphic. It's low priced, you can install it your- 
self. It may be used with battery cases of most 
synchronizers. With Sistogun and long-peak 
wire-filled flash bulbs, you can get action shots 
even at 1/1000 sec. 

See the Kalart Sistogun. Try it. You, too, will 
say it is made to order for those who want real 
Price $12.00. 


Dept. 1-5 




International Photographer for May, 1941 



Graflex Opens West Coast Office 

Increased demands for Graflex-made photogra- 
phic products on the west coast have resulted in 
the establishment of the Western Division of The 
Folmer Graflex Corporation. Located at 3045 Wil- 
shire Boulevard, Los Angeles, the new division 
will serve Graflex dealers in California. Oregon, 
Washington, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Nevada, 
Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and 
El Paso County in Texas. 

The Graflex Western Division is housed in a 
beautifully designed, modern building in the 
heart of one of Los Angeles' finest shopping dis- 
tricts. The main floor of the new Graflex head- 
quarters is devoted to display, stock and shipping 
rooms. The offices for the Western Division are 
located on a mezzanine floor. The second floor is 
devoted entirely to service, mechanical and repair 

In charge of the Graflex Western Division will 
be Robert G. Weber, Western Sales Manager who 
is already well known to Graflex dealers on the 
coast. John E. Butler, Controller is in charge of 
the offices, and Irving Jacobson is Service Man- 

The Folmer Graflex Corporation cordially in- 
vites all its friends to visit its Pacific Coast home 
in Los Angeles. 

Wabash Lamps Dry Negatives by 

A new way of speed drying negatives with infra- 
red heat energy is provided by the new "sealed- 
silver" heat lamp put out by the Wabash Photo- 
lamp Corporation, Brooklyn, N. Y. The lamp, 
which transmits heat by radiation of infra-red 
rays, has its own built-in reflecting unit in the 
form of a solid pure silver lining sealed inside 
the bulb. This permits concentration of its radiant 
heat energy exactly where wanted and eliminates 
the need for a separate reflector. 

The infra-red heat radiations the lamp develops 
have uncanny penetrating ability. When directed 
at a wet negative, they penetrate through to the 
base of the film and start the drying process 
from within, thus cutting down drying time to a 
mere fraction of the former time. 

In use, the wet negative is suspended between 
two Birdseye heat lamps placed about two feet 
apart. An electric fan is then placed behind the 
negative to send a flow of air across the path 
o f the rays on each side of the film. With this 
set-up, the film will be bone-dry in from 1M- 
to 2 minutes. 

Old negatives that have been ruined by water- 
marks caused by improper drying can be re- 
stored by resoaking them for about 30 minutes 
in a suitable "wetting" solution, rinsing them in 
water, and then drying with radiant heat lamps. 
The lamps can also be used in the same manner 
for drying photographic prints, and in many 
commercial applications such as for drying pho- 
tographic solutions painted on glass. During the 
hoi summer months especially, when solutions 
practically will not dry at all unless in an air- 
conditioned room, infra-red lamps do the work 
in a few minutes. 

In all, three new Birdseye infra-red lamps are 
announced. Two are clear, for use with standard 
reflectors, but the third is the sealed-silver type. 
All are guarantied for 6.000 hours average life. 
Bulletin No. 121 15. describing the use of infra- 
red licit lamps generally, can be had by writing 
the Wabash Photolamp Corporation, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 

Bardwell & McAlister's new "Single Broad" 
with barn door accessory, which eliminates 
the use of Soboe's which the manufacturer 
states facilitates faster shooting and better 
pictures by positive control of light. The 
other accessory, the low bracket, permits 
placing the lamp at any height from eight 
and a half feet to as low as one foot. 

News Picture Competition 

Announcement of the results of the Sixth Na- 
tional News Picture Competition conducted by 
Editor & Publisher reveals another prize-winning 
record for the men using Graflex and Speed Gra- 
phic cameras. All five of the prize-winning pic- 
tures, and all but one of the pictures receiving 
Honorable Mention, were made with these Amer- 
ican-made cameras. 

In accordance with its yearly custom, The 
Folmer Graflex Corporation presented the Gra- 
flex Award for the year's outstanding press pho- 
tography — a diamond-studded gold watch charm 
— to each of the following: First Prize- Winner, 
Borrie Kanter of the Chicago Times for his pic- 
ture "It Shouldn't Happen Here"; Second Prize- 
winner, Clarence Albers of the New York Jour- 
nal and American for his picture "Custody 
Flight": Third Prize-Winner, Samuel Myers of 
Hide World Photos for his picture "Hollings- 
head Fire"; Fourth Prize-Winner, Michael Con- 
verse of the San Jose (Calif.) Mercury Herald 
for Ins picture "The Thrill is Gone"; and Fifth 
Prize-Winner, Hy Peskin of the New York Mir- 
ror for his picture "Kill the Ump!" 

Added laurels for users of Graflex-made cam- 
eras were won in the 1941 New York Press Pho- 
tographers' Association Annual Photo-Exhibit 
where 14 out of the 15 winning pictures were 
made with these cameras — and in the 1941 Pitts- 
burgh Press Photographers Association News Pix 
Exhibit where all L5 winning pictures were made 
with Graflex or Speed Graphic cameras. 

Bell & Howell "Oscillatory Stabilizer" 

Bell & Howell announce a new device which is 
said to eliminate completely all audible trace of 
sound "flutter." 

"Isolation," says B & H, "is the answer. With 
the oscillatory stabilizer we have completely iso- 
lated the stop-and-go film movement from the 
sound drum. Thus no variations in film speed 
ever reach the scanning beam, where the sound 
is 'taken oft" the film, and 'flutter' is eliminated." 

The announcement goes on to explain that as 
the film leaves the usual second sprocket, it 
passes through the new oscillatory stabilizer, 
where any remaining irregularities in film flow, 
no matter how minute, are first reduced to a still 
lower degree and are then completely absorbed 
from the film flow by an oscillatory movement op- 
erating on the principle that opposing forces that 
are equal, cancel each other. Thus, it is claimed, 
only a constant, even flow of film can reach the 
sound drum and the scanning beam. B & H claim 
that in this manner, the cause of sound "flutter" 
is killed at the source, and that Filmosound re- 
production of music and the spoken word reaches 
the ear with a new fidelity, smooth and even to a 
degree hitherto unknown. 

The oscillatory stabilizer is patented and is 
available exclusively on Bell & Howell Filmo- 

For further information, write to the Bell & 
Howell Company, 1801 Larchmont Avenue, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. 

Bardwell & McAlister "Single Broad" 

Bardwell & McAlister, Hollywood lamp manu- 
facturers and well known for their widely used 
"Baby Keg Lite" and the "Dinky Inkie," are now 
placing on the market a new lamp called the 
"Single Broad." The manufacturers announce the 
same high standard of engineering and workman- 
ship as found in the previous models. This new 
"Single Broad" was designed primarily as a filler 
light. It uses either a 500 watt, T-20 clear C-13 
medium bipost, 3200 degrees K and C.P., 3380 
degrees K, or a 750 watt, T-24 Clear C-13 medium 
bipost, 3200 degrees K or C.P. 3380 degrees K. 
The new unit lists for $45.00 complete with double 
riser stand with folding legs and 25 feet of high 
quality rubber cable. 

Kalart Speed Flash Contest Winners 

By using the Speed Flash for pictures form- 
erly attempted with studio lights or sunlight, pho- 
tographers are finding that they capture the spon- 
taneity of action and expression as well as per- 
mitting a greater depth of field. 

The winners in the recently conducted Kalart 
Speed Flash contest are: Truman B. Gordon, Oil 
City, Penn., first prize; Nathaniel Field, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., second; William C. Eckenberg, New 
York, third; Miss Freida Zylstra, Chicago, fourth; 
Mrs. M. Hatry, New York, fifth; William Ter- 
zian, Almhurst, L. I., sixth; A. E. Hallowell, Up- 
per Darby, Penn., seventh; George L. Bewley, 
eighth; F. H. Ragsdale, Los Angeles, ninth, and 
on through a list of thirty-four other winners. 

New Kodak Data Book 

• A new Kodak Data Book, containing exten- 
sive information on the making of Kodachrome 
and black-and-white slides, is announced by the 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester. 

The book will have special interest to educa- 
tors, scientific men, and commercial workers, as 
well as amateur photographers. Price of the new 
"Kodak Data Book— Slides and Transparencies," 
is 25 cents. 

(Continued on page 2H) 



^■laAit QteeyU Motion 

THE girl in the illustration above was caught 
in one phase of a whirl of fast dance routine. 
No human motion is too fast for this lamp. 
Models need not be posed, but may be caught 
in the rehearsal of a bit of action and "'froz;en 1 '' 
with wire-sharp definition. The light provided 
by the Kodatron Speedlamp flash is so power- 
ful that exposures must be made with small 
diaphragm openings, insuring depth of field. 


The Kodatron Speedlamp uses very little current and 
its gas-filled flash tube is good for over 5,000 fully efficient 
flashes before replacement is necessary. No special wiring 
or fusing is required for this lamp. Shutter synchroniza- 
tion is simple. A 50-watt lamp within the flash tube gives 
a preview of the light balance on the subject. 
Kodatron Speedlamp complete, including power 
unit, one Kodatron Flash Tube, 18-inch reflector, 
telescoping standard, and synchronizer cord . . . $400 
Kodatron Flash Tube (replacement) 30 

Descriptive circular will be gladly supplied on request 


International Photographer for May, 1941 



T € L £ V 

For years leading radio inventors of many 
lands have matched their wits to conquer 
the problem of static and other unwanted 
noises that mar radio reception. Among 
these men was Major Armstrong, who 
tackled the problem back in 1915 and who 
today gives us one of his greatest inven- 
tions — Frequency Modulation. 

But just what is Frequency Modulation? 
To answer as simply and briefly as pos- 
sible, it is a new system of radio broad- 
casting. Radio signals are carried by 
waves which have the properties of ampli- 
tude, the height of the wave, and frequen- 
cy, which is the length of the wave. The 
conventional type of broadcasting changes 
the amplitude or height of the wave, 
whereas Frequency Modulation alters the 
frequency, leaving the height alone. Since 
static, including both man-made and nat- 
ural, affects only the amplitude or height 
of the radio wave, not its frequency, such 
static is absent in Frequency Modulation. 
But there is another great advantage! 

Imagine, if you will, that you are listen- 
ing to a Frequency Modulation program. 
An orchestra is playing. Each note comes 
across the miles as if you were sitting in 
the very studio with the orchestra. The 
upper ranges of the violins are clear. Each 
tone reaches your ear with startling real- 

A musician taps the triangle; its "ting" 
comes through with startling clarity. Be- 
tween selections the station is so quiet that 
you hardly can believe your set is turned 
on. Voices and music ring against this 
silent background with a new warmth and 

The announcer whispers, and you start 
at his nearness. A match strikes; you can 
hear it crackle. You can even hear the in- 

By R. P. Daugherty 

take of breath as a cigarette is lit. In 
fact, Frequency Modulation is so life-like 
you feel you can almost reach out and 
shake hands with the announcer. 

Also, if you live in a small town away 
from the main centers of population, you 
probably know what happens when eve- 
ning comes. Distant stations begin to creep 
in on your dial, bringing with them cross- 
talk and other forms of interference that 
at times becomes almost unbearable. Here 
again, Frequency Modulation is the solu- 

This new form of radio transmission has 
the characteristic whereby the stronger of 
two radio signals predominates. You hear 
one or the other, but not both. For in- 
stance, so sharp is the distinction between 
the two F M stations that you can drive 
from one town to another with an F M 
receiver in your car and at one definite 
location you will magically stop hearing 
one station, only to have it replaced by 
the other, without even retuning the re- 

Frequency Modulation therefore makes 
possible the use of hundreds of new broad- 
casting stations. Many small towns can 
have their own broadcasting studios, offer- 
ing programs of superb fidelity and of 
local interest, and unbothered by other 

Numerous stations are already operating 
with this new form of transmission, more 
are authorized for construction — and an 
increasing number of applications are be- 
ing received. In fact, many existing radio 
stations are seeking permits to use this 
new broadcasting medium. Newspapers, 

too, are entering the field. The new appli- 
cants come from virtually all sections of 
the country. At this writing, forty-three 
stations have already been authorized for 
commercial F M operation. 

Since Frequency Modulation programs 
cannot be received on present radio models 
this new system promises a great amount 
of activity ahead in the radio industry. 
While naturally the change-over into Fre- 
quency Modulation could not be made over 
night, in view of the some thirty-odd mil- 
lion radio receivers in this country — there 
is, however, already a surprising amount 
of activity in the production end. 

A number of manufacturers already have 
Frequency Modulation receivers on the 
market, and it is estimated there are sev- 
eral thousand receivers already in use. 
The prices of the sets range from $60.00 
for small table models to several hundred 
for the larger high-fidelity combination 
models. As more sets are sold, this price 
range will of course be reduced. 

To avoid any possibilty of undue obso- 
lescence, it is said that a number of the 
new receivers will be designed to receive 
both the conventional tvpe of radio broad- 
casts and Frequency Modulation. What- 
ever further developments occur in the im- 
mediate years ahead, one thing is certain! 
Frequency Modulation is here to stay. It 
is Electronics' new Blitzkrieg. It is out to 
add a brilliant new chapter of opportuni- 
ties to the history of radio industry, with 
many possibilities for properly trained 

To any of our readers interested in enter- 
ing the field of radio or television the 
writer of the above article will be glad to 
supply information if you address him, 
care of International Photographer. 

• Recently Miss Catharine Sibley in our 
pages issued a challenge to open up the 
new frontier of Television. She pointed 
out the necessity of developing a new tech- 
nique for Television, and of setting up a 
course of program experimentation for 
Television alone. She reports her invita- 
tion to trail blaze, far from going unheed- 
ed, has had surprising and heartening re- 

Among those attending her recently in- 
augurated course on the New Technique of 
Television Production and Acting, given 
under the auspices of the University of 
California Extension Division, were: Mr. 
Paul Kerby, composer and one-time con- 
ductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Sym- 
phony orchestra and musical advisor to 
the Salzurg Festival; Miss Emily Barrye, 


former assistant director with Cecil De 
Mi lie, and now associated with Harold 
Lamb, the historical novelist; Mr. Denison 
Clift, who has directed motion pictures in 
this country and England, and his wife, 
a writer of note; Mr. Norman Lapworth, 
scientist and authority on acoustics, who 
was associated with the University of Cali- 
fornia's famed World's Fair Exhibit in San 
Francisco last year; Miss Mona Hofmann, 
mural painter and assistant to Diego Ri- 
vera on his now famous mural on Pan- 
American Unity; Mrs. Lucie Chapman, who 
with her husband has made a national 
reputation for herself as lecturer and pho- 
tographer of wild animals in America. 

This group with its trained talents in 
varied professions constitutes the nucleus 
of Miss Sibley's production staff for Tele- 

vision program experimentation over Don 
Lee's station W6XAO during the coming 

Survey of Motion Picture 
Equipment in Colleges and Schools 

• A survey of motion picture equipment 
in colleges and high schools in the United 
States and its possessions, compiled by 
Nathan D. Golden, Chief of Motion Pic- 
ture Division, Bureau of Foreign and Do- 
mestic Commerce, may be secured from 
the Educational Department, RCA Manu- 
facturing Company, Inc., Camden, N. J. 
The price is $3.00. The survey includes 
name and location of 17,500 colleges and 
high schools having motion picture and 
slide film facilities. 

P fl T € n T s 

Patent Attorney, Los Angeles 

No. 2,232,827 — Film Fire Screen for 
Motion Picture Apparatus. Nicholas 
A. Nicholson, Johnstown, Pa. Appln. 
April 18, 1939. 4 claims. 
A device for projectors in which the action 
of the film strip passing through the ma- 
chine operates the dowser. 

No. 2,233,010 — Lichttight Packing for 
Photographic Film. Kurt Hipke and 
Alfred Miller, Germany, assignors to 
General Aniline & Film Corp. Appln. 
Feb. 28, 1939. In Germany March 1, 
1938. 4 claims. 
A light-sensitive photographic roll film pro- 
vided with means for preventing the re- 
flection of creeping light in connection 
with said film, said means comprising a 
roughened surface extending across an end 
of the film. 

No. 2,233,284— Film Drive Starting Ap- 
paratus. Milford E. Collins, assignor to 
Radio Corporation of America. Appln. 
April 23, 1938. 9 claims. 
A device for decreasing the starting time of 
film drive apparatus, making use of a mag- 
netic drive which has the magnetic connec- 
tion strengthened while the motor is ac- 

No. 2,233,771 - - Motion Picture Ma- 
chine. Pierino Edward Comi, Wollas- 
ton, Mass. Appln. Aug. 2, 1938. 7 
A motion picture projector which has a 
series of rollers located between the pic- 
ture projection head and the sound head, 
these rollers bearing on the edge of the 
film to prevent its vibrating. 

No. 2,233,809 — Cinematographic Appar- 
atus. John. R. Darby, assignor to Tech- 
nicolor Motion Picture Corp. Appln. 
Jan. 31, 1939. 2 claims. 
A device for printing border lines on mo- 
tion picture film, and using an endless 
opaque film with transparent lines corres- 
ponding to the border lines which is passed 
around a housing having a light in it, with 
a picture film superpositioned on the end- 
less film. 

No. 2,233,839— Moving Picture Project- 
ing Machine. Antoine Heurtier, Saint- 
Etienne, France. Appdn. June 2, 1939. 
In France June 10, 1938. 3 claims. 
A projector adapted to be used with differ- 
ent size films and having correspondingly 
sized sprockets mounted on a rotatable 
plate somewhat similar to a turret plate, 
with a rotating spindle supporting (the 
plate and driving the sprockets. 
No. 2,234,950— Projection Screen. Rob- 
ert E. Barclay, assignor to The Richard- 

International Photographer for May, 1941 

son Co., Lockland, Ohio. Appln. Jan. 24, 
1938. 5 claims. 
A projection screen suitable for both trans- 
mitted and reflected images, and formed of 
a plurality of layers of translucent paper 
bonded together, one surface being pol- 
ished and one being roughened. 
No. 2,235,033 — Combined Sound and 
Color Picture Film. Alfred Miller, as- 
signor to General Aniline & Film Corp. 
Appln. Nov. 5, 1937. In Germany Nov. 
9, 1936. 1 claim. 
A color film having a sound track formed 
in a black and white emulsion on one side 
of the film, with the color emulsions on 
the other side of the film, these likewise 
having the sound track printed in them. 
No. 2,235,743 — Apparatus For Taking 
Stereoscopic Pictures. Pierre Gagli- 
ardi, Paris, France, assignor to Establis- 
sements Emel S. A. R. L., Paris, France. 
Appln. Feb. 9, 1939. In France Feb. 9, 
1938. 3 claims. 
A device for taking stereoscopic pictures 
which has two lenses which are both fo- 
cused by a single adjustment, the same 
adjustment rotating a prism to compensate 
for parallax. 



By Charles R. Ferryman, 
News of the Day 

One of the world's strangest engineering 
undertakings is now under way at Mud 
Mountain Dam in the State of Washing- 
ton. They are covering a deep canyon with 
one of the largest known tents so they can 
build a dam under it, all the while keeping 
everything nice and dry, they hope. 

Thirteen thousand square yards of heavy 
waterproof canvas was cut to fit the zig- 
zag edges of the canyon, where an area 
196 by 328 feet will be covered. The can- 
vas weighs 30,000 pounds dry and will be 
suspended by overhead cables. A series of 
pulleys and cables make it possible to clear 
the snow from the top of it and around 
the canyon walls have been constructed 
gutters into which the huge tent can drain. 

Under this huge protecting canvas men 
and machinery will work for many months 
to come on the earthen core of Mud Moun- 
tain dam. 

Newsmen were not permitted to ride up 
and down into the canyon on the "skip" 
and, as you can see by the photograph, the 
walls are straight up and down, making it 
a tough job getting outfits in or out, hence 
the Eyemos. 

Left to right: Charles Ferryman, News of the Day; Chalmer D. Sinkey, 
Fox Movietone News; Earl Nelson, Universal News and Bill Hudson, 
Pathe News "getting the latest" on Mud Mountain Dam. 



A moving mountain has been brought to 
the interior of the largest sound stage on 
the Warner Bros, studio lot. Its base is 
anchored to a revolving steel table. A 
whirl of the table, which operates on the 
principle of a simple merry-go-round, and 
the mountain will turn any one of its six- 
teen faces to the camera. 

The revolving mountain is just one fea- 
ture of a set constructed for "Sergeant 
York." The original title of this film based 
on the exploits of America's most famous 
World War hero was "The Amazing Story 
of Sergeant York." Art Director John 
Hughes must have planned his key set 
before the title was shortened. Certainly 
this particular background is nothing less 
than amazing. 

In the confines of 250 by 135 feet of 
floor space, Hughes and his technical as- 

sistants have duplicated an entire Cumber- 
land mountain valley flanked by promon- 
tories and ridges, and bisected by a turbu- 
lent, rock-bedded stream. One of the pro- 
montories is the moving mountain. 

The set represents, with complete authen- 
ticity, a part of the Tennessee mountain 
valley of the Three Forks of the Wolf, 
where Alvin C. York was born and reared 
and where he still lives. For various rea- 
sons, chiefly the availability of facilities, it 
was considered more practical to bring a 
part of the Three Forks of the Wolf to Hol- 
lywood than to take a part of Hollywood to 
the Three Forks of the Wolf. 

The revolving mountain was inspired by 
the demands of the screen play. In the first 
place, as Art Director Hughes pointed out, 
a real mountain is as changing in its ap- 
pearance as a chameleon. It looks one 

way in the soft glow of moonlight, pre- 
sents quite another face in the harsh glare 
of noon. 

There are scenes in the picture which 
will show Gary Cooper, who plays Ser- 
geant York, walking the mountain trails by 
moonlight with Joan Leslie, the Gracie Wil- 
liams York of the story. There are other 
scenes which show him looking out over 
the fog-shrouded valley in the early twi- 
light, fox-hunting in the cool morning and 
ploughing the rocky slope in the heat of 
the day. In all there will be sixteen differ- 
ent camera setups requiring the mountain 

Many of the changes could be achieved 
by lighting. Others, involving physical de- 
tails, could not. It would have been pos- 
sible to build six, or sixteen, separate 
mountain sets — deep ravines, rock ledges, 

Revolving "mountain" built on Warner Bros." largest Bound stage 


rugged promontories and cedar thickets. It 
was simpler to combine them all in one, 
once the idea of revolving the mountain 
was conceived. It was also far more effec- 
tive, because the tumbling stream and a 
rock-ribbed ploughing field are always 
there as background or foreground per- 
spective for the various faces of the moun- 

Art Director Hughes had many confer- 
ences with Hal B. Wallis and Jesse L. 
Lasky, producers of the picture, and with 
Howard Hawks, the director. Then he per- 
fected his sketches of the entire setting, 
followed them with a small scale model, 
complete in every detail. Then blueprints 
were made and handed over to Construc- 
tion Foreman Henry Fuhrman, and three 
daily shifts of 75 men each began the phy- 
sical task of bringing mountains to a Holly- 
wood sound stage. It was a job that re- 
quired ten full 24-hour days. 

The circular table upon which the re- 
volving promontory rests is 35 feet in 
diameter. The promontory itself rises to 
a peak 40 feet above the stage floor. Total 
weight of this mountain is 60 tons. 

Across the stream that skirts the base of 

the moving mountain another rocky pro- 
montory rises. This peak is stationary, an- 
chored by steel and concrete to the stage 
floor. So are other ledges and cliffs, and 
so is the hillside slope that Cooper will 
laboriously plough, following a plodding 
mule. That will be real ploughing, too, as 
a coating of dirt eighteen inches deep has 
been placed on the hillside field. 

The mountain stream wanders and 
tumbles a distance of 200 winding feet. Its 
bed has been cemented, to hold the water 
tbat will be fed continuously from a high 
tank, caught in a low one and pumped 
back for use again. Real mountain bould- 
ers have been strewn along the bed, and 
real grass springs from the sod that has 
been set by the stream. In all, two tons 
of boulders were brought to the set for art- 
ful distribution. 

The man-made mountains are creations 
of timber, cloth, plaster moulding, rock 
and soil. The timber supports are so con- 
structed as to give the contours of a real 
mountain. Over them is placed a sheeting 
of heavv cloth. Then the moulded plaster 
"skins" — casts made from moulds taken of 
real rocks, clefts and sections of mountain 

terrain — are placed. There are 600 of those 
"skins," each covering an average of 40 
square feet, on the mountains of Holly- 
wood's "little Three Forks of the Wolf." 

Finally came the soil, the patches of 
grass-growing sod, the shrubs and the trees. 
Real trees, 121 of them, were brought to 
the huge sound stage, which fortunately is 
the largest in Hollywood, and were hoisted 
to new anchorages on the rocky slopes of 
the mountains and the floor of the valley. 
Some of them are pine and oak, but 75 of 
them are cedars. The cedars are the pre- 
dominant trees of the Three Forks of the 
Wolf, and that meant difficulty for the stu- 
dio. There are few cedars in the Southern 
California mountains. It was necessary to 
bring these trees from the northern sections 
of the state. 

Just to be on the safe side, Art Director 
Hughes provided some "spare parts" for 
his revolving and stationary mountains. 
Ten pieces — sheer precipices, jagged peaks, 
a minor promontory or two — were con- 
structed. Mounted on casters so they can 
be swiftly moved into any desired place, 
they stand at a far end of the huge stage, 
ready for an emergency call to action. 

news From tNe sTudios 

"Oomph" Measured Scientifically 

Motion picture studios can save them- 
selves a lot of money by having the sex 
appeal exuded by their potential "oomph" 
girls measured scientifically, according to 
dispatches received at Warner Bros, from 
San Francisco. 

The assertion was made by Dr. Joseph 
W. Catton, noted psychiatrist and professor 
of clinical medicine at Stanford Univer- 
sity. He said "that certain something" was 
susceptible to scientific measurement in a 
lecture to a San Francisco State College 
psychology class. 

In expounding his thesis. Dr. Catton sug- 
gested the term "manpower" as the meas- 
ure of the appeal of a maid for a man, for 
he said it could be measured as accurately 
as engine horsepower. Explaining how it 
is done, he said: 

"One by one, the members of a repre- 
sentative cross-section of the movie-going 
public are shown a photograph of, say, 
Marlene Dietrich. 

"The meter recording of the emotional 
reactions of the average fan to the name 
and the picture of Miss Dietrich are scored 
in units of 'manpower' on devices we have 
to show the psycho-galvanic change, and 
the responses of pulse, blood pressure and 

"Next a group of suggestions is made, 
such as: 

" 'You and Miss Dietrich are picnicking 

' 'You are riding along together in a 

; 'You are dancing with Miss Dietrich.' 
' 'You are kissing Miss Dietrich good 

"Units of credit should be given for 'no 
reaction,' 'mild reaction,' 'strong reaction,' 
on the metered responses. There is your 
measure of 'manpower.' 

"If a motion picture company were to 
apply the tests to a random 100 men and 
thus determine the actress with the greatest 
number of 'manpower' units, this might 
avoid making large investments in abortive 
careers of many young girls who are merely 

Dr. Catton evidently picked a good ex- 
ample, for after his lecture, the psychology 
class conducted a number of such tests 
with the names and photographs of Holly- 
wood's leading exponents of allure and re- 
ported that Marlene Dietrich's "manpow- 
er" rating was 96, the highest score. Ann 
Sheridan, the original "oomph" girl, was 
second with 95, and the next three were 
Betty Grable, Rita Hayworth and Lana 

Make-up Replaces Tights on Sonja 

Streamlining experiments have added an- 
other new trick to Sonja Henie's skating 
technique and incidentally saves her over 
$100 a day during the three-week period 
during which she will film skating se- 
quences for her current 20th Century-Fox 
picture, "Sun Valley." 

Sonja has found that by discarding the 
hip-length silk tights which she has al- 
ways worn, and substituting body make-up 
on her legs, it gives her more freedom of 
action and increases her skating and spin- 
ning speed. So in this picture tights are 
out in favor of make-up. 

The tights which she has always worn 
before cost her $35 a pair, and during a 
day's filming on the rink she wore out an 
average of three pairs a day. Being made 
of over-length silk stockings, a couple of 
hours of activity in them starts a run which 
makes them useless after that. Now there 
won't be any "run" trouble, and Sonja will 
also save time by not having to make 

Sonja also recently discovered that by 
wearing tight shorts, without any skirt, she 
could increase the speed of her spin to 
three times what it would be with a tiny 
short skirt on. These streamlining effects 
are going into "Sun Valley" to provide 
Sonja Henie skating fans with more sensa- 
tional effects to try and copy. 

International Photographer for May, 1941 


Cliff Edwards Forced 
Into Musicians Union 

Cliff Edwards, sometimes known as 
"Ukulele Ike," who has been playing his 
Ukulele on stage and screen for 22 years 
without having to join the Musicians Union, 
has been notified by its president, James 
C. Petrillo, that the ukulele has finally been 
classified as a musical instrument. 

Therefore, Edwards was told, he will 
have to join the union if he wishes to con- 
tinue playing his ukulele on stage or 
screen. He applied for membership at once, 
because he plays the instrument as part of 
his current role in Warner Bros.' "The 
Flight Patrol." co-starring James Stephen- 
son and Ronald Reagan. 

Claudette Colbert in 
"Remember the Day" 

Claudette Colbert, dark-haired film star, 
will return to the 20th Century-Fox lot 
shortly for one of the finest roles of her 
brilliant career. 

Darryl F. Zanuck announced that Miss 
Colbert had been signed to star in the film 
version of the successful stage play, "Re- 
member the Day," which is scheduled to go 
into production after about six weeks. 

The play, one of Broadway's major hits, 
was written by Philo Higley and Philip 
Dunning. Twentieth Century-Fox is report- 
ed to have paid a fancy price for the film 
rights. William Perlberg will be Associate 
Producer of the film production. 

Tess Schlesinger and Frank Davis turned 
out the screen play for "Remember the 
Day," a romantic drama. 

Miss Colbert, one of the screen's top fig- 
ures, made her last appearance on the 
20th Century-Fox lot in "Drums Along the 
Mohawk," with Henry Fonda and John 
Ford as the director. That was one of the 
most successful pictures turned out by the 
studio last year. 










1600 Broadway New York City 

Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable : CINEQUIP 



I'. 00 Bt-oa<hvay New York City 

Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable: CINEQUIP 

FOR SALE: Like new. H.C.E. "Hollywood" Com- 
bination 35 mm. and 16 mm. automatic one-man 
developing machine. Operating capacity 3000 feet of 
positive or 1500 feet of negative per hour. Price 

CHANGE, 1600 N. Cahuenga Blvd. 

MITCHELL NC 112. LIKE NEW. Up to the min- 
ute. B. B. RAY, 300 W. Durante Road, Arcadia, 


(Continued from page 22) 

Leitz Cover Class Plates 

Many professional and scientific laboratories 
who make numerous 1 x Wi inch color trans- 
parencies have found that the ground edges 
of the Leitz Cover Glass Plates permit slides 
to be made with greater rapidity, make the 
final slide neater in appearance, and result in 
bound slides which are more uniform in size. 
As a convenience to those who make large num- 
bers of slides, the Leitz Cover Glass Plates are 
now available in a special "Laboratory Packing" 
which contains 600 glass plates. This package 
lists at $7.00. 

Solar Enlargers With Variable 
Light Intensity Bulb 

Announcement comes from Burke and James, 
Inc. that Solar Enlargers are now fitted with a 
three filament lamp that provides evenly distrib- 
uted 50, 100 or 150 watt illumination and a spe- 
cial three switch position socket. This really worth 
while improvement enables the operator to match 
the intensity of the light to the density of the 

On thin negatives, the lower light intensity 
tends to improve print contrast while on dense 
negatives a more powerful light acts to provide 
a wider gradation of tones in the print. This new 
feature is now being furnished as standard equip- 
ment on Solar enlargers at no increase in price. 

Another "first" for Burke and James, Inc., Chi- 
cago, 111., comes in the form of the Solar Table 
Switch. The switch with its feather touch light 
control, (and Special Mercury contacts make for 
safety, no sparking, and long life) operates the 
new three power enlarger bulb. 

Depressing the push button turns the light on, 
depress it again and the light turns off. 

I OE SALE— High 

sound system, new. 

I -duet ion ;ii>i|i 

for immediati u e, 

'.■■■. i . . I I <-.-,, i ,|i [,:• 

era, complete ■■■. il li 
corder with It. & 

0. Cash or u 

camera equipment. 

Am-., Tuel-.ahoe, N. 

quality modern portable double 
Berndt-Maurer Galvanometer and 

liner, W. E. microphone, complete 
$2,000.00. Single system R.C.A. 

head for Mitchell Standard Cam- 
motor. $250.00. Finely built re- 
H. Magazine, no Galvanometer, 

ill trade for Mitchell or H. & H. 
DON MALKAMES, 40 Standish 

Agfa Triple S Ortho 

Newest member of the family of professional 
films manufactured by Agfa Ansco in Bingham- 
ton, New York, is Triple S Ortho. an achieve- 
ment in film-making that brings outstanding 
advantages of value to many photographers. Manu- 
facturers stale that emulsion of this new film ex- 
hibits a combination of extreme speed and high 
orthochromatic color sensitivity, together with an 
essentially long-scale, yet moderately-brilliant por- 
trait gradation which makes it preferred on the 
many occasions in portraiture, commercial and 
illustration photography when extreme speed is 
necessary and the tone rendering of a highly 
orthochromaticfilm is desired. Speed is com- 
parable to Agfa Superpan Press and Triple S Pan 
films, and its gradation and color-sensitivitj 
characteristics make it well adapted to use in 
tungsten and fluorescent illumination as well ;is 
daylight. Other features of interest include: a 
back coating for halation prevention; an anti- 
abrasion malic surface-coating that facilitates 
negative retouching; and a spectral sensitivity 
thai permits development wilh occasional inspec- 
tion by red safelight. 

Triple S Ortho is available through regular 
sources of supply in all standard sizes on Safety 
Base, and at no increase over standard prices for 
oilier Agfa orthochromatic sheet films. 


Hollywood! City maligned, 

Censured, praised, misunderstood, — 

Apollo's Oracle enshrined 

Afar from Delphi's sacred wood! 

Pythia speaks, in pictured thought 

Old when Babel's language, banned, 

Became confused. In boldness wrought, 

Her flickering hieroglyphs are scanned 

By all the peoples, races, creeds, 

On screens stretched taut across the world. 

Modern Dionysian deeds, 

Captive visions, swift are hurled 

In glowing incandescence bright, 

To tell in Universal tongue 

The stories chalked in torches' light 

By cave-men when the world was young. 

City of a thousand lies, 

Gomorrah of Pacific Coast, 

To those who drink, with bleary eyes 

To a mephitic Sodom's toast! 

Scioned by a sturdy stock, 

Edened by Creator wise, 

Guardianed by Sierra's rock, 

Thou, an earthly paradise. 

Surfeited with beauty rare, 

Blest with months of cloudless sky, 

Sensuous-sweet your perfumed air, 

Lovely village, doomed to die! 

In your place a city born, 

Sired of visions, fed light's gleams, 

Taught to speak in love and scorn, 

Grown to fame because of dreams. 

Thou has suffered blasphemies, 
Meekly worn a martyr's crown, — 
Undeserved the heresies 
Of those who would tear thee down. 
You who nurtured De Longpre, 
Builded churches, homes and schools, 
Lived content and learned to pray, — 
List ye not to frothing fools! 
We who live close to your heart, 
Loyally defend your name, 
Glad to be of you a part, 
Proud to share your envied fame. 
Censured, praised, misunderstood. 
In a seething maelstrom whirled, 
Pagan, Christian Hollywood, 
Oracle to all the world! 

By Virgil Miller. 



SUPERB photography distinguishes mod- 
ern screen productions. Dramatic lighting 
and interesting camera angles receive stim- 
ulating support from the high quality and 
unvarying uniformity of Eastman negative 
films — each an expert in its field. Eastman 
Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

J. E. BRULATOUR, INC., Distributors 
Fort Lee Chicago Hollywood 


for general studio use when little light is available 


for backgrounds and general exterior work 



x\» &♦ v^/* 

Director of Photography 

"That Hamilton Woman" 

Alex Korda's Production 

The popular choice of the month 




Up the ladder — 



At the camera— right running— 


2nd Assistant Cameraman 

Operative Cameraman 

Assistant Cameraman 

Negative Processing 

Consolidated Film 




A> , 

JtNE, l941 






These films make a difference which the 
average movie-goer can both see and hear. 
They record and reproduce sound with 
greater fidelity. They enhance the quality 
of master positives, release prints, and back- 
grounds for projection. Used in conjunction 
with fine grained Du Pont camera negatives, 
they transfer to the screen, more perfectly 
than ever before, the skill and artistry ex- 
pended in motion picture production. 

Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corp., New York, N. Y. 
Smith &. Aller, Ltd., Hollywood, Calif. 




Vol. XIII 

June, 1941 

No. 5 


Mexico's Motion Picture Festival, Wallace — Page 3 
Casting for Travelogues, Fernstrom — Page 8 
Uncle Sam's Parachute Battalion, Newhard — Page 13 
Using the Exposure Meter, Anderson — Page 18 


Sun and Wind, Mortensen — Page 2 

"Here Comes the Cavalry, Kling — Pages 6, 7 

Magazine Photographers' Contest, Albin & Rhodes — Page 10 

"Parachute Battalion," Sigurdson — Pages 12, 14, 15, 16 


They Say, Rella — Page 17 
16 mm. Department — Page 20 
Television, Evans — Page 21 
Patents, Fulwider — Page 24 

Editor, Herbert Ali.ek 

Business Manager, Helen Boyce. Art Editor, John Corydon Hill. 
Contributing Editors: D. K. Allison, George Hurrell, J. N. A. Hawkins, Roman 

Freulich, Ernest Bachrach, Alvin Wyckoff, William V. Draper, Fred Gately, 

George Scheibe. 
Copyright, 1941, by Local 659, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 

and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada. 

Entered as Second Class matter, Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

International Photographer, as the monthly official publication of International Pho 
tographers, Local 659, of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, not only 
represents the entire personnel of photographers engaged in professional produc- 
tion of motion pictures in the United States and Canada, but also serves technicians 
in the studios and theatres, who are members of the International Alliance, as well 
as executives and creative artists of the production community and executives and 
engineers of the manufacturing organizations serving the motion picture industry. 
International Photographer assumes no responsibility for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts or material. 

Subscription Rates: U.S.A., $2.50; Canada-Foreign, $3.00 per year. Single Copy, 25 cents. 
Australian Representative: McGill's News Agency, Melbourne. 

Office of Publication: 6461 Sunset Blvd. (Los Angeles P. O.), Hollywood, California 

Telephone: Hillside 9189 
Publication Date: 5th of Each Month 


On the cover 

This still by Oliver Sigurdson was made 
during filming of "Parachute Battalion," 
RKO Radio Production, as were the pictures 
on pages 12, 14 and 15. The shots were 
made from a specially constructed army car 
with a (.raflex under heavilv overcast skies. 

Efficient Courteous 




Professional and Amateur 


New and Used Equipment 
Bought, Sold and Rented 



Camera Supply Co. 

1515 North Cahuenga Boulevard 

Cable Address: "CAMERAS" 


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2 5D A YEAR 

tor difficult shol» — THE ORIGINAL 

Scheibe's Monotone Filter 

INDICATES instantly how every color and 
light value of a scene or object will be ren- 
dered in the finished print btfore taking 
the picture. •:• always ready. 


Mwofytt wni MiqWefttrcrs 

TJUr£ fOR FOLDER TWinoikt 210J 

Gcorqe H. Scheibe 


International Photographer for June, 1941 

1927 WEST 78™ ST 



By William Mortensen 

Mexico's motjon picture FestjvaI 

Among those making the trip to Mexico City to partake in President Avila Camacho's 
Motion Picture Festival were (left to right) Brenda Marshall, William Holden, Sabu, 
Wallace Beery, Kay Francis, Desi Arnaz, Lucille Ball, Norma Shearer, Mischa Auer, 
Esther Fernandez, Patricia Morison, Frank Morgan and Frank Capra. Bachrach 

With fifty stars, executives and corres- 
pondents back at work, leaving behind 
them in Mexico City the ringing cheers of 
hundreds of thousands, Hollywood is 
being acclaimed today as America's first 

The occasion was the attendance of the 
motion picture industry's delegation to 
President Manuel Avila Camacho's Motion 
Picture Festival, April 12 to 14. In Wash- 
ington and Mexico City, high government 
officials agree that no mission in a compass 

By William Wallace 

of years has so thoroughly and graciously 
done its work. 

No selling mission, no outright stunt in 
support of any single motion picture, the 
visit of the Hollvwood stars to Mexico was 
purely and simply a testament that the 
people of the North American continent 
are bound together in the common cause 
of Democracy and a free life. The ties of 
equality and friendship became apparent 
before the planes had been three hours 

Cavjar or Corn Ed BeeF? 

George Jean Nathan has somewhere re- 
marked that to the Englishman sex is beef- 
steak, while the Frenchman regards it 
merely as hors (Toeuvres. 

The French as a race have an amazing 
gift for intellectual detachment. Affairs 
and issues that an Anglo-Saxon gets emo- 
tionally embroiled in, and which he messes 
up with sentiment and prejudice, a French- 
man regards in a clear, cold light. Under 
this light he perceives that many of these 
things are very pleasant and very amusing, 
but nothing to get apopletic about. So 
he proceeds to smile at them, to enjoy 
them — and forthwith to forget them. A 
particular evidence of the detachment of 

the Frenchman is his well-known skill in 
setting forth the lighter and more amusing 
aspects of sex, and in enjoying them with- 
out blushes and without sniggers. 

Anglo-Saxons practicing this phase of 
nude art, being unaccustomed to it, and 
perhaps temperamentally still unreconciled 
to it, must assiduously practice lightness 
of touch. A bit of grossness, a bit too 
heavy an accent, a bit too much aggressive- 
ness — and your caviar becomes corned 
beef. In thought, in action, in structure — 
the picture must conform throughout to the 
lightness of its intent. 

— William Mortensen, 

"Monsters and Madonnas'* 

out of California. The first landing on 
Mexican soil in Hermosillo was accom- 
plished in a boil of humanity which sur- 
rounded the planes and cheered the stars. 
After a brief customs stop, the party 
proceeded to the famous seaside city of 
Mazatlan, noted for its sports and fishing. 
There, in a democratic outburst of infor- 
mality, stars and working press alike 
shared simple accommodations, mingled 
openly with the populace in the streets and 
quickly established the mood that pre- 
vailed throughout the entire trip. The city 
of Mazatlan arranged a dinner for that 
evening, and the first official visits were 
accomplished there. 

Colonel Rodolfo T. Loaiza, Governor of 
the State of Sinaloa, and his Honor, 
Federico Cuevas, Presidente Municipal of 
Mazatlan, joined in welcoming the Ameri- 
cans to Mexico. After the official dinner, 
the Hollywood party split up, some visiting 
the Cathedral, crowded with Good Friday 
worshippers, some the world - renowed 
beach, others meeting the leading Mexi- 
cans who live there. 

Soon after dawn next morning, the 
entire party took off for Mexico City, 
which the three Pan-American planes 
reached just before noon. After circling 
the city three times in formation, the 
planes landed at the airport to be met by 
hundreds of thousands of Mexicans who 
not only jammed every corner of the large 
field, but lined the city streets for seven 

International Photographer for June, 1941 

miles into the city itself. The party was 
put into three huge busses and, guarded 
fore and aft and on the sides by squadrons 
of motorcycle police, the Hollywood guests 
sped to the Hotel Reforma, on Mexico's 
famed Paseo de la Reforma, the historic 
street down which the Presidents of Mexico 
have ridden and down which, also, the 
tragedy-freighted Maximillian and Carlotta 
used to ride. 

The party no sooner had landed at the 
hotel than it refreshed itself from the long 
airplane trip and proceeded at once to the 
American Embassy for official reception 
by Honorable Josephus Daniels, United 
States Ambassador to Mexico, and Mrs. 
Daniels. Following this, the entire group 
was received by His Honor, Rojo Gomez, 
the Mayor of Mexico City. In the few 
hours remaining until nightfall, the stars 
prepared for the first of a series of per- 
sonal appearances in the leading film 
theatres of the city. That night, through 
screaming, cheering mobs of countless 
thousands, the stars visited four theatres, 
in which not only every seat but the aisles 
themselves were jammed from entrance 
right down to the footlights. Mexican 
stage and film actors of renown volun- 
teered as masters of ceremonies and intro- 
duced the personalities to wild applause. 
The theatre managers in each case served 
buffet supper backstage. 

The Sunday program began early with 

a charro festival and riding and bull fight- 
ing exploits for the Hollywood guests. 
After a thrilling exhibition of Mexican 
prowess in these sports, the party departed 
for El Rancho Blanco, the oldest ranch in 
Mexico in the unbroken possession of one 
family. For 416 years, almost since the 
time of Cortez, the ranch has been held by 
the Alessandro family. There native Indian 
Aztec and Chichimeca tribes performed 
centuries old dances and rituals to the 
fascinated gaze of the Hollywood visitors. 
One group of Chichimecas, performing he 
now forbidden ritual of El Volador, had 
walked 150 kilometers to show the men and 
women of the United States a thrilling, 
ancient Aztec ritual ceremony in which 
six men, seated atop a narrow platform 
on a 100-foot pole, suddenly leap into 
space and slowly spiral down, head-first 
on the end of long ropes. 

A barbecue in the native style was served 
at El Rancho Blanco, after which, reluc- 
tantly leaving the ancient rancho and its 
picturesque old buildings, some of the 
party returned to the hotel while others 
visited Chapultepec Castle, the home of 
Maximillian and Carlotta, and of Mexican 
presidents after them. This ancient hill 
was the original home of the Aztec 
emperors, the only high spot in the middle 
of a volcanic lake. When Mexico City 
began to grow after the Spanish conquest, 
the lake was gradually filled in until now 
the great city sprawls across a man-made 

plain in which Chapultepec stands high 
and alone. Special privileges were ex- 
tended by the Mexican Government to the 
Hollywood visitors and they were taken 
upstairs in the palace into the living apart- 
ments of Maximillian and Carlotta, later 
to be occupied by a succession of Presi- 
dents, notably the famous Porfirio Diaz. 
There they saw Carlotta's own furniture 
and decor, the famous Aubusson carpet, 
the crystal chandeliers, the gold-plate, the 
silver and other now national treasures of 
Mexico, including priceless tapestries given 
to Maximillian by religious and political 
orders in France. 

Easter night the film group made per- 
sonal appearances at five theatres, after 
which in the gigantic, stunning Palace of 
Fine Arts they were guests of the Mayor 
of Mexico City at a formal banquet and 

The event to which all had looked 
forward and which was in effect the cap- 
ping of the entire trip, took place soon 
after noon on Monday when, after a series 
of visits to the Ministries of Interior, 
Communications and Foreign Relations, 
the entire group was received by His 
Excellency, Manual Avila Camacho, the 
President of Mexico, in his suite in the 
presidential palace, the White House of 
Mexico City. President Avila Camacho 
expressed the pleasure of himself, his 
government and his people at the visit, and 
his sentiments were responded to by Direc- 

Milling <tow«I outside IIi>i«'I Reforma at night (Wallace) 

tor Frank Capra, speaking for Hollywood 
and the United States. 

The group went direct from the palace 
to the airport, boarded the three planes 
and flew to Guadalajara, second city of 
Mexico and home of the famous pottery 
and glass wares of Mexico. 

The populace of Guadalajara jammed 
the streets leading to the hotel from four 
directions and, although the Mexicans are 
used to retiring early, they stood there 
patiently awaiting glimpses of Hollywood's 
leading stars and executives from 5 o'clock 
in the afternoon until after 4 o'clock the 
next morning, at which time there still 
were several hundred waiting. Their 
patience was rewarded soon after dawn, 
when the visitors began assembling for a 
dash to the airport. There the planes took 
off for the last leg of the return flight. 

The official list of those who went to 
Mexico City to meet an outpouring of true 
democratic spirit and co-operative kinship 
between two countries follows: 

John Hay Whitney, David 0. Selznick, 
Norma Shearer, Mrs. Douglas Fairbanks, 
Sr., Mickey Rooney, Frank Capra, Jock 
Lawrence. Kay Francis, Wallace Beery, 
Johnny Weissmuller, Frank Morgan, 
Brenda Joyce, Brenda Marshall, Joe E. 
Brown, Louella 0. Parsons, Dr. Harry 
Martin, Francis Alstock, Mr. and Mrs. 
William Wilkerson, Mischa Auer, Patricia 
Morison, Esther Fernandez, Desi Arnaz, 
Sabu, Lucille Ball, William Holden, Susan 
Hayward, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver Hardy, 
Mr. and Mrs. Stan Laurel, Mary Gordon, 
Edwin Schallert, Major Claussen, Mr. and 
Mrs. Kenneth Thomson, Ralph Jordan, 
Luigi Luraschi, lone Drake, Charles Dag- 
gett, William Wallace, Blayney Matthews, 
Les Petersen, John Truesdell, Kay Proctor, 
Shaik Dastagir, Herbert Klein, Irving 
Rubine, Whitney Bolton, Ivan Spear, Carl 
Schaefer, Ralph Wilk, Mr. and Mrs. Drew 
Pearson, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Vogel, 
Raymond A. Klune, Raymond Clapper, 
Miguel de Zarraga and Whitey Hendry. 

So enthusiastic are all these that they 
have volunteered to repeat the trip to any 
Latin - American country designated by 
John Hay Whitney, who is chairman of 
the Federal committee drafted to promote 
better relations between the Americas. 

With all of our hard work and heavy 
schedule on an assignment like this, there 
was always something humorous that 
seemed to stand out. Other than competing 
with the Mexican photographers who were 
always courteous and gentlemanly I found 
it difficult to talk to them and they found 
it just as difficult to understand me. Hav- 
ing a very large party, some fifty people, 
and anxious to cover for all of the studios 
and their contract players, necessitated 
that I get back quite a distance and take 
in a large spread. I would get way back 
to get the spread, then twenty-five or 
thirty Mexican cameramen would move in 
and start banging away. 

Before mv next trip I will go to Holly- 
wood High School and learn a few words 
(Continued on page 26) 

International Photographer for June, 1941 

Upper, left to right: David O. Selznick, Mickey Rooney, Ed Schallert. 
Mrs. Kenneth Thomson, Norma Shearer, Mexican official, Kay Francis, 
Dr. Martin, President Manuel Avile Camacho, Patricia Morison. 
Lower: Johnny Weissmuller and Esther Fernandez. (Wallace) 

Landers Camera Rentals 


Blimps, Dollies, all Accessories 




Hillside AQ7i n i a HEmpstead 

6373 De Longpre Ave. 

8333 Near Ivar Street 1311 



'^' .:•'•• 


- ii 

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Highlights in the life of the cavalry from the two reel Technicolor featurette by Warner 
Bros, in cooperation with the United States Army. Two top pictures show machine gun 
practice; center left, cavalry in action; right, en route to maneuvers; lower, cavalry 
passing in review. 

Stills by Clifton L. Kling with Speed Graphic 

Top: Troop's Colors and Color Guard; center left, dismissal of troops; right, Byron 
Barr, Garry Owen and Larry Williams watch Bill Justice "kick" a horse before going 
into jumping show; lower left, Bill Justice and horse falling over a jump; right, 
trooper in training practice. 

International Photographer for June, 1941 

castinq For traveIoques 

One of the toughest jobs connected with 
the shooting of travelogues and that type 
of short film in color is commonly referred 
to as CASTING, and about which so many 
stories have been told, casting aspersions 
on the industry and we who are connected 
with it. Yet nothing "flowers" a beautiful 
short quite as lastingly as pretty gals. 

Of course one might say that other cast- 
ing up here is better, out on some lake or 
stream, after speckled beauties of the mer- 
maid class. Yes, the fishing is excellent 
here in the vacation land that has every- 

Leon Shelley, the producer and our 
pleasant boss, is the type of workman who 
believes whole-heartedly in the adage that 
"ones best work is that which one enjoys 
most." No wonder I love it here; myself 
and others enjoying our hobby and getting 
paid for it. To think some folks work 
and save all their lives to do things in 
their spare and retiring years, that we do 
every day, and have done, all this happy 
life ? 

Oh yes, CASTING. Well it all goes back 
to those days of successful pictures with 
Jerry Fairbanks and Bob Carlisle who pro- 
duce those top-notch shorts, "Popular Sci- 
ence" and "Unusual Occupations," also in 
glorious and magic breath-taking super- 
natural color. We don't get it either, but 
color pictures are fun, and often quite 
pretty, especially if the casting is adroitly 
done — beforehand. 

Jerry and Bob well know the advantage 
to every film of gorgeous gals and femi- 
nine pulchritude, as Jerry calls it. They 
always stressed that angle. I took it to 
heart and once overdid myself, overtrained, 
or something. An assingment arrived 

from them in Hollywood as I lolled on the 
sands at Provincetown, Massachusetts, out 
on the tip of Cape Cod. Seems a verv nice 
lady had hit on the hot idea of utilizing 
plain old fish nets for ladies wear. Painted, 
lacquered, or dipped in gold, those nets 
made glamorous turbans, belts, evening 
gowns, bathing suits and. OH, BOY, play 
suits. . . . 

What a picture the imagination conjured 
up . . . and immediately! So I looked into it 
and wrote a script. Then to casting. I 
called on several ladies who ran local 
clubs and eating emporiums. They knew 
everyone in town as well as from else- 
where. I asked for several gals to act and 
model in my chosen fish net oufits. Twenty- 
four showed up. I was told how important 
it was not to hurt anyone's feelings so I 
shot film on all. It was a good picture, but 
drew forth a classic wire from Jerry, to- 
wit, and with wit, thus: 

"Have just viewed with amazement your 
film on the lady with the fish nets. You 
devoted exactly seventy-eight feet to the 
star. The balance of your eight hundred 
feet coverage was entirely devoted to what 
we are titling Fernstroms Follies of 1938." 

For months after that experience I was 
kept on such assignments as United States 
Submarines, High Altitude Aerial jobs and 
General Motors Proving Grounds, as well 
as Texas Rangers. Not a girlie show until 
Valentine's Day. 

Last year, finally, when Shelly and I 
toured thousands of miles through British 
Columbia shooting material for Columbia 
Pictures' "Beautiful British Columbia," an- 
other grand chance offered itself for deft 
casting. The results were quite startling. 
It seems they have a setup here to build 

Trooper taking a hurdle, "Here Comes the Cavalry." liy Clifton L. Kling 

By Ray Fernstrom 

up the form and figure of the mass of 
healthy young people in this vicinity, 
called Pro-Rec, Provincial Recreation Ac- 
tivities, going in for mass gymnastics and 
mass bending, hopping, jumping and kick- 
ing. Really a spectacular show as all the 
gals wear pretty blue silk shorts and jack- 
ets. It took a week to get the group to- 
gether, but with Shelly's patience we man- 
aged to set a date and place. SIX HUN- 
DRED AND FIFTY GIRLS showed up in 
their blue outfits and a group of men. 
Never did count 'em. 

As a matter of fact I didn't know they 
were there until I saw the picture. After 
we covered the mass movements I was sud- 
denly struck with a brilliant idea. (Maybe 
it was the sun.) Why not, thought I, make 
a scene to end all scenes of gals in a line? 
Roxy had his, Ziegfeld his, and the Music 
Hall theirs, so why shouldn't Shelly and 
Fernstrom have theirs? We lined up those 
six hundred and fifty girls and made a 
shot down the line. History was being 
made. Didn't I say, "This is the vacation 
land that has EVERYTHING"? 

This year we are up here shooting an- 
other; bigger, better super-colossal short, 
for just as Ralph Staub says he is long on 
shorts, we are longer, stronger and go much 
farther to get ours. This year we should 
improve. Ed Taylor is up here, too, in 
charge of the various and interesting shorts 
Vancouver Motion Pictures turn out. 

Casting this year is done in the same 
manner I used when I joined the hundreds 
of others who discovered Linda Darnell. 
That was down Dallas, Texas, way. I 
needed a cute little girl who could put over 
in pantomime a rapid bit of acting in be- 
tween a series of fast lap dissolves in the 
camera. Following fashion shows, por- 
ing over newspaper files, calling on com- 
mercial photographers and theatre man- 
agers I finally heard of a girl through 
Taylor Byars, a top-notch commercial 
cameraman. He brought her over, Monetta 
Darnell, who struck me as a "natural" 
immediately. She had been to Hollywood, 
had a screen test and sent home to grow 
up. I couldn't understand how such a 
thing could happen. She said she photo- 
graphed "too young." I used her and gave 
her a high front key light that narrowed 
her pretty round baby face. That did the 
trick and she is now a Hollywood star go- 
ing places fast. 

In addition to the above methods we are 
running a talent search in all the local 
papers, so we expect not only to cast this 
epic, but perhaps locate some talent inter- 
esting to you scouts at home, for this land 
here certainly develops a gorgeous crop 
of cuties. 



Camera for Action Pictures! 

TOP-FLIGHT stills require a superb combination of pictorial quality and 
story-telling action. That's exactly what David H. Mann caught in his Speed 
Graphic picture "Round-up" shown above. In fact, these elements made his pic- 
ture a prize-winner in the Action Class of the Graflex Golden Anniversary Picture 
Contest. For stills with real box office appeal, standardize on Speed Graphic cameras. 

You'll find the new third edition of Graphic Graflex Photography a real 
addition to your reference library. It contains more than 400 pages, 28 chapters 
and hundreds of illustrations. Only $4.00 at your Dealer's. 

When in New York City, Rochester or Los Angeles, you are cordially invited 
to visit the Graflex Display Rooms. 

Anniversary SPEED GRAPHIC 

For all-purpose picture-taking day or night. 
Price of either the 5 l /4x4y 4 or 4x5 with Amer- 
ican-made Kodak Ektar f/4.7 lens, $123.50. 
You may purchase, if you wish, on a down pay- 
ment through your Dealer as little as $2b.50. 


For further information concerning Graflex and Speed 
Graphic American-made, Prize-Winning Products, get the 
Graflex catalog. Free at your Dealer's or from us. Folmer 
Graflex Corporation, Dept. IP-3, Rochester, N. Y., U. S. A. 




International Photographer for June, 1941 




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American Lens Makers Since 1899 

Left: Jack Alhin, photographer for Screen Guide Magazine won second place in Warner 
Bros. Magazine Photographers' Contest with this still of Edward G. Robinson milking a 
cow. Right: First prize in the "Idea" class was awarded Charles Rhodes of Fawcett 
Publications for this still of Ann Sheridan and Cesar Romero which was titled "Sewing 
Circle," made in Ann's home. 

The Winners, left to right: Bruce Bailey. Click Magazine; Mel Traxel, Hollywood Pic- 
torial; Frrol Flynn, who awarded the prizes; Jack Albin, Screen Guide Magazine; Art 
Carter, Hollywood Pictorial and Charles Rhodes, Fawcett Publications. 


International Photographer for June, 1941 


A soldier in the newest branch of Uncle Sam's fighting forces, 
the 501st Parachute Hattalion. Still by Oliver Sigurdson. 


UincIe Sam's Parachute BattaUon 

By Guy Newhard 

One of the most outstanding assignments 
of the past few years was the location to 
Fort Benning, Columbus, Georgia. RKO 
Radio Pictures Studio sent a large tech- 
nical crew there during March to photo- 
graph scenes and backgrounds for their 
forthcoming picture, "Parachute Battal- 
ion." The story is an original by John 
Twist and Major Hugh Fite, U. S. Air 
Corps, directed by Leslie Goodwins, and 
will star Robert Preston, Nancy Kelly, Ed- 
mond O'Brien and Harry Carey. 

With the exception of three preliminary 
recruiting scenes laid in a poor home in 
the South, a big business man's office, a 
recruiting office proper, and one sequence 
on a railroad train, the entire balance of 
the picture takes place in and around 
Fort Benning, Georgia, the actual home of 
this country's only parachute corps, the 
501st Parachute Battalion. 

This is the first depiction of that intrepid 
group of volunteers who have dedicated 
their lives to this newest branch of Uncle 
Sam's fighting forces. 

Thematically, the story deals with three 
young men drawn from widely different 
walks of life and of diverse temperaments, 
drawn into the mutating crucible of Army 
life. Here is depicted in gripping detail 
three lives through the entire training 
course up to and including the final heart- 
stopping tests that will certifiy them as 
full-fledged parachute troops, trained and 
fit for one of the most rigorously demand- 
ing branches of the service. 

Interwoven with the thrills and drama 
of the subject are the human values, 
comedy, romance, hopes, dreams, ambi- 
tions, joy, pathos, success and failure. 

The authenticity of the picture makes it 
a visual chronicle of life in a branch of 
the service, a record and an example for 
the youth of the nation who may find 
themselves in the near future members of 
our armed forces. 

When photographing in the air or from 
the ground toward the sky, clouds really 
are essential and necessary. Without them, 
sense of motion and speed is lost. It 
rained, it snowed and rained some more 
and when we got a break in the weather, 
there would either be no clouds or the wind 
would be too great for the boys to make 
their jumps. Nevertheless, during the three 
weeks we were there some exceptionally 
beautiful scenes were made and "Para- 
chute Battalion" will be an extraordinarily 
pictorial picture. 

Great care was taken with filters. Have 
you ever seen the ground in Georgia? It 
is brick red and with too heavy a filter, 
especially in the reds, the ground would 
become greatly over-corrected, but all 
cameras used a 25 (red) filter when pho- 

tographing in the air and of all parachute 

Our photographic equipment consisted 
of three Mitchell cameras, two Eyemos 
and, through the courtesy of the U. S. Air 
Corps, we also had several Akeleys and 
more Eyemos. 

Maj. Fite has quite a large motion pic- 
ture unit and his cameramen, Messrs. Hag- 
germeyer, Andres, Rossi and Sgt. Fritz 
were of great assistance. A great many 
important scenes photographed by them 
will be used in the picture. This is done 
by the army for propaganda and publicity 
purposes and the motion picture companies 
are more than glad to cooperate with our 
national guardians. 

This article was intended as a photo- 
graphic story for this magazine, but the 
modern Parachute Battalion is so new and 
of such universal interest I'll let myself 
run away from the camera angle and tell 
you some of the important things about 
these boys. 

The Army, in building up its parachute 
troops, has to depend on volunteers, can- 
not draft men. So it was delighted with 
the prospect of getting publicity through 
a movie thriller, kept Director Goodwins 
a month, sent him home with a technical 
adviser and 30,000 feet of film showing 
the troops in action which all but takes 
your breath away. 

The most exciting scenes of this will be 
used in "Parachute Battalion," making that 
movie the most authentic of its kind ever 

Captain William Ryder, one of the orig- 
inal organizers of the Battalion was 
brought to Hollywood as Technical Ad- 
viser for the picture. It was Capt. Ryder 
who made many of the picture's exception- 
ally daring jumps. 

He helped select all the troopers for the 
background roles according to Army stand- 
ards. He supervised manufacture of the 
parachute troop uniforms and equipment, 
all vastly different from any in other 
branches of the armed services. 

Troopers, for instance, all wear special 
4-pound boots, with ankle braces and 
sponge rubber pads. As the captain points 
out, a parachutist would be no good in war 
time if he sprained an ankle. 

By special dispensation, the officer even 
obtained from Fort Benning the loan of 
regulation parachutes. They were guarded 
like gold dollars, locked in a safe every 
day after use before the camera. 

"I've seen Service pictures at times," 
said Captain Ryder, "that contained some 
very funny boners. So I'm determined that 
when soldiers laugh at this picture, they'll 
laugh only in the right places." 

Fort Benning, Georgia is 98,000 acres 
big and I understand they are adding 

50,000 more on the Alabama side of the 
river. That, I think, will be the largest 
Fort in the world. It has the Infantry 
school there as well as other branches of 
the Army. Fort Benning, at present is 
65,000 soldiers strong, including many 
selectees and regulars. 

If you are single and 21 to 31 years of 
age and have had at least a year of In- 
fantry training and a Private First Class, 
you are eligible to volunteer for Parachute 
Battalion. Most of the officers are West 
Point men and have had extensive army 
service. At present there are about 500 
in all assigned to the Battalion. Everyone 
jumps, except a few of the administrative 
overhead, but they, too, want to be one of 
the gang and usually jump voluntarily. 
Since the Battalion's inception, collectively, 
over 3,000 successful parachute jumps 
have been made. 

When the boys transfer over to the Bat- 
talion from the Infantry they are given 
from six to eight weeks ground training. 
They are drilled, given calisthenics, such 
as jumping from various heights, tumbling, 
rolling over, etc. An important factor is 
in landing under all conditions and natur- 
ally much stress is put upon this phase, 
but more important is parachute-packing. 
The boys roll their own. A three by forty 
foot table is used for packing and this is 
done most carefully by each man, as his 
packing is his life insurance. 

Eventually, they take to the air first only 
for a ride and often times, to many of the 
boys, it is their first airplane experience. 
The next time they go aloft, they are told 
to jump. It is generally, the first time, at 
1500 feet. They can refuse, but if asked 
the second time and still refuse, they auto- 
matically wash themselves out of the Bat- 
talion and return to the Infantry. Consid- 
ering how young the Battalion is and the 
number of jumps that have been made, 
very few men have refused. 

All precautions are taken before taking 
off and the men and equipment are sub- 
ject to severe inspection at all times. Each 
man wears two 'chutes, the main one at- 
tached to his back. It is opened after leav- 
ing the ship by a trailing static line, which 
is fastened within the ship, thus insuring 
100% efficiency in opening. The other 
'chute is worn across their chest, for emer- 
gency. Occasionally this has to be used, but 
not often, and the jumper lands safely. 

The sixth parachute jump is graduation, 
as a parachute jumper, and then they re- 
ceive their wings and parachute pin. 

Remember in warfare or any other time, 
the 'chute is only a means of transporta- 
tion and after landing the man must be a 
good soldier, one with great resource and 
initiative, a power of taking the lead. 

After graduation they continue further 

International Photographer for June, 1941 




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Jump Masters 

Ready to go up 

Equipment carried 

Interior of transport plane 

Formation in three lines (used to he four) 

Jumpers leaving planes 


Oliver Sigurdson, stills (Shot with a Graflex) 

Lined up for inspection 


Another interior view with jump masters in foreground 

All down — no casualties 

All out! 

International Photographer for June, 1941 

And so ends the day 


with jumps, tests, training and drilling for 
the important part of their job, that is, 
their work in hack of the enemies' lines. 

Motion pictures are made from the air 
and from the ground, of practically every 
jump. High speed cameras have been of 
great help in picking out minute flaws and 
the movie camera has become an indispen- 
sable medium of visual education for all 
branches of the U. S. Military Service. 

If you would like to enjoy the thrill of 
landing with a 'chute, try stepping off the 
top of your car, backwards, while traveling 
ten miles an hour. 

I understand the Parachute Battalion 
has proven itself most successful, through 
all tests, and will be alloted an enlistment 
of 3,000 or more men. 

I said, we had an outstanding assign- 
ment, thrilling and daring. In conclusion, 
it may be said of this pioneer battalion 
that they have set an example of skill, 
courage and sound accounting to the en- 
tire nation, all of which will be set forth 
in detail in RKO's "Parachute Battalion." 



Not only of Napoleon's veterans can it 
be said that the Old Guard dies but it 
never surrenders. Hollywood has its gal- 
lant Old Guard too — and they came to Al- 
fred Hitchcock's movie ball. 

The famous director wanted to film a 
ball for a sequence in RKO Radio's "Be- 
fore the Fact" which would bring to- 
gether his co-stars, Cary Grant and Joan 

"Get me the best dress extras in town," 
he ordered. "The best in looks and 

So the call went out, and the extras 
flocked in, for that $16.50 check each day 
was tempting bait. 

Among them came faces once blazoned 
across the screens of the world, bearing 
proud names which used to gleam in lights 
on the marquees of theatres the world 

Eva Novak. Remember her? She used 

to play opposite the he-men of the silent 
screen - - Thomas Meighan, William S. 
Hart, Tom Mix, Jack Holt. She danced 
with Lou Payne, once Mrs. Leslie Carter's 

Dagmar Oakland was there — once glori- 
fied by Ziegfeld. And Mrs. Snitz Edwards. 
Lloyd Ingraham, who used to direct Mary 
Miles Minter. Carl Levinus and Howard 
Davies, former directors, too. Others: 
Larry Steers, who used to be the heavy in 
Ruth Roland serials; Frank Raymond, 
opera singer; Henry Hebert, who support- 
ed Myrtle Stedman and Sessue Hayakawa 
in "Black Roses." 

There were many more. But these give 
the idea. 

Stardom may fade, fame depart. But 
the players stay. 

Said one: "We make out all right. It's 
fun to watch the game without having to 

lp|H'r left: INew United States Rifle M-l, Curand, 30 cal., semi-automatic; right: method of wrapping 
rifles in hlanket to drop from plane hy 'chute; lower: camera crew, including Guy Newhard, Roy Hunt, 
Harold Wellman, Emmett Bergholz, Russ Cully, some members of Local 666, Chicago, and Civil Service 
Cameramen working for the United States Army. 


They SAy 



• In South Carolina with the Paramount 
crew are Dewey Wrigley and William 
Skall, first cameramen; Bill Rand, second; 
Ed Soderberg, assistant and Richardson, 
still cameraman. 

• A new team in the field seems to be 
John Alton and Harvey Gold. 

• Irving Glassberg seriously studying 

• Our deepest sympathy to Ernie Miller 
and Victor Milner in the loss of their be- 
loved wives. 

• The passing of Oliver Marsh was a se- 
vere shock to the entire industry. 

• Eddie Fernandez who used to be a 
member of Local 659 is now official cor- 
respondent for International Photographer 
in Mexico City. Eddie is doing a good job 
in fostering good will relations. 

• Lee Garmes and Hal Mohr, both Acad- 
emy Award winners on the same lot, Gen- 
eral Service Studios. 

• Off to the Bahamas for Paramount 
Productions we find Leo Tover, whose mar- 
riage is still more or less a secret, Allen 
Davey and Harry Perry, first cameramen; 
Guy Roe, second; Sidney Zipser and John 
Gustafson, technicians; Junios Stout and 
Will Cline, assistants and Don English, 
stillman. The way Allen Davey travels he 
runs a close second to Dewey Wrigley. 

• Fred Detmars back in Hollywood and 
proud of it. 

• Mack Stengler was a chief machine 
gunner in World War No. 1. 

• Interesting is it to note that on a re- 
cent shot at the Naval base in San Diego 
where Warner Bros.' "Dive Bomber" is 
being made, the following men were en- 
gaged in the shooting of an important 
scene: Winton Hoke, Duke Green, Art Ail- 
ing, Charlie Marshall, Elmer Dyer, first 
cameramen; Cal Western, John Polito, 
Michael Joyce and Wally Chewning, sec- 
onds; Paul Hill, Earl Metz, Duke Callahan. 
Henry Imus and Al Kline, assistants; Rod 
Tolmie, Don Nickerson, Eddie Wade, Ken 
Hunter, Kay Norton and Phil O'Neil, as- 

• In Florida for RKO are Paul Eagler, 
first cameraman and Johnnie Eckert, as- 

• Leaving for El Centro for RKO for 
about three weeks are J. Roy Hunt, first 
cameraman; Ed Pyle and Jim Daly, sec- 
onds; L. Haddow and G. Wheaton, assist- 

• Lucien Ballard at Twentieth Century 
Fox with his ever reliable second, Lloyd 

© Wally Chewning boasting of a baby 

• Faxon Dean's son Kenneth is in the 
United States Army Air Corps. Faxon was 
a flyer in the first world war and was over- 
seas seventeen months. 

© Len Powers' son is a petty officer on the 
Battleship U. S. S. North Carolina. 

• Archie Stout, first cameraman; Bill 
Clothier, second and Paul Cable, assistant, 
at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, working on 
a defense picture dealing with army how- 

© Andre Barlatier spent some time at Mt. 
Hood, Washington, working on background 
and atmosphere shots for a new Ruggles 
picture, Columbia release. With him were 
Lee Davis, second; Joe Citron, T. F. Jack- 
son and Byron Seawright, assistants and 
John Jenkins, still cameraman. 

• Fleet Southcott who is on the receiving 
end of the battery of Neumann and South- 
cott is a cattleman in his spare time. 

• In from Ocala, Florida, are Wilford 
Cline, Lloyd Knectel, William Cline, A. C. 
Riley, Jimmie Manatt and Fred Detmars. 
Remaining at the location are Charlie 
Boyle, Ray Ramsey, Mark Davis, Rube 

Boyce, Al Baalas, Kenneth Mead and some 
of the boys of Local 666, Chicago. 

• Charles ("Chuck") Geissler shooting 
second at Warner Bros, in the Special Ef- 
fects Department. 

• Dwight Warren operating television 
camera at the fights and baseball games. 

• Our sympathy to the family of Norton 
C. ( "Doc" ) Travis who passed on May 
23. Doc was among the first members in 
Local 659. 


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International Photographer for June, 1941 


usiNq The exposure meter 

In any discussion of exposure meters 
emphasis should be placed on the erron- 
eous belief that by simply owning an 
exposure meter you will get perfect pic- 
tures. An exposure meter, when used 
correctly, is a means whereby perfect 
exposures can be made. It should be 
remembered that the meter is an accurate 
light-measuring instrument, and that cor- 
rect measurements must be taken to obtain 
the results which will permit exposing for 
perfect pictures. 

Photographic materials have come a 
long way since the development of the first 
sensitive emulsion, and figure 1 represents 
the curve as plotted of a typical film 
emulsion. Theoretically, a perfect film 
would have a line that runs diagonally, 
but because we do not have this film, we 
have to modify our exposure meters to 
take into account the characteristics of the 
films we now have to take pictures with. 
The film curve shown represents a typical 
scene as it is analyzed by the scientists in 
the Sensitometric Laboratory. The lower 
end of the curve represents the shadow 
portion of the film, the straight portion the 
contrast between the dark and light part 
of the picture, and the extreme end of the 
curve represents the highlights, or the 
greatest deposits of silver on the film. 
The curve representing the character- 
istics of a film is not a fixed, permanent 
thing, but something which is movable by 
means of exposure, development, and light 
conditions. Correct exposure combined 
with correct development will provide a 
perfect negative. 

One of the immediate problems that 
comes up in the development of exposure 
meters is the correlation of this curve to 
exposure meters. This is done in terms of 
film speed or film values. One of the 
earliest systems of rating film was the 
Scheiner system, which rated the film by 
measuring the threshold point of the curve. 
(Fig. I). There was a certain weakness to 

this system depending upon the position 
of the shape of the toe and chemical fog. 
This threshold point was measured by the 
film manufacturers, and in order to have 
the best possible product the most favor- 
able value was used. The results were not 
too reliable as a film speed value. Later, 
an approach was made by the German 
Government, to more firmly establish the 
location of the measurement of the thresh- 
old point I Fig. 2) of the film. What is 
known as the DIN system resulted, wherein 
the film speed was dependent on the 
exposure required to produce a density of 
.1, but the methods of this system did not 
specify an exact developing technique. 
Since a change in developer can cause a 
modification in the curve of this line, this 
system is weak. In the first part of the 
twentieth century in England, Messrs. 
Hurter and Driffield did considerable 
research on photographic emulsion and 
sensitivity, and the findings made by them 
have given this curve a name: the H and 
D curve ( Fig. 1 ) . These gentlemen decided 
that a more reliable means of measuring 
film speeds involved the determination of 
the inertia point ( Fig. 2 ) . This particular 
system has merit, and for the films, then 
existing, was the best possible solution for 
determining speeds. The system is one of 
the most common in use in this country 
today. Film manufacturers, however, in 
the development of the new high speed 
film, created emulsion with long toe por- 
tions ( Fig. 3 ) rather than abrupt char- 
acteristics. These negative materials had 
H and D curves with a long curved toe 
portion, with a gradually curved shoulder, 
and with scarcely any straight line portion 
in some cases. We, therefore, have a 
condition where there is no straight line 
portion to measure. Another disadvantage 
is that occasionally the straight line por- 
tion of a fast film is exactly the same as 
that of a slower film, thus this system 
would give no indication of the actual film 

By Glen C. Anderson, 
General Eleetrie Company 

speed. Therefore, in the development of 
the General Electric film rating system we 
have made a compensation of the toe 
portion and the straight line portion of the 
curve and assigned proper film values. It 
is to be remembered that film values are 
assigned to films under laboratory condi- 
tions for average results. Individuals may 
and do vary film ratings, because of 
personal preferences for a specific density 
of negatives. It can therefore, be said that 
the exposure meter is an accurate light 
measuring instrument, and the film values 
that are assigned can be modified within 
the range allowable in order to produce 
a negative that most suits your needs. 
Also, an enlarger, that has condensing 
lenses in it can use a negative of less 
contrast than an enlarger of the different 
type of illumination system. 

Theoretically, the perfect exposure has 
the shadow portion at the lower end of the 
curve, and the high light at the upper end 
of the curve. Under certain specific con- 
ditions it is impossible to get such a range 
of light on the film because the intensity 
of light is beyond its range. Average 
photographic emulsions can record a 
brightness range of 128 to 1 . In some cases 
the brightness range is considerably higher 
than this, but for most exterior scenes it 
is in the neighborhood of 40 or 50 to 1. 
With this type of lighting being the general 
condition we do have some leeway in the 
placement of our exposure on our photo- 
graphic emulsion. Many benefits will be 
derived from correct exposure and best 
results will result when the maximum film 
value is used. 

An over-exposure will cause: 

1. Larger grain on the film. 

2. Loss of detail in highlights. 

3. Contrast loss. 

1. A flat type of negative. 

5. Need for long printing time. 

6. Reddish hue in color films. 







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Under-exposure will cause: 

1 . Loss of full scale of tone. 

2. Loss of detail in shadows. 

3. Too high a contrast in negative. 

4. Too thin a negative for good print 

5. Blueish hue in color film. 
Correct exposure results in : 

1. Film of finer grain. 

2. Better definition in the highlights. 

3. Better detail in the shadows. 

4. Sharper definition. 

5. Greater depth of focus. 

It is often said by many photographers, 
especially experienced men — "I don't need 
an exposure meter because I get good 
results without one." The human eye is an 
extremely poor light-measuring device at 
its best. Tests indicate that the eye cannot 
detect less than a 30% change in light. 
When reduced in terms of light, this 
represents a change in exposure of one-half 
an F stop. And on films with narrow 
ranges of latitude, this is quite a noticeable 
difference in the quality of the negatives. 
It is also extremely difficult for the eye 
to correlate the proper combination of 
modern high film speed, the F stop and 
shutter speed by looking at the light con- 
ditions. A bright, blue, clear day may be 
perfectly comfortable to your eye, and the 
exposure meter will show that intensity of 
light registers hundreds of candles per 
square foot brightness. Under other con- 
ditions, such as a hazy day, you may be 
squinting at scenery extremely brilliant 
but the exposure meter will indicate a 
lower brightness level of the object, and 
call for a longer exposure. Haze and 
appearance of the atmosphere causes this 
appearance brightness but it is not the kind 
of brilliance that affects the photographic 
emulsion. Also, in photoflood interior 
lighting, you seem to have an extremely 
brilliant illumination, yet when measured 
with an exposure meter, it shows but a 
few candles per square foot brightness, 
which is an extremely low level of illumi- 
nation. Although the human eye has the 
ability to see from a mere fraction of a 
foot-candle, such as a moonlight night, to 
the brightest beach or snow conditions, it 
cannot be depended upon for the accurate 
measurement essential to good photo- 
graphic results. 

It is helpful to know how an exposure 
meter is built, to obtain the best possible 
results from it. The G-E meter has been 
carefully designed to give the best results 
for all photographic light measurements. 
The photoelectric cell is made of an iron 
plate coated with selenium. The selenium 
is covered with a transparent layer of 
precious metal which allows light to go 
through to affect the selenium, which con- 
verts the light into electrical energy. The 
photoelectric cell is an extremely interest- 
ing generator, complex in manufacture, 
and how it works is a mystery to our best 
engineers. The perfection of the present- 
day photoelectric cell is a result of many 
years of development. It has a wider range 

of color sensitivity (see Fig. 4), is stable, 
and possesses an almost indefiinite life. 
Tests made in our laboratory since 1932 
on cells indicate a very slight loss of 
efficiency. (Fig. 5) In our life light test, 
cells are placed under a laboratory sky- 
light and are exposed to the full intensity 
of the sun every day of the year. If we 
figure rather liberally that normal use is 
about one hour per day, a years labor- 

atory exposure represents a life of 24 
years for the cell. 

The photoelectric cell is coated with 
transparent lacquer before it is sealed in 
its case. Current is taken off of the cell 
through silver contacts and flows into a 
standard electrical instrument. This con- 
sists of a large strong magnet, with a coil 
of thin wire placed in its magnetic field. 
(Continued on page 28) 

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Motion Picture Equipment 

Studio and Laboratory Tested Since 1929 


Immediate Delivery 





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Cable address: ARTREEVES 

Hollywood, Ccdifornia. U. S. A. 

International Photographer for June, 1941 




Continuing along on the premise that it 
is frequently more constructive to lay down 
rules of what not to do than what should 
be done, as we started doing last month, 
we come to a problem that has caused 
more ruined pictures in itself than many 
other problems combined. DONT SHOOT 

Many amateurs have come to us with 
scenes — long shots and close-ups, both — 
where part of the picture would be 
"washed out" and part of it almost black. 
If not completely black. And want to know 
why it looked that way, and what they 
should have done to correct the situation, 
or what they shouldn't have done. 

To give a little clearer understanding of 
the mechanics of the problem, let us take 
the old stand-by, the human eye. When we 
are walking down a street where the sun- 
light is occasionally shaded by objects, and 
look at a person walking alongside as he 
passes from the sunlight to the shadow, we 
do not have the sensation of losing all the 
detail of his features when he is in the 
sunlight, and then finding him so dark that 
we cannot see him when he is in the 
shadow. Instead, the iris of the eye, acting 
as the diaphragm of a lens on a camera, 
closes down and lets less light into the eye 
when he is in the sunlight, and then opens 
up and permits more light to enter when 
he is in the shadow. When the eye per- 
ceives a large area that is partially in the 
bright sunlight and partially in the shade, 
then the iris will "compromise" and per- 
mit more light to enter than is necessary 
for the bright objects and give the shadows 
a chance to register, even though there 
still isn't enough light admitted from the 
shadows to permit really good vision. The 
result is that the brightly lighted objects 
will appear brighter to the eye, and those 
in the shade darker than they would if 
they were viewed individually. If the shade 
predominates the iris will give it prefer- 
ence, and we'll be able to see objects here 
more easily; but if sunlight predominates, 
[hen it will actually be difficult to see 
things in the shade, hecause of the fact that 
large amounts of light will cause the iris 
to react and close down. 

It is possible to do the same thing with 
a camera, except that we are a little more 
limited. In the eye, when we look directly 
towards ,i certain objecl or scene the con- 
strue! ion of the retina of the eye will over- 
come the effcels of very great inequalities 
by virtue of the fact that a large part of 
the retina is covered by a coating that re- 
tards clear vision, lliis coating being absent 
in the center of the retina directly behind 
the eyeball, permitting perfectly clear 
vision here and the ability for the eye to 


concentrate on an object. The camera dif- 
fers in this respect in that it records the 
entire scene as the eye would see it without 
the protective covering. This is the first 
contributing factor to the "unnaturalness" 
of the unbalanced picture. The next, and 
perhaps even more important factor, is the 
mechanical limitations of the physio-chem- 
ical characteristics of an emulsion. 

When a film has been given a normal 
amount of development there is a "normal" 
range of exposures for that film that will 
result in "normal" densities. In other 
words, if there are objects in the scene that 
will reflect varying amounts of light to the 
camera, causing varying amounts of ex- 
posure on different parts of the film, if the 
light these objects reflect is of the amount 
to cause a "normal" exposure on the film, 
then these variations will produce propor- 
tionate variations in the densities produced 
in the emulsion. When the exposures fall 
below or go above this normal range the 
emulsion reacts abnormally. The variations 
in light and shade produced by the objects 
in the scene will not produce proportionate 
variations in light and shade on the film, 
this being due to the physio-chemical char- 
acteristics all films possess. 

In addition to this we have another fac- 
tor contributing to the failure of a scene 
photographed without consideration for a 
balanced light condition. Let's assume 
that we have met the requirements to a de- 
gree by staying within the limits of a 
"normal" range of exposures, but that we 
go to the extremes of these limits. Such 
a condition could obtain where the extreme 
highlights and extreme shadows were not 
sufficiently great in nature to bring about 
a disproportionate response in density on 
the developed film. We would then be 
faced with the difficulty of printing such a 
scene because a printing light sufficiently 
strong to penetrate the heavy silver deposit 
of the negative and give a normal exposure 
to the positive would be too strong for the 
shadows, and would make them too dark, 
even though they would be of correct con- 
trast because of the proportionate variation 
response. A light low enough in value to 
give the correct printing exposure to the 
shadows would be too weak to penetrate 
the highlights to give them a normal ex- 
posure on the print. Fortunately, however, 
this latter difficulty does not concern re- 
versal film for obvious reasons. But their 
effects are not entirely absent because the 
range of "normal" exposures is so much 
smaller on reversal film than that of a neg- 
ative film. 

There are several ways to deal with a 
situation of this sort. In all of them a "com- 
promise" must be effected in exposing the 
two extremes, the same as the eye does. 
The easiest and most logical one is to pick 
an angle that will minimize the inequality 

of the light condition. Assuming that we 
are shooting in sunlight — where we are 
most apt to encounter a condition of this 
nature — we will find that if the sun is di- 
rectly behind us the shadows will fall be- 
hind the objects we are photographing, and 
the camera will see little of them. This, 
however, will tend to make the scene look 
flat due to the absence of shadows. At the 
other extreme, shooting the scene with the 
sun coming towards us, we will have a pic- 
ture where the shadows will occupy as 
prominent a place as the objects them- 
selves. By compromising, and picking an 
angle where these shadows are there, but 
by virtue of the camera position are not 
of such magnitude or prominence as to con- 
stitute a major part of the scene, dealing 
with them then is no problem. 

There are times, however, when this is 
impossible, or when action is taking place 
in both the shadows and in the sunlit areas, 
and we want to photograph them both. 
Here the compromise becomes most im- 
portant, and that area in which the most 
important action is taking place is favored 
most. If the sky has a light haze it will act 
as a reflector, and will "fill in" the shadows 
sufficiently to give a good light balance — 
if enough open sky, or open water, is pres- 
ent. Sand on beaches is an excellent re- 
flector, as are white or light colored build- 
ings. If the sky is a deep blue, a blue filter 
will help, by holding back the large 
amounts of red and yellows present in the 
sunlight and giving the blue of the sky a 
chance to build up in the shadows. Neu- 
tral density filters are of help where a glare 

Much better, though, is the use of some 
means of throwing light into the dark areas 
artificially, using either reflectors made for 
the purpose, or lights. This means is useful 
only where relatively small areas are be- 
ing photographed. It is usually in these 
small areas where the natural reflections 
of haze, clouds, sand, or water cannot be 
used to practical advantage. And the large 
ones cannot be artificially illuminated in a 
practical manner by an amateur because 
of the large equipment requirements. When 
none of these corrections can be introduced 
for one reason or another, and the scene 
has great extremes in values of light dis- 
tribution, there is only one thing to do to 
prevent a photographic failure. And that is 
not to shoot it. 

We have laid down a photographic rule. 
That does not mean that under no circum- 
stances should an unbalanced light condi- 
tion ever be photographed. When one 
reaches that state of proficiency where he 
can determine beforehand what the exact re- 
sult on the screen will be and can deal with 
the situation accordingly to achieve a tech- 
nically perfect negative, a situation with an 
unbalanced light condition that would re- 
sult in a photographic failure for an aver- 
age person can be turned into a scene that 
will heighten the dramatic effect desired to 
create. It is one of the rules that must be 
broken by experts. 




To Make Commercial Debut July 1 
By Duster Evans 

While an abundance of startling news 
has been coming out of the Nation's Cap- 
itol recently, none has been more wel- 
come to some than the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission's approval of the com- 
mercial broadcast of Television, starting 
July 1. 

All of which means that Television has 
been authorized to start selling its pro- 
grams to sponsors. And experts agree that 
when this takes place, it won't be so very 
long before Television's magic should be 
reaching out into many homes. 

The Commission has adopted a set of 
operating standards that makes possible 
the highest level of Television perform- 
ance within present developments. These 
standards fix the line frequencies at 525 — 
making possible greater detail in a Tele- 
vision picture, than under the 441 line 
system recommended a year ago. This 
change will also be helpful in view of the 
trend to larger screens. 

The recent birth of Frequency Modula- 
tion in the Radio world has no doubt 
proved a timely, fitting stimulus to Tele- 
vision's coming-out party. Frequency Mod- 
ulation's almost staticless, pure tone is be- 
ing used to accompany the flickerless pic- 
tures. The Television public is therefore in 
for a double-feature treat in the realms of 
sight and sound. 

But Television, itself, has not been sit- 
ting tight these recent months. A startling 
development has taken place. Color Tele- 
vision has rapidly become a reality. A 
Television screen can now be flooded with 
the hues of the rainbow. Colorful objects 
"televised" by means of this new system 
take on a life-like realism. Like color mov- 
ies, a Television picture in color assumes 
a three-dimension effect. Perhaps no other 
recent event in Television's progress will 
so enhance Television's appeal to the buy- 
ing public. 

And the good news from the Television 
front these days is not confined solely to 
experimental stations at Washington. Some 
of the country's outstanding merchandisers 
are placing confidence in the future of 
Television to the tune of a plan for pos- 
sibly a ten-million-dollar order for Tele- 
vision receivers. Foreseeing the tremendous 
possibilities of merchandising products on 
Television's silvery screen, a survey of Tele- 
vision broadcast facilities is being con- 

International Photographer for June, 1941 

ducted by a large department store chain. 
Upon this may rest an order for fifty 
thousand Television receivers. 

RCA. it is also reported, is now pro- 
ceeding to interest theater operators in 
their new, Wide-Screen Television System 
designed for theater use. Experimental 
shows on a 15 by 20 foot screen have 
gained much favorable comment. It seems 
to be almost a foregone conclusion that in 

the next few years, some of the large the- 
aters will be installing Television projec- 
tors. Some are already showing an active 
interest. As an example of the "eye for 
the future" comes the news that Balaban 
and Katz have been authorized to erect an- 
other experimental station in Chicago. 

Certainly, there has been no marking 
time in Television. Technically, it is ready! 
The government has now given its ap- 

The last word in a television receiver. Dutnont model 195X 
with screen 11*4 by 15 inches, 169 square inches of actual 
picture. This receiver provides the largest directly viewed 
television image in the world. 


The same research by 
precision engineers, 
and the workmanship 
of skilled technicians 
keep MITCHELL in 
the front line of march 
when it comes to a 
camera for motion 



Cable Address "MITCAMCO" Phone CR. 6-1051 


Bell & Howell, Ltd., London, England Motion Picture Camera Supply Co., 

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Claud C. Carter, Sydney, Australia Fazalbhoy, Ltd., Bombay, India 

D. Nagase & Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan H. Nassibian, Cairo, Egypt 

proval for commercial operation ! The 
future appears bright! We cannot help but 
think, too, that Uncle Sam must feel there 
are real and important possibilities ahead 
of Television. He has given this new in- 
dustry the "green light" while other in- 
dustries are concentrating on one of the 
greatest industrial efforts in our history, 
producing military equipment. 

An interesting sidelight on Television is 
found in the military world. Even last 
Fall, during the huge war games in north- 
ern New York, camouflaged portable Tele- 
vision equipment was used to flash back 
strategic scenes to "Company Headquar- 
ters."' Army officials exhibited great in- 
terest in the success of the experiment. 
There are predictions that Television may 
play an important role in military activity 
of the future. Television's big brother, 
Radio, is already an essential factor to mil- 
itary success. 

In the past, new industries have pro- 
vided this country with a fertile, new field 
for opportunity- — the opportunity to work 
— to grow — to advance as the industry ad- 



now comes 



Men will soon be needed in Television 
studios, control rooms, transmitting sta- 
tions. They will be needed to build, in- 
spect, sell, install and service Television 
receivers. They will be needed out in the 
field to operate Television cameras and 
related equipment — "picking up" news as 
it is happening. But this fascinating new 
field is a technical one. Most of the future 
opportunities will be for men who "know 
how" — trained men. Certainly, this new 
industry of Television should be investi- 
gated by any ambitious young man won- 
dering how he may benefit himself in the 
years ahead. 

The commercial authorization of Tele- 
vision for July 1 is one of the bright spots 
on the horizon ; new industries have helped 
to make America great! And to what pro- 
portion may this new Television industry 
go? The future, alone, can tell. But from 
what experts tell us, we would not go far 
amiss by saying that Television seems des- 
tined, before very long, to become another 
familiar but sparkling design in the life 
pattern of Mr. and Mrs. Average American. 

To any of our readers interested in en- 
tering the field of radio, television or 
sound pictures, the writer of the above 
article will be glad to supply information 
if vou address him care of International 


The only sound track in America of a 
London air raid has arrived at Warner 
Bros, studio. The track, obtained by War- 
ner technicians at the Teddington Studios 
in England, was sent here to be used for 
scenes depicting the bombing of London 
in "The Flight Patrol," story of the in- 
ternational volunteers in the R.A.F., feat- 
uring Ronald Reagan and James Stephen- 






t v^ 






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Unit of Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation 





Carbon Sales Division: Cleveland, Ohio 


30 East 42nd Street, New York, N. Y. 

NewYorb, Pittsburgh, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisc 

International Photographer for June, 1941 


P fl T e n T s 

Patent Attorney, Los Angeles 

No. 2,236,767 — Means for Slating and 
Synchronizing in Motion Pictures. 
Percy Tinson, Westwood, Calif. Appln. 
Sept. 7, 1937. 7 claims. 
A motion picture camera having a framing 
aperture, with an indicia carrying member 
which may swing to and from a position 
covering the aperture. 
No. 2,236,878 — Actuating and Adjusting 
Means for a Film Gate Assembly. 
Albert Kindelman, assignor to Inter- 
national Projector Corp., New York. 
Appln. Aug. 5, 1938. 14 claims. 
A motion picture camera having a film 
gate assembly mounted on a rod and which 
may be moved longitudinally of the rod. 
No. 2,238,114 - Portable Talkinc 
Motion Picture Apparatus. Harold C. 

H olden, assignor to Radio Corp. of 

America. Original appln. June 21, 1935, 

which is division of appln. Feb. 12, 

1932. Divided and this application 

April 12, 1938. 

A film gate for motion picture apparatus 

which has a spring pressed shoe at one 

end of an aperture gate, urged toward the 

gate but stopping farther away than the 

thickness of the film, and a second spring 

pressed shoe at the other edge of the film 

and pressing the film against the gate. 

No. 2,238,159 — Device for Preventing 

Overheating in Cinema Projection 

Apparatus. Agostino D. Derossi, Italy, 

assignor to Soc. An. Microtecnica, Turin, 

Italy. Appln. Mav 9, 1939. In Italy May 

14, 1938. 1 claim. 

A screening device between the light source 
and the film of a projector and having a 
liquid filled housing intercepting all of the 
light not going to the film, to prevent 

No. 2,238,365 — Light-Reflecting and 
Sound-Transmitting Screen. Albert B. 
Hurley, Huntington, N. Y. Appln. Nov. 
20, 1937. 6 claims. 
A light-reflecting sound-transmitting screen 
having a highly perforated base material 
permanently attached to a base, and a 
paper light-reflecting surface having per- 
forations for sound transmission, and 
adhesively secured so it may be replaced 
when dirty. 

No. 2,238,495 — Method of Coloring 

Photography. Leopold D. Mannes and 

Leopold Godowsky, Jr., assignors to 

Eastman Kodak Company. Appln. April 

12, 1940. In great Britain May 10, 1939. 

6 claims. 

A method of producing colored pictures 

by exposing a special film, immersing it 

in an acid solution of an aromatic amino 

developing agent, and then subjecting it to 

alkaline vapors to form a colored image. 

Arthur W. Say of Local 68.H caught ihi* candid shot of Ernest Bachrach talking with 
enthusiastic amateur photographers at the recent Salon of the Still Photographers of 
the Motion Picture Studios. Virginia Vale in foreground. 




Has a New "Positive" Viewfinder! 

BELL & HOWELL engineers have scored again! Now the versatile 
Eyemo has a "positive" viewfinder and a new finder turret 
which mounts three matching viewfinder objectives. 

With this new "positive" viewfinder, there is no masking to re- 
duce the field. A large-size image always fills the entire finder 
aperture . . . for all lenses of any focal length. 

In addition, this new Eyemo finder eliminates eye parallax! Even 
when your eye wanders from the center of the eyepiece, you still 
see the EXACT field to be filmed! 

Add the advantage of having three matching finder objectives on 
a turret for instant readiness, and you begin to know why now, 
more than ever, the Eyemo is unsurpassed in the field of portable 
cameras. For no other camera offers the versatility and dependability 
of the Eyemo. For information about this superb 35 mm. camera, 

please mail coupon. Bell & Howell 
Company, 1848 Larchmont Ave., 
Chicago; 30 Rockefeller Plaza, 
New York; 716 N. LaBrea Ave., 
Hollywood; 1221 G St., N. W. 
Washington, D. C; 13-14 Great 
Castle Street, London. Estab. 7907. 


M l 





Other Recent Eyemo Improvements 

Important! Many Eyemo owners are 
converting their cameras to include 
these changes. Conversion charges 
are reasonable. Write for details. 

NEW FLAT BASE — 2l/ 2 " square, with dowel 
holes, gives perfect seating on any flathead 

in Joe us! 

TURRET LOCK for Eyemos with offset turret as- 
sures alignment even with long, heavy lenses. 

DETACHABLE CORD now supplied with electric- 
drive models. 

EYEMO can be equipped with 400-foot 
external magazine, offset turret, electric 
drive, and other studio accessories, or it can 
be stripped down to a light, compact, 
spring-driven hand camera. 




1849 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, III. 

( ) Send details about new, improved Eyemos. 

( ; I own Eyemo Serial No. 
converting it to include 

Am interested in 



City State. 

International Photographer for June, 1941 


Mexico's Festival 

(Continued from page 5) 

in Spanish, even if they are just "Please 
get back." 

Another thing of interest to me was the 
equipment used by the Mexican photo- 
graphers who still resort to the old flash 
pans and powders. 

One of our Mexican brother cameramen 
became my shadow. I found him right at 
my side everytime 1 turned around. With 
gestures I would try to convey the idea 
that 1 would appreciate his moving back 
until I got the shot and with even more 
courteous gestures he would smile and 
move in closer. At a crowded reception in 
the office of Mayor Rojo Gomez, while 
everyone was listening attentively to the 
speaker, my Mexican brother "shot his 
flash" about three feet away from David 
O. Selznick's head, causing Mr. Selznick 
to jump. I have since wondered if Mr. 
Selznick had his mind wholly on the 
good will tour during that moment. I 
glanced toward my Mexican friend who 
showed no surprise and was smiling as 
usual. I still think Mr. Selznick thought 
that I did it, for he gave me a very accus- 
ing look. 

Although the Mexican cameraman's 
equipment is very obsolete I must say, 
having seen some of their work, that they 
turn out very fine results. With up-to-date 
equipment I feel sure they would offer us 
keen competition. 

To Mr. Jock Lawrence and the Pro- 
ducers' Association 1 wish to extend my 
thanks for the privilege of playing my 
small part in this undertaking which I 
believe will prove historical to the motion 
picture industry. 


"e<J" cIe vRy! 

E. B. De Vry 

Time — the dictator supreme. Changes 
come. New faces . . . new names greet our 
eyes. And the field of sound motion pic- 
tures and Electronics is no exception. 
Meet Edward B. DeVry, son of Mr. H. A. 
DeVry, whose sudden death recently 
removed one of the true pioneers from the 
motion picture field. 

Edward, better known as "Ed" to most 
of his acquaintances, steps into his father's 
shoes not only as an officer of the DeVry 
Corporation — manufacturers of sound 
motion picture equipment — but also as 
President of an affiliated organization 
known as DeForest's Training. 

But if the senior Mr. DeVry were alive 

Lefl lo ri}jl>i: Desi Arnaz, Salm, Kay Proctor, Brenda Marshall ami 
Lucille Kail at airport in Mazatlan. (Wallace) 

today, he would probably say, "Don't 
congratulate Ed yet! Wait a few years. 
Then if he has proved worthy of your 
congratulations, fine!" But as Ed has all 
the ear-marks of his father's qualities, we 
feel perfectly safe in congratulating him 

After completing his schooling, Ed 
quickly plunged into the business world, 
and for the past number of years has 
worked closely with his father. He's a 
natural executive — and one who now has 
nearly 15 years of business experience 
behind him. 

Ed's presidency of DeForest's Training 
focuses particular attention on this mod- 
ern, industrial training program. Founded 
by the late H. A. DeVry, DeForest's Train- 
ing is providing a reliable means for 
numerous young men to get started toward 
a successful career in the field of Radio, 
Television, Sound Motion Pictures and 
other related branches of Electronics. 

One of the features of the training is the 
prominent use of "Visual Education." In 
addition to the use of loose-leaf material, 
each man is loaned a motion picture 
projector and film to be used in his own 
home. Further, he has the privilege of 
attending the organization's laboratories in 
Chicago for two weeks of practical train- 
ing on actual commercial equipment. And 
that's not all! 

DeForest's Training recently added a 
new, practical step to its program. Each 
member is now furnished with a wide 
assortment of Electronic equipment so that 
he can enjoy the benefits of a laboratory 
right in his own home. This equipment 
permits a young man to work out from 75 
to 100 fascinating experiments — giving 
him valuable practical experience. 

The late H. A. DeVry took great pride 
in the efficient job being done by De- 
Forest's Training. He had an eye for the 
future, too, when he insisted that his son, 
Edward, learn the business the hard way 
— from the bottom up. His foresight is 
now bearing fruit. 

Today this organization continues to 
function smoothly, with scarcely a ripple 
on the outer surface to show the torch has 
been handed on to another to carry. Cer- 
tainly, any organization or individual 
possessed with the vision, character and 
ideals of that pioneer maker of movie 
equipment, the late Mr. DeVry, is estab- 
lished upon a foundaion of bed-rock. Such 
an organization can look to the future with 
the confidence born of preparedness. Such 
an organization should long endure. 


The World's Largest and Finest Line 
of Motion Picture Sound Equipment 

One test of the quality of any product is the type of people buying it. Many of 
the largest industrial firms of America have purchased DeVry motion picture 
equipment to project their valuable films. Among these are the Ford Motor Co. 
(244 projectors), Firestone Tire and Rubber Co. (60 projectors), Standard Oil 
Co. (62 projectors), International Harvester Co. (183 projectors) and the Good- 
year Tire and Rubber Co. (2700 projectors, the largest industrial order for pro- 
jectors ever awarded) . DeVry equipment will likewise be found in thousands of 
schools, colleges, churches, theatres, clubs, institutions and various Governmental 
Departments throughout the United States and in over 68 foreign countries. 


are likewise proving their ability. Rob- 
ert Hartmann, ace cameraman for Fox 
Movietone, Harrison Foreman, famous 
world traveler and lecturer, Capt. John 
Craig and Norman Alley, the best known 
cameraman in the world, are just a few 
who get their pictures everytime with 
DeVry Cameras. 



DeVry 's newest portable 16mm. 
sound projector. Smart, modern 
styling of twin airplane luggage 
cases ; many other features for 
economy and efficiency includ- 

Slop-o» Film 
Power Rewind 
Reverse Switch 

12" Speaker 

Sound & Silent 


DeVry Manufac- 
tures Everything jo, 
the Recording and 
Projecting of 16mm, 
and 35mm. Sound 
and Silent Motion 
Picture Films. 

— of serving the motion picture world 
with the very best equipment that 
money, brains and good engineering can 
build. We have just recently added 
Factory Number 3, which includes mod- 
ern vaults to house over 3,000,000 feet 
of educational film negative. 

We Would Like 
to Help You Fill 
Your Important 
Motion Picture 
Equipment Needs. 

Pictured Above is the 
new DeVry Super The- 
atre Sound Projector. 

Distributors in Principal Cities throughout the world. 



Popular Radio and Screen 
Star Who Has Dual 
DeVry 35mm. Sound Pro- 
jectors in His Hollywood 

• ••••••*• 

Many Other Oustanding 
Stars in the Movie World 
Likewise Have DeVry 16 
mm. or 35mm. Projectors 
in Their Homes. 

Branch offices in Hollywood and New York^ City. 

1111 Armitage Ave.. CHICAGO 




(Continued from page 19) 

The coil is held in place by an armature 
shaft of hardened steel tapered at each end 
to a point much finer than a needle. The 
shaft is mounted in sapphire jewel bear- 
ings vertically, which minimizes friction. 
Two small torque springs mounted near 
each end of the shaft oppose the coil as 
it tends to turn in the magnetic field 
created by the strong permanent magnet. 
Thus, the more light falling on the cell the 
more current, and the higher the quantity 
indicated by the pointer. The precision 
and quality is such that the instrument can 
be calibrated and guaranteed to have a 
full scale accuracy of within 2%. 

The cell and the instrument are mounted 
in a special case, designed to absorb shocks 
and sealed against moisture. The scale 
plate is calibrated in foot-candles, the 
standard light measuring unit in the United 
States. This makes it a simple matter to 
check the accuracy of the instrument with 
any standard light power. One camera 
user went so far as to mount five ordinary 
candles one foot away from his General 
Electric exposure meter and observe that 
it indicated five foot-candles. This is not 
an accurate checking method because the 
standard candle has certain specifications: 
It must be of a certain size with a certain 
size wick, certain length of wick, and burn 
a certain amount of wax in a certain 
specified period. 

(Concluded in July issue) 

4000 4400 4800 5200 S600 6000 6400 6800 


Fig. 4- curve classifications 
1- relative density produced by various wave lengths of light. 

2- relative proportions (logarithmic a5 seen by film) of various wave lengths in daylight. 

3- " effect " " " " on cell. 

4- " " " " OH EYE. 

FlG. 5 

Performance of cells exposed to bright daylight (placed directly 
below a skylight) not protected by hood or multiplier. 

IO 12 14 

Fatigue teats on a dozen cells. The steady output shown assures 
continuous acouracy of ttie exposure meter as any aging of the 
eleotrloal element Is negligible. 



A new tiny focal plane photoflash lamp 
— same size as GE's mighty midget No. 5 
and the recently introduced speed midget 
I SM ) — has just been announced by Gen- 
eral Electric's lamp department at Nela 
Park, Cleveland. 

Full name given to this latest midget 
flash bulb is G-E Mazda Focal Plane 
Photoflash Lamp, No. C. It has a list price 
of 15 cents. 

Outstanding features and essential tech- j 
nical data of the new "No. SIX" are as 
follows: A Bll bulk filled with shredded 
foil; a single contact bayonet base; light 
output rated at 16,000 to 18.000 lumen 
seconds; and, 500,000 peak lumens. 

As in the case of the other two G-E 
midget photoflash lamps, the new No. 6 
permits use of smaller and more efficient 
reflectors than has been possible with the 
larger Mazda photoflash lamps. Time- 
light characteristics of the new lamp's flash 
are such that it may take the place of the 
present focal plane flash bulb No. 31 in 
many cases. 

The flash of the new lamp has an 
effective duration of approximately 0.030 
second. Accordingly, the lamp may be 
synchronized with the great majority of 
focal plane cameras in use up to and 
including the 2Vi x 3^ size. For best 
results some small focal plane cameras 
may require the longer flash duration of 
Photoflash lamp No. 31. Employed in an 
efficient, well-designed reflector, (the same 
as used with No. 5 and Type SM photo- 
flash lamps) the new No. 6 lamp gives an : 
exposure approaching that obtained with 
larger focal plane photoflash lamps. 

Development of the focal plane No. 6 
permits photographers to "virtually hold 
in the palm of one hand" a trio of midget 
G-E flash bulbs, simplified ammunition 
designed to satisfy the countless needs of 
the growing army of flash photographers 
and the wide assortment of equipment used 
in shooting pictures. 










1600 Broadway New York City 

Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable : CINEQUIP 



1600 Broadway New York City 

Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable: CINEQUIP ' 

MITCHELL NC 112. LIKE NEW. Up to the min- 
ute. B. B. RAY, 300 W. Durante Road, Arcadia, 


FOR SALE: AKELEY CAMERA, like new, No. i 
258, with roller pressure plate, new tripod and 
legs, all new gyro wears, six magazines, 35 mm. 
F2:3 matched pan astro lenses, 50 mm. F2:3 
matched pan astro lenses, 100 mm. F3:5 matched' 
Carl Zeiss lenses, 12-inch F 5 :6 Dahl Meyer Tele- 
photo lens. All equipment in cases. 230 and 180 
degree interchangeable shutters. Ten metal filter 
holders in case. Sacrifice $900. MERVYN FREE- 

Popular Choice in the Hollywood Reporter Preview Poll 


Orsen Welles' 

"Citizen Kane" 

A Mercury Production 
RKO— Radio Release 

GREGG TOL AND, a. s. c. 

Director of Photography 

BERT SHIPHAM, Operative Cameraman 
EDDIE GARVIN, Assistant Cameraman 

Negative Processing and Dailies by 

Consolidated Film Industries, Hollywood 

Eastman fine^grain Release Prints by 

De Luxe Laboratories, New York 




BACK of the arresting beauty of modern 
screen productions stands the unvarying 
high quality of Eastman negative films. 
Each does its specific work surpassingly 
well. From long experience, directors and 
cameramen take for granted this vital con- 
tribution to each scene's success. Eastman 
Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 

J. E. BKULATOUR, INC., Distributors 
Fort Lee Chicago Hollywood 


for general studio use when Hi He light is available 

lt\< K4.ICOI M>-\ 

for backgrounds and general exterior trork 


July, 1941 


Ocreen results twi 

ce improve 

Du Ponr Film Manufacturing Corporation 
Smith Ci. Aller, Ltd. 

Du Pont Fine Grain Positives enhance the 
quality of both picture and sound. They 
render the detail of a camera formed image 
more crisply. They record and reproduce 
sound with greater fidelity. Used in con- 
junction with fine grained DuPont Negative 
they transmit undiminished to the screen 
the skill and artistry expended in motion 
picture production. 

New York, N. Y. 
Hollywood, Calif. 




Vol. XIII 

July, 1941 

No. 6 


Universal^ Thrill Hunter, Krainukov 
Animated Cartoon Photography, Burton 
Paradise South, McGregor — Page 11 
The Kodatron — Page 13 
Using the Exposure Meter, Anderson 

Page 3 

-Page 10 

Page 18 


"Martha", Mortensen — Page 2 
Swordfishing with Shackelford — Page 7 
"Father Takes a Wife," Bachrach — Page 8 
"A Thousand Cameras," Longworth — Page 12 
High Speed Action Shots — Pages 14, 15 


16 mm. Department — Page 20 
Television, Evans — Page 21 
Tradewinds — Page 22 
Patents, Fulwider — Page 24 
They Say, Rella— Page 28 

Editor, Herbeiu Ai.i.i-.k 

Business Manager, Helen Boyce. Art Editor, John Corydon Hill. 
Contributing Editors: D. K. Allison, Georce Hurrell, J. N. A. Hawkins, Roman 

Freulich, Ernest Bachrach, Alvin Wyckoff, William V. Draper, Fred Gately, 

George Scheibe. 
Copyright, 1941, by Local 659, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 

and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada. 

Entered as Second Class matter, Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

International Photographer, as the monthly official publication of International Pho 
tographers, Local 659, of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, not only 
represents the entire personnel of photographers engaged in professional produc- 
tion of motion pictures in the United States and Canada, but also serves technicians 
in the studios and theatres, who are members of the International Alliance, as well 
as executives and creative artists of the production community and executives and 
engineers of the manufacturing organizations serving the motion picture industry. 
International Photographer assumes no responsibility for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts or material. 

Subscription Rates: U.S.A., $2.50; Canada-Foreign, $3.00 per year. Single Copy, 25 cents. 
Australian Representative: McGill's News Agency, Melbourne. 

Office of Publication: 6461 Sunset Blvd. (Los Angeles P. 0.), Hollywood, California 

Telephone: Hillside 9189 
Publication Dale: 5th of Each Month 



"SHACK" and "JACK" 

Anyway that's the title Artist John Hill 
gave the picture. The picture, taken on the 
great Gobi Desert, shows "Jack" at the age 
of about two weeks, at which time Shackel- 
ford's party adopted him. One of the mem- 
bers of the expedition knew "Jack" should 
be kept warm at night, so he look his 
sleeveless leather jacket and neatly but- 
toned "Jack" into it each evening, putting 
his two feet through the armholes. One 
night "Jack" disappeared, never to be seen 
again — and fashionably attired in a fine 
leather jacket. What his mother thought 
when she saw him, or how he managed to 
discard the jacket (if he did) still remains 
a mystery. Shackelford promises a story, 
with plenty of pictures, on the Gobi Des- 
c:t for another issue, but NEXT MONTH 
watch for a story on one of his MAGIC 

also watch 

for a fine technical article 


International Photographer for July, 1941 





By William Morlensen 

UNWERSAl's ThRlll hlJNTER iN chilNA 

Krainukov, the author of this article, has 
spent the last nineteen years in China {the 
last ten years for Universal Newsreel) cov- 
ering floods, famines, wars, vendettas and 
on many occasions he seemed to lead a 
charmed life, so miraculous were his es- 
capes. Several years ago after the bomb- 
ing of the Cathey and Palace Hotels. 
"Time" published Krainukov's photograph 
with the caption underneath, "George 
Krainukov s pictures were the most grue- 
some of them all." When a bomb hit the 
entrance of the Cathey Hotel and another 
the roof of the Palace Hotel, he was 
wounded with a fragment, but kept on 
grinding until he got the complete story. 
Dozens of times he has been under direct 
machine gun fire, bombings, explosions 
and what not, and always seems to have 
returned with the story. 

Krainukov says, "The Newsreel camera- 
man leads the most thrilling life of any 
artisan today. He must think quickly and 
accurately and must face the world's great- 
est dangers calmly — and eagerly." He has 
done just that. 

When the dark and gruesome thunder 
of war looses its ominous growls over vast 
plains of death, heroes are molded from 
the most common of clay. Love of home, 
love of homeland, perhaps even love of 
their gods, transforms men into individ- 
uals, who fear not death, but only dis- 
honor. Inspired by such all-compelling 
motives as love, patriotism, or religion, 
death is naught but constant comrade. One 
brief moment of glory, and memory of 
how they passed, in the minds of those they 
served, the dying deem recompense enough. 

But what of the unsung heroes, those 
who hold no passion for either side, whose 
presence on the far flung theatres of battle 
is not by choice, but of necessity, whose 
purpose is not to fight, but merely to rec- 
ord, that the world at large may see, be 
entertained, perhaps — be amused? 

I speak of the newsreel cameramen. To 
paraphrase: "Theirs not to reason why, 
theirs but to go and try," to get the pic- 
ture! Whether it be in the vermin infested, 
fever ridden, foul pest holes of Ethiopia, 
where sanguine butchery seems to have 
been a pastime; on the high perched, dead- 
ly plateaux of Spain, or in the seething 
vortex of nations that is the Orient, the aim 
is the same: GET THE PICTURE! For a 
few fleeting minutes we see the results on 
a screen of our neighborhood playhouse 
and are appropriately appalled at the con- 
ditions and events portrayed. 

But what of the men who got the pic- 

Since I left China on my vacation to 
America, many people approached me to 
write articles of my experiences in China 
as a newsreel cameraman, give lectures or 

even to write a book. Well, I never thought 
of that and beside I was too busy covering 
events for the last nineteen years which I 
spent in China, cranking a motion picture 
camera all over the country and chasing 
hot news in floods, famines, wars and ban- 
dit vendettas to be flashed across the silver 
screens the world over. There are many 
fascinations in the newsreel game despite 
the innumerable hardships I have gone 

By George Krainukov, 

Universal Newsreel Staff Cameraman. 

through during that nineteen years of turn- 
ing a camera crank. 

The story of my career as a newsreel 
man is packed full of thrills, and being 
born an adventurous Russian I enjoyed all 
of my manifold experiences, even when 
my life hung on a thin thread. Whenever 
there was a war, be it Japanese, anti-com- 
munist or what have you, I was to be found 
cranking my machine somewhere behind 

Upper: Krainukov on the front line with the Japanese Army; 
Lower: With the Chinese Air Force. 

International Photographer for July, 1941 

the lines registering on celluloid, history 
in the making. 

Starting as a volunteer in my father's 
12th Siberian regiment, I fought Germans 
for two years, when on a military assign- 
ment I was caught in the midst of a Rus- 
sian revolution in St. Petersburg, the cap- 
ital of Russia. I was forced to shoot police- 
men and counter-revolutionists. Discarding 
my rifle I drove a car, but one night being 
suspected as a counter-revolutionist — my 
car was riddled with thirteen bullets, my 
lucky number ever since. Escaping unin- 
jured I quickly made a decision that the 
front lines were much safer than the main 
street in the Russian capital and so I found 
myself again fighting our enemies. 

Civil war and retreat of the armies, 
found me in Vladivostock in 1918 where 

George Krainukov, Universal 
staff cameraman, shooting 
Shanghai street scenes. 

I joined the Y.M.C.A. motion picture de- 
partment, and got my first experience in 
handling a Pathe movie camera. However, 
the arrival of the Red Armies in Vladivo- 
stock landed me in Shanghai, China. There 
I started as a cameraman on the staff of the 
British-American Tobacco Company. Soon 
after my arrival in China I was initiated 
into the newsreel profession, which became 
mv life work. During the days while I was 
with the B.A.T., which at that time was 
producing "shorts" and news pictures to 
aid their advertising department, I traveled 
all around the country in search of news. 

In 1925 I joined a scientific expedition 
into the jungle of Fukien under the well- 
known explorer Mr. Flovd T. Smith of the 
Field Museum of Natural Historv, Chicago. 
It was during this trip that I tasted the first 
of the adventures of a newsreel cameraman 

Fleeing into the International 

when we were captured bv bandits while 
on our way up river from Foochow to Yen- 
ping. It was the hard bargaining with the 
bandit chief that finally set us free on the 
payment of $200.00 instead of $2,000.00. 
However, we struck bad luck and were cap- 
tured again a week later. High in the 
jungle mountains in an abandoned Chinese 
temple, where we were imprisoned, I man- 
aged to get away with my De Brie camera, 
tripod. Graflex and two rolls of spare film. 
Did I run? I think I have beaten all the 
running records existing at that time, com- 
ing to Yenping soaked through with per- 
spiration and with blood all over my 
shoulders from carrying the heavy equip- 

I also photographed the first real war 
pictures ever filmed in China when in 1924 

Dead and injured on Nanking 
Road in front of Palace Hotel. 

I "shot" scenes of the hostilities between 
Marshal Wu Pei-fu and the late Marshal 
Chiang Tso-lin the war lord of Manchuria. 
The great Yellow river flood was covered 
in North China in an old Vimy-Vickers, 
twelve-passenger plane, the first pictures 
ever made in China from a plane. The same 
flood afterward was covered in a small 
junk. We were caught in a storm, bitten 
by myriads of mosquitos, and finally I con- 
tracted "Hongkong Foot" disease from 
which I was unable to be freed for six 

Then the eventful year of 1927 rolled 
along. I was connected with Paramount 
News and was busy with my camera taking 
various scenes of the Nationalist cam- 
paign. I was on the spot with Merl La Voy 
when the victorious pro-Nationalist Gen- 
eral Yen Hsi-shan's troops took Peking, the 
old capital of China. I could never forget 
the scenes I took of the hungry, barefooted 

: - 

Krainukov in front of 
"archy*" in Nanking. 


marching Chinese soldiers, exhausted by 
endless hours of marching under the 
scorching Peking sun, picking up pieces of 
ice from the dusty road fallen from a pass- 
ing ice-cart, to quench their thirst. It was 
here that I first met James Shackelford, 
friendly cameraman connected with Roy 
Chapman Andrews Expedition, and now 
after fifteen years I have had the pleasure 
to again renew the acquaintance. 

In a snow storm in December 1929 I was 
tangled up in the Pukow military mutiny 
and looting by General Hsih Yao-shan's 
troops. Night came and with a heavy bliz- 
zard from up-river, driving sleet and snow. 
With practically no warning, the troops in 
the sheds arose in rebellion. Their loyal 

Another scene of "Bloody Sat- 
urday" bombing before the 
Palace Hotel. Krainukov was 
saved because of standing at 
extreme left. 

officers they killed, or drove them into the 
storm. They flowed through the sheds, 
breaking up all freight and opening all 
cars; they rolled out over the native town, 
killing and robbing everyone they met. 
Three Chinese officers and eight bodyguards 
and myself were disarmed, robbed of 
everything we had, roughly handled and 
threatened to be shot. Jumping from the 
train and running under cars in the Pukow 
yard with rebels spraying us with bullets, 
we soon came to safe ground, and before 
the soldiers attempted to storm the Belgian 
steamer ""Carlier," Captain F. H. Peret ad- 
mitted me and four Chinese on board. 
What happened to the others I never 

Mutineers took all my money, personal 

Taken from the entrance of 
Cathey Hotel, where the bomb 
struck. On the opposite side 
is the Palace Hotel. 

International Photographer for July, 1941 

belongings, stole or destroyed two of my 
motion picture cameras and equipment. 
Then the soldiers decided to gut the 
steamer. They came down in hundreds, 
but were "outfaced" by the thin, but grim 
line of armed Europeans that barred the 
way. So wrecking the gangway they pro- 
ceeded to less dangerous spots. When 
they were satisfied with loot and killings, 
they commandeered all rolling stock in the 
yards, forced the railway employees to run 
the locomotives and proceeded to a point 
15 miles from Pukow, where they en- 
trenched and were displaced and broken 
up by loyal Nationalist Nanking troops a 
few days later. Meantime, Captain Peret 
had shifted to a safer point, going down- 
stream and anchoring. For that experience 
a well-known Yangtse River Captain Joe 
Miclo ( who was a few years later killed 
and thrown overboard by the Yangtse river 
pirates) gave me a name of the Grand 
Duke of Pukow. 

Then came the Great Yangtze River 
Flood of 1931. There were more than 
500,000 dead. A frantic rabble clawed it- 
self to pieces to get out of stricken Nan- 
king and I breasted that rush of water and 
humans to record the disaster. Having 
sent a call for help, I stuck in the flood 
area, taking my pictures until the water was 
up to my chest, even when I perched on 
the roof tops. My faith was justified. In 
far away New York, Mr. E. Cohen my edi- 
tor had managed to charter a Chinese sea- 
plane to find me amid the yellow waters 
of the Yangtze. It arrived in time to take 
me to safety and to speed the film toward 
the world's screens. The pictures were ex- 
clusive for the Paramount News. Many 
cinema-goers will remember news-pictures 
of the greatest disaster that had happened 
to China since the Yellow river changed 
its course. Millions of people were drown- 
ed, millions more rendered homeless and 
starving. Help poured in to China, mostly 
from America. 

Earthquakes in Formosa in 1935 provided 
another five exciting days. The North- 
Eastern region was being devastated, and 
after flying from Shanghai to Foochow 
and then by tiny coastal boat across the 
stormy sea to Tai Hoku, the capital of 
Formosa, I set out on foot, walking from 
town to town and taking pictures as I 
went. Roads and bridges disappeared after 
I had crossed them and I would never 
have gotten back to Tai Hoku but for the 
guides who accompanied me to each town 
or village, leaving me there in the hands 
of another guide who knew the immediate 
district. At night I slept in little hotels 
which were made of wood owing to the 
country's frequent earthquakes. The weari- 
ness engendered by my long daily walks 
can \ in;.' heavy equipment under the scorch- 
ing sun made me immune to any shocks, 
and I slept soundly every night, whilst 
the earth rocked beneath me and buildings 
fell to hits in the village. My only fear 

was that the peculiar wide heavy mosquito 
netting in use there might fall on me, and 
envelop and strangle me. 

In 1931 I joined Universal Newsreel and 
from then on events were moving fast in 
China. Starting with the Mukden "inci- 
dent"' that set the world ablaze, I photo- 
graphed nearly every phase of the historic 
events which reached their climax with the 
fall of Shanghai, Nanking, Canton, Han- 
kow and the continuous bombing of 

But not all the credit should go to the 
cameramen; the major part should be 
given to our editors. They have to be able 
to set us down in a Mongolian famine or 
a first class war, and know that whatever 
the trouble is we go in and get the pic- 
tures. They've got to have confidence in 
us, and we've got to have confidence in 
them. We've got to know that they appre- 
ciate our trouble and our dangers. We've 
got to know that whatever jam we get our- 
selves into for them, our editors will work 
intelligently to get us out. One editor said: 
"You can't make your men burn incense 
before you. They've got to know they're 
working with you and not for you, if you 
get the results.'' And it is with this feeling 
that we cameramen dash into the thick of 
dangerous situations. 

Often I lived with Chinese and Japanese 
troops, camping with them, riding beside 
them, lying side by side with them, shoot- 
ing the news whilst they were shooting 
each other. Then came the Sino-Japanese 
war of 1932 and the "Hongkew Park" 
bombing when several high Japanese Gen- 
erals, diplomats and other officials were 
seriously wounded. One of them Admiral 
Nomura, now Ambassador to America, lost 
his eye in that bombing of which I got ex- 
clusive pictures. General Shirokawa, Com- 
mander in Chief of all Japanese armies in 
China, died of wounds; Shigemitsu, now 
Ambassador to Great Britain, lost his leg 
and others were severely wounded. The 
bomb was thrown by a patriotic Korean, 
who was caught at the spot. What hap- 
pened after the bomb exploded, I leave to 
the imagination of my readers. And yet, 
I not only got the bombing, but took two 
hundred feet more of the pandemonium 
and was able to get out of the park with 
my precious film with the park surrounded 
by angered Japanese soldiers who would 
shoot anyone at the slightest provocation. 

The Sino-Japanese war that started from 
the "Marco Polo Bridge" or as Chinese 
called it "Luockochiao," brought a chain 
of important coverages during which I 
was twice wounded. Once when I walked 
from the Chinese lines to the Japanese 
through "NO MAN'S LAND." The second 
time was during the bombing of the 
Cathey and Palace hotels on Nanking road, 
the main street of Shanghai. The Ameri- 
can magazine "Time," in its issue of Sep- 
tember 13th, 1937, published a photograph 
of me. Underneath it was the rather pecu- 

liar compliment: "George Krainukov's pic- 
tures were the most gruesome of them all." 

Once I was standing on the corner of the 
Bund and Nanking road watching two sil- 
very objects dropping from a bomber. . . . 
A few seconds later the bombs struck. 
One hit the entrance of the Cathey hotel 
and the other hit the roof of the Palace 
hotel. I was wounded in the knee by a 
fragment of the bomb and hit in the back 
by the bloody mutilated body of a Chinese 
who had been killed. I was soaked all over 
in hot blood. This perhaps saved my life. 
I turned around and got the complete story. 
For this the editor of Universal Newsreel 
sent me a substantial bonus and in their 
caption sheet Volume IX, Number 595, 
called "The Scoops of Scoops," they 
wrote:" . . . George Krainukov wounded 
by a bomb fragment, Universal's intrepid 
cameraman stood up under fire and kept 
on grinding, so YOUR screen might be en- 
riched by the most spectacular scoops of 
the century! The whole New Universal 
organization is proud of you George!" 

There are many interesting and fascinat- 
ing things to write about that would fill 
the whole book. Suffice to say that I have 
been dozens of times under direct machine 
gun fire, bombings, explosions and what 
not. Press association once said: "George 
Krainukov, Universal Newsreel Staff Cam- 
eraman in China, is coming to be known 
as the luckiest man in China. And indeed 
he does seem to bear a charmed life. Uni- 
versal Newsreel today shows the first scenes 
of the capture of Shanghai which Krainu- 
kov took under the most dramatic circum- 
stances and at the eminent risk of his life. 
Two of his companions on the roof of a 
75 foot water tower in French Concession 
were hit by machine gun bullets which 
probably were fired at Krainukov's camera, 
yet Krainukov escaped without a scratch 
and even filmed the removal of his killed 
companion the British war correspondent 
Pembroke Stephens." 

In Nanking when huge Japanese bomb- 
ers droned over the Nationalist capital, 
dropping a hail of high-explosive missiles 
as Tokyo acted to execute its threat to de- 
stroy the city. I cheated death by inches 
as one of the Japanese raiders fell in front 
of my camera, damaging my car. I stood 
there by my camera, recording the most 
ruthless air raid in the history of the world 
up to that time. With me on the roof were 
famous and daring cameramen : Eric May- 
ell, Arthur Menken, who took the danger 
as a matter of fact. While another ace 
cameraman "Newsreel Wong" in Shanghai 
was covering his famous story of the bomb- 
ing of the South Station. 

I have been shooting a news camera for 
the last nineteen years and have taken hun- 
dreds of thousands of motion pictures of 
Chinese life and Chinese strife, from Shang- 
hai West to the far interior of Thibet, 
North China and Mongolia and to the 
French Indo-China. The distances to be cov- 

ered were great and often New York send- 
ing me on assignment, would think I could 
be there in a day or two, when it took me 
sometimes weeks before I could reach the 

During political unrest and constant 
changing of armies and due to the manner 
in which the various scenes that I photo- 
graphed of Chinese war were used, with 
commentary entirely sympathetic to the 
Chinese people, my life became endangered 
because my pictures were undisputable 
proof of what was taking place and natur- 
ally forces opposing the Chinese could 
not have a very warm spot in their hearts 
for me, so I decided that it would be 
longer and healthier for me if I made my 
home in America, because when the insur- 
ance company in Tokyo began selling poli- 
cies issued in time of 30, 60 and 90 days 
... it was time to go some place and that 
place was not Shanghai. 

In the latest occupation of Shanghai, 
passes issued in the previous war by offi- 
cers that now occupied commanding posts 
were useful. It was lucky for us that they 
used the same officers in both wars. 

However, those were the most exciting, 
destructive and yet most comfortable wars 
we ever had. Days in the trenches and 
nights in hotels and clubs with fellow cam- 
eramen or journalists, such as Joe Rucker 
of Paramount; Eric Mayell of Fox Movie- 
tone; Ariel Varges, Bonny Powell who 
took hand to hand fighting from the 
"Doomed Battalion"; Newsreeler Wong 
who nearly lost his head, but escaped to 
Hongkong; A. Alexander with Tappen, 
poor fellows who lost their lives while on 
the job; Paul Heise, ever smiling and 
friendly; big husky Mervyn Freeman who 
crossed the ocean to work in the war in 
1932; Floyd Gibbons, the one-eyed re- 
porter; Howard Winner, young and brave 
cameraman, who was replaced later by an- 
other ace, Norman Alley who photo- 
graphed the sinking of the Panay. Yes, 
that was a great time and fine men we had 
there ! 

Political situations in China make my 
work there now more dangerous than ma- 
chine gun bullets or bombings and so my 
company granted me "home leave." But I 
have no home. Thanks to my many Amer- 
ican friends who helped me to get an immi- 
grant quota visa, now I am here. In God's 
country, where people are free and friend- 
ly. My immediate plans are indefinite. 
However, it doesn't matter. What does mat- 
ter is that I am on American soil, that I 
am in a free country and my wife and I 
are very happy. What may happen to us 
is all in the hands of God and our good 
friends. I know only this: that someday 
I'll find my little place under the friendly 
sun in America and here hope to make my 
home and be a good American citizen — a 
home in the country that I always have 
dreamed of. 


Shackelford and his party off Piercy Rock, northwest New Zealand. It 
was here they caught the record swordfish of the trip. This rock juts 
up 400 feet out of the sea with nearly perpendicular sides. Seamen 
claim they have sighted with field glasses the Tuatara lizards on the 
two-acre flat top. This dinosaur-like animal is the oldest living creature 
on earth. 

Floods End Plans for 
Underground Premiere 

Warner Bros, has been obliged to cancel 
its plans for a premiere of "Underground" 
in the Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico. The 
studio has been notified by the Federal 
Government that flood waters inundated 
portions of the caverns and that the huge 
underground auditorium could not be dried 
completely before June 28, the date set 
for the film's national release. 

Fox Purchases "A House at Peace" 

A brilliant new novel on present-day 
England, "A House at Peace," was pur- 
chased by Darryl F. Zanuck, 20th Cen- 
tury-Fox production chief, from Charles 
Morgan, noted British author. 

The novel, bought as a vehicle for Henry 
Fonda, tells of England in the war, al- 
though there is no conflict in the story. It 
reflects the feeling of the war, how it was 
broken and disarranged the lives of all the 
people in England. 

International Photographer for July, 1941 

"Father Takes a Wife," RKO Radio Production 

Stills by Ernest Bachrach 

Starring Gloria Swanson and Adolphc Menjou 


"fAThER TAliES A wifE" ' 

ANd it's qlORJA 

Since Gloria Swanson left pictures in 
1934 to engage in the manufacturing busi- 
ness, until her return in RKO Radio's cur- 
rently filming "Father Takes a Wife," there 
has ben no change in her film appearance 
except her eyes. 

But that change is due to change in pho- 
tographic film, according to Ernest Bach- 
rach, who photographed the star for seven 
years and is again her official portrait man. 

"Formerly, when we used ortho-chro- 
matic film," Bachrach explained, "Miss 
Swanson's eyes photographed light grey. 
Today, with the use of panchromatic film, 
her eyes are considerably darker — but still 
as luminous. 

"Otherwise, the same exotic quality, the 
cooperation in posing and the photogene- 
ity, are still there." 

As the Swanson swept before the click- 
ing cameras at RKO last week in a cloud 
of white bridal chiffon, 250 blase show- 
hardened movie extras suddenly went pop- 
eyed, then berserk with a spontaneous burst 
of cheering. 

A sincere tribute which Gloria knew how 
to accept — with the proper admixture of 
graciousness and savoir faire. 

The incident, as much as anything else, 
indicates the universal affection Gloria 
Swanson has had since she became a screen 
glamour star, the kind of affection given 
only to Wally Reid, Rudolph Valentino 
and Will Rogers. 

As far as externals go, she might have 
left Hollywood only last week instead of 
seven years back. 

Wherever the distinguished French 
clothes designer, Rene Hubert, went in 
Hollywood, Los Angeles and Beverly Hills 
when gathering together accessories for the 
$10,000 eighteen-change wardrobe for 
"Father Takes a Wife," tradesfolk were 
similarly all aflutter. Many were the per- 
sonal and endearing messages they asked 
Hubert to deliver "to Gloria." 

More than 500 telegrams arrived at the 
studio from astute exhibitors throughout 
the land congratulating RKO on the casting 
coup — and asking for booking dates. 

Work at the Melrose-Gower film plant 
was practically at a stand-still that morning 
Miss Swanson worked before the cameras 
for the first time. Not only the secretaries 
wanted to see the famous star, but the en- 
tire contract list of stars and leads wanted 
a first, or another peek at Gloria. 

"She's marvelous," was the unqualified 
consensus of opinion everywhere, espe- 
cially from the boys and girls of the press, 
who were among the first in the goggle- 
eved rush. 

Perhaps not all the interest was centered 
in Miss Swanson. The teaming of Holly- 
wood's two most famous clothes horses, 
Gloria Swanson and Adolphe Menjou, is 
a fashion world event in itself. 

The two play the title roles in "Father 
Takes a Wife," which is a reverse-English 
story of matrimony by Herbert and Dor- 
othy Fields. 

As a glamour stage star, a made-to-order 
role for Miss Swanson, the wardrobe is 
all-inclusive — a negligee, evening gown and 
wrap; traveling outfit with fur coat; eve- 
ning dress; hostess gown; dressing gown; 
afternoon outfit; traveling outfit and fur 
coat I another one ) ; slacks for a boat scene 
I first time Swanson has worn them ) ; gym- 
nasium costume; luncheon outfit. 

Street ensemble; dinner dress; evening 
gown and wrap; night dress and negligee; 
afternoon dress; another street ensemble; 
dress for day wear. In all eighteen layouts 
— costing plenty. 

Of late as president and general manager 
of Multiprises, Incorporated, a concern in 
Queens, New York, Miss Swanson hasn't 
been idle. It took a script like "Father 
Takes a Wife," being directed by Jack 
Hively, to draw her to Hollywood again. 

"One day I was reading the scenario 
sent me by RKO," said the actress, "and 
without much enthusiasm or hope — when 
suddenly it dawned on me that the story 
was my story and the chief character my 
own self. I was sold." 

She was born in Chicago, Illinois, March 
27, 1898. Her father was a Captain I later 
a Lieutenant-Colonel) in the United States 
Army. His name: Joseph Theodore Swan- 

Because of the continuous routine change 
of stations, little Gloria received schooling 
in sixteen different army posts — in Chi- 
cago, New York, Porto Rico, Key West, 
Florida, Utah, Mexican Border and other 

Gloria's earliest ambition was to be an 
artist. To further it she attended the Chi- 
cago Art Institute at the age of 14 and 
attracted considerable attention for her 
black and white sketches. 

At the age of 15, her aunt took her on a 
visit to the old Essanay Studio in New 
York. Greta Holmes was starring in the 
picture and the director, a friend of the 
aunt's, gave the youngster a bit in the film 
— just for a lark. 

Her striking beauty photographed so 
well, so amazingly well, in fact, that Es- 
sanay signed her on a long term contract 
and starred her in "Elvina Farina' and 
"The Meal Ticket." 

The following year she went to Holly- 
wood with her mother and made a number 
of comedies with Mack Sennett and Key- 
stone, in which she co-starred with Bobby 
Vernon and other celebrities. 

Next she signed with Triangle and 
starred in "Her Decision," "Every Wo- 
man's Husband. "Wife or Country," 
"Secret Code," "Station Content," "Shift- 
ing Sands" and "Smoke." 

Her work attracted the attention of C. B. 
DeMille and under his direction she soared 
to fame — in "Don't Change Your Hus- 
band," "For Better or Worse," "Male and 
Female," "Why Change Your Wife?" 
"You Can't Believe Everything," and "Af- 
fairs of Anatol." 

After three years with DeMille she sign- 
ed with Famous Players and made a string 
of successful vehicles, among them "The 
Great Moment," "Under the Lash," "Her 
Husband's Trade Mark," "Beyond the 
Rocks," "The Gilded Cage." "The Impos- 
sible Mrs. Bellew," "My American Wife," 
"Prodigal Daughter," "Bluebird's Eighth 
Wife," "Zaza," "The Humming Bird," "So- 
ciety Scandal," "Manhandled," "Wages of 
Virtue," "Madame San Gene," "Coast of 
Folly," "Stage Struck," "Untamed Lady" 
and "Fine Manners." 

In May, 1926, she joined United Artists 
to produce her own pictures. The first of 
these was "Loves of Sonya," in which John 
Boles made his screen debut as leading 
man. Then came "Sadie Thompson," "The 
Trespasser," "What a Widow," "Indis- 
creet," and "Tonight or Never." 

In 1933 she made "Perfect Understand- 
ing" for a British film organization, and 
returned to the United States in 1934 to 
Fox and again teamed with John Boles in 
"Music in the Air." 

Few stars have had such a long and sus- 
tained and successful acting career . . . 
Fewer have so well personified glamour 
and worn clothes . . . She is five feet, one 
and a half inches tall, and weighs 110 
pounds . . . Has dark brown hair and re- 
markably brilliant eyes of deep sapphire 
blue . . . She has many friends of long 
standing . . . Hates loneliness and has an 
unreasonable fear of the water . . . Likes 
having people in — and her delightful after- 
noon teas have become legendary in Holly- 
wood, New York City or wherever she 
happens to reside. 

Devoted to tennis and to dogs . . . Has 
three children, Gloria, Joe and Michele. 

Loves flowers . . . plays "hunches" . . . 
rides like the wind — a left over from her 
army days at cavalry posts. 

International Photographer for July, 1941 



By John W. Burton 

A far cry from the glamorous conditions 
of Class A feature production, animated 
cartoon photography undoubtedly is no 
mystery to most of you, but for those who 
never have had the pleasure of being in a 
cartoon studio, a few words of explana- 

Those of you who are familiar with the 
subject know that motion pictures are pho- 
tographed at the rate of ninety feet a min- 
ute, which is exactly twenty-four frames a 
second. The film thus obtained gives a 
photographic record of progressive posi- 
tions of the action. 

In animated cartoon production this pro- 
cedure practically is reversed. We analyze 
the action to be photographed, then make 
a series of cartoon drawings representing 
the number of frames of film required by 
the timing we want. These drawings are 
painted on clear sheets of celluloid and 
photographed in their proper sequence 
over a background that has been painted 
to represent the scene or setting. The re- 
sult is a strip of motion picture film of 
progressive cartoon drawings that give us 
the illusion of motion when projected. 

Our cartoon camera cranes are con- 

structed so that the camera is suspended 
from above the photographic field, which 
is like a table surface, equipped with a 
glass plate operated by air pressure to hold 
the celluloid drawings flat over the back- 
ground. Bell & Howell cameras are used, 
equipped with a "stop motion" drive and 
are set on a worm gear which allows the 
cameras to be raised or lowered, permitting 
the cartoon equivalent of "truck shots." 
In certain shots to give the illusion of fol- 
lowing the action, or "panning," long 
backgrounds are made and between each 
exposure the cameraman moves the back- 
ground a certain predetermined distance. 

In cartoon photography the cameraman 
must be gifted with a great deal of patience 
as well as a very methodical mind as each 
exposure requires an accurate set up. For 
example: in many scenes in addition to see- 
ing that the camera, color filters, take-up, 
etc., are operating correctly, he must re- 
member to change the drawings correctly 
according to their sequence, move the 
background the required distance for pan 
shots, truck the camera up or down, follow 
focus, as well as possibly changing the 
shutter each frame should he be fading or 

Henry II. ("Smoky") (iarner ami Manuel 
Oirral at work in Leon Sehlehinger Studio. 

The author of this article. 

dissolving. Each cartoon has about 12,000 
such exposures. This might explain why 
most of us boys seem a bit "tetched in the 

For various camera and optical effects 
used in production, the camera depart- 
ment has accumulated an amusing variety : 
of home made trick lenses. For such effects J 
as used in water scenes, heat effects and in 
shots requiring special distortions, a col- 
lection of glass dishes, bottles, bowls and 
pieces of window glass, some treated with 
solutions and others warped after heating, 
have been acquired, making a rather un- 
usual assortmnt of optical equipment. 

Some animation that should be quite 
lifelike or human in its action presents a 
rather difficult problem of analysis which 
we often overcome by actually photograph- 
ing human actors and actresses going 
through the action to be done later in ani- 
mation. This gives us our only excuse for i 
occasional location trips as well as pro- 
viding the opportunity to "keep our hand 
in" with regular production equipment. 
The motion picture film of this human ac- 
tion is used by the animators to analyze 
and otherwise assist them in the animation 
of the cartoon characters. Some of these i 
shots have been quite interesting. For in- 
stance, the strip tease sequence in the car- 
toon "Cross Country Detours" and the | 
bubble dancer in the picture "Hollywood 
Steps Out." 

Several color cartoons have been pro- 
duced by Mr. Schlesinger that have incor- 
porated the use of actual motion picture 
sequences in conjunction with animation. : 
This offered an interesting problem, as 
Technicolor cartoons are photographed on 
a single strip of negative with the three 
color separations for each frame in sue- 
cessive order, while regular Technicolor 
pictures use three separate negative strips. 
This makes impossible the intercutting of 
cartoon Technicolor and regular Techni- 
color. To use the regular Technicolor in 
(Continued on page 25) 



By Burr McGregor 

At Xochimilco, centuries of romance 
still lingers under the bright sun that looks 
down upon "The Place of the Flowers," 
Mexico's famous paradise of flowering 
beauty, a short ride south of the Mystic 

Way back in the thirteenth century, one 
of the Nahualtac tribes, the Xochimilcas, 
were vanquished by the savage onslaughts 
of the invading Aztecs, who in turn were 
driven back by a powerful chief, Coxcoxtle, 
into the far reaches of the reed-growing 
shores of a lake, where they survived by 
constructing "Chinampas," great floating 
masses of reeds and brush, laced and in- 
tertwined, and covered with earth upon 
which the builder placed his tiny shelter- 
hut and planted his crop in the earth of 
his floating garden. 

Increasing in numbers, the gardens float- 
ed out upon the surface of the lake, to be 
pushed about and bumped together as 
willed by the vagaries of the changing 
winds until a way was devised to hold 
them apart. 

Long, green willow and poplar poles 
forced through the earth-matting around 
the edges of the "island" into the bed of 
the lake; the poles took root, anchoring 
the little "islands," separating them with 
waterways and canals between. As the 
waterways became clogged they were 
dredged and the accumulation of silt and 
vegetable matter thrown back on the "is- 
land,' increasing its fertility and lowering 
it until it became permanent. 

Thus, in time, each island-garden was 
bordered with slender graceful willow and 
poplar trees of brilliant green foliage, 
spreading cooling shadows across the gar- 
dens and waterways with their intertwined 
roots building a bulwark against the ero- 
sion of water action, and lapping waves, 
from passing boats to and from neighbor- 
ing gardens and growing markets. 

Xochimilco was one of the most stubborn 
and bitterly contested strongholds of the 
Aztecs to be conquered by the Spaniards. 
Fighting was ferocious on both sides, with 
fearful slaughter. 

For a trifling charge we engaged a com- 
fortable, flat-bottom, square-blunt-ended, 
canopied boat, propelled gondola-like by a 
handsome bronzed descendant of the proud 
Aztec race; tall, lean and broad should- 
ered, courteous and pleasantly indifferent, 
whose dark eyes danced and sparkled as 
he pointed out the island-gardens that have 
produced in abundance since the days of 
his forefathers, luscious fruit, berries and 
vegetables and fragrant, exotic flowers of 
wonderful bloom and color. 

Lazily, dreaming of romance, we floated 

through the morning along the smooth 
waterways till noon and our boatman pro- 
pelled the craft into an indenture of a 
garden bank. He hailed one of many other 
craft of musicians, and one of a kind pro- 
pelled by a comely native young woman. 
In the center of her canoe was a tiny stove- 
arrangement fed by charcoal, upon which 
she could prepare a delicious meal from 
food neatly stored and protected along 
the sides of her canoe. 

With the musicians on one side, and the 
refreshment canoe on the other, we dined 
and dreamed amid the beauty and frag- 
rance of myriad colored blooms, in the 
cool shade of ancient trees, to the soft 
strains of stringed instruments and plain- 
tive lullabies. 

Back in the waterways, propelled along 
by the sweep and pole of the boatman, he 
threaded our course through an intricate 
and colorful water traffic of craft laden 
with market produce and singing, laugh- 
ing, musical holiday seekers. 

To our right, to our left, passed great 
masses of roses, lilies, carnations, growing 
in brilliant gardens and loaded high in 
canoes on their way to the great flower 
market of the city. 

Birds of brilliant plumage mingled their 

(Continued on page 21) 


Cooke lenses will give you crisp, 
extremely sharp definition 
throughout the entire spectrum. 
Envisioning future demands, 
Cooke lenses have always sur- 
passed current requirements. 
Focal lengths for every need. 
Write for descriptive literature. 



Exclusive World Distributors of 
Taylor-Hobson Cooke Cine' Lenses 

1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago 

New York: 30 Rockefeller Plaza 
Washington, D.C. : 1221 G St., N.W. 

Hollywood: 716 N. LaBrea Ave. 

London: 13-14 Great Castle St. 

Main canals thirty to fifty feet wide 

International Photographer for July, 1941 


"A Thousand Cameras," by Bert Longworlh, from Warner Bros.' short, 
"Richard Ilimher and His Band." These shots were made with two 
old mirrors, about twelve feet wide, used in "Gold Diggers of 1936," 
one of the mirrors having acquired a large bulge from having stood 
so long. The lighting is all from the side, whieh when reflected gives 
the front lighting. First eameraman, Arthur Todd; operative camera- 
man, George INogle; assistant, Frank Evans; stills, Bert Six; director, 
Jean Negulesco; assistant director, Jaek Sullivan. 


the kodATRON 

High Speed Lighting Unit plays an important role in Commercial, 
Illustrative, News, Portrait, Medical, Scientific and Technical Fields 

To the photographer, the new Kodatron 
Speedlamp opens the way for pictures of 
superb technical quality in either black- 
and-white or Kodachrome, at extremely low 
illumination cost, with extremely small 
lens apertures, and with no chance of sub- 
ject motion in the negative or color trans- 
parency. Completely modern and incor- 
porating an improved circuit, new safety 
and convenience features, this unit is at- 
tractively styled for use in the finest studio. 

Some of the advantages include: 

1. Critically sharp pictures of subjects 
moving at high speed. 

2. Simple, positive synchronization with 
most types of camera shutters, and no need 
of adjustment for lag. 

3. Ability to flash any number of lamps 
in unison, with perfect synchronization, by 
means of simple photocell control units 
which eliminate the need of wiring from 
lamp to lamp. 

4. High-speed color photographs with 
Kodachrome Film, in addition to black- 
and-white photographs. 

5. Great depth of field, owing to the 
small apertures which are made possible 
by the high volume of light. 

6. Uniform volume of light at each flash, 
with no practical deterioration as the flash 
tube ages. 

Tube Yields More Than 5,000 Flashes 

7. Long life of the flash tube (upwards 
of 5,000 flashes ) . 

8. Subject comfort in pictures which 
include models, and better conditions for 
commercial subjects such as food displays 
which deteriorate readily — since the Koda- 
tron lamp is free from the heat produced 
by conventional high-wattage studio lamps. 

9. Accuracy of modeling, a modeling, 
or focusing lamp being centered in each 
flash tube so that the angle of lighting is 
precisely the same for both flash and mod- 
eling light. The modeling light also gives 
a faithful preview of the light balance that 
will be obtained in the flash photograph. 

10. No eye discomfort for subjects, be- 
cause of the extreme brevity of the flash. 
To the eye, the Kodatron flash appears 
much softer and far less intense than other 
types of photographic flash illumination. 

11. Normal pupil size in a subject's eyes, 
owing to the moderate illumination level 
used in modeling and focusing. 

12. A specially-designed reflector which 
yields illumination intermediate between 
that of a spotlight and a floodlight. Well 
suited for general lighting, the reflector is 
also directional enough to increase the in- 
tensity along the axis to a considerable de- 
gree, for shots at long range. 

13. Unique economy of operation, owing 

International Photographer for July, 1941 

to the long life of the flash tube, extreme 
durability of tubes in the power unit, and 
an indefinitely long life for the power unit 

14. Low power consumption, which ef- 
fects a substantial two-way saving: first, 
in lower electric bills; second, in studio 
wiring requirements. The Kodatron Speed- 


"Anchored" in High Speed Action with the KODATRON. 

Starting upper loft, reading right: Jack Col*' and partner; Betty Crable and Homer Pan, 
from Twentieth Century Fox Production, "Moon Over Miami," stills by Frank Powolny; 
next three stills are by courtesy of Faslman Kodak Company; upper right and on with 
the next two, Anna INeagle and Ray Bolger in their dance routine in the RKO Radio 
filmusical, "Sunny," stills by Alex Kahle; with hats in the air are the INicholis Brothers, 


(See story starting on page 13) 

shot by Frank Powolny in Twentieth Century Fox Production, "Sun Valley Serenade"; 
Ann Neagle and Ray Bolger dancing the Sailor's Hornpipe in "Sunny"; two lowers 
page 14 from the same production, stills by Alex Kahle; the figure that looks like the 
scarecrow with Ginger Rogers is really Burgess Meredith in a scene from the fantasy 
sequence in "Tom, Dick and Harry," RKO Radio romantic comedy, still by John Miehle ; 
and last is another scene from "Sunny" of Anna Neagle and Ray Bolger by Alex Kahle. 


lamp does not require the special wiring 
necessary for ordinary studio lamps. 

15. Reasonable portability. Reflectors 
and power units for three lamps can be 
carried in the rear end of a business coupe 
or sedan. 

Solves Long-Standing Problems 

With the Kodatron Speedlamp. ultra- 
speed photography is no longer a labora- 
tory stunt. Subject motion, once a prob- 
lem in many fields of photography, is now 
an asset. The new lamp also provides com- 
plete freedom from certain other limita- 
tions of the past, and greatly extends the 
range of practical photographic subjects, 
treatments or effects. For the commercial 
and illustrative studio, it solves the an- 
cient three-horned dilemma of subject mo- 
tion, field depth, and adequate illumination 
— especially in color photography. In the 
scientific, medical, and technical fields, its 
uses are virtually unlimited. It has definite 
application in portrait photography, when- 
ever an apparently unposed, characteristic 
effect is desired, or when the subject is a 
child or unpredictable pet. 

Where large areas are to be covered, 
the Kodatron lamp has unusual value be- 
cause of its long throw and great intensity. 
In spite of its apparent mildness, the single 
flash provides illumination equivalent to 
that of 50,000 forty-watt tungsten lamps. 
This quantity of light is sufficient to pro- 
vide a fully-timed negative of an average 
subject 30 feet from the camera at a lens 
aperture of f/11, when used with films 
especially recommended for this type of 
radiation. Correspondingly smaller aper- 
tures can be used when the subject is 
nearer the lamp (or lamps). 

The Kodatron flash is accomplished by 
discharging a condenser through a gas- 
filled tube. Ordinary 115-volt, 60-cycle 
current is led into the power unit of the 
lamp, where a specially-constructed trans- 
former steps it up to 2,000 volts. This 
current is then rectified and used to charge 
a condenser. When the trip circuit is closed 
( manually, by a flash synchronizer, or by 
the photocell unit), the energy stored in 
the condenser is discharged through the 
tube, producing a flash of high photogra- 
phic efficiency. 

In photography with the Kodatron 
lamp, the time of exposure is fixed not by 
the shutter speed used but by the duration 
of the flash. An effective flash duration of 
nearly 1/30,000 second combines high vol- 
ume of light with ability to stop virtually 
any moving subject, except a rifle bullet. 
In these high speed lamps, the time of the 
flash is determined by the capacity of the 
main condenser in the power unit. By 
iisin^' a small condenser, it would be pos- 
sible to speed up the flash to any desired 
point — such as 1/1,000,000 of a second, 
or less but the volume of light would de- 
i -line correspondingly, thus reducing the 
general utility of the lighting unit. For 
this reason, and on the basis of extensive 

experiments, this flash speed has been se- 
lected as ideal for all-round usefulness. 

This flash speed is, of course, many times 
faster than the highest setting of any cam- 
era shutter. It is several hundred times as 
swift as the wink of an eye, and approxi- 
mately ten times as fast as is necessary to 
stop an athlete in action. If one second 
were represented as a mile, the effective 
duration of the Kodatron flash would cor- 
respond to only a few inches of this dis- 

An interesting feature is that, owing to 
persistence of the image on the retina of 
the eye. the flash seems to last about 1/25 
to 1/50 second; and when a swift-moving 
subject is photographed by means of these 
lamps, it will appear to "freeze" for just 
about that length of time. 

Current Consumption is Small 

With the Kodatron lamp, one flash can 
be made every ten seconds — this being the 
charging time of the condenser. The charg- 
ing takes place automatically, and the ten- 
second period allows convenient time for 
changing film and resetting the camera 
shutter. Current consumption is quite 
small during the charging cycle — about 
five amperes at the start, decreasing in a 
few seconds to less than one ampere — and 
this explains the extreme operating econ- 
omy of the Kodatron lamps. Two to three 
of the lamps can be operated safely on an 
ordinary house-lighting circuit fused for 
15 amperes. 

Quality of the Kodatron light is excel- 
lent for photographic purposes, not only 
in actinic value but also in color balance. 
Excellent tonal rendering is obtained in 
black-and-white photographs on panchro- 
matic films without the attendant over cor- 
rection in the red, which is characteristic 
of these materials when used with tungsten 
illumination. For color photography, Pro- 
fessional Kodachrome Film yields highly 
satisfactory results when used with moder- 
ate correcting filters. 

The Kodatron Speedlamp is a compact, 
efficient studio unit. It consists of a power 
unit 8x10x9 inches, and an 18-inch spun- 
aluminum reflector on a telescoping steel 
stand which can be extended to a height of 
eight feet — both mounted on a small tray- 
top steel base to which rubber-tired, swiv- 
eled casters are attached. Finish is gray, 
with some metal parts finished in polished 

Portable for Assignments 

For assignments away from the studio, 
newspaper office, or other base of opera- 
tions, the reflector and power unit alone 
may be used. Each power unit has a con- 
venient carrying handle on top. Reflectors 
can be mounted on tripods, without need 
of alterations, or can be held by assistants. 
The weight of the power unit and reflector 
is about 40 pounds; that of the complete 
lamp with base, 59 pounds. Ordinary resi- 
dence, hotel or convention hall wiring is 
adequate for these lamps, as noted above. 

Controls are concentrated in a small 
panel on top of the power unit. These con- 
trols include the flash trip, "off and on" 
switch for the main power line, and a red 
pilot light which shows when the unit is 
in operation. A single cable from the pow- 
er unit to the reflector carries wiring for 
both the flash lamp and modeling light. 
The lamp cable, and the 115-volt, 60-cycle 
electric supply cord, plug into the sides of 
the power unit, and must be removed be- 
fore the hinged top can be lifted. This 
arrangement — plus an automatic cut-out 
switch which functions as the power unit 
lid is opened — makes it impossible to 
touch a "live" connection. 

The flash lamp itself has a tubular frost- 
ed glass shell, fitting over a spiral glass 
tube which contains a mixture of rare 
gases. This is the flash element, the gas 
heating to incandescence when the con- 
denser charge is released through it. Cen- 
tered in the coil of the gas tube is the 
modeling light, a projection type bulb of 
moderate wattage and long life. 

Synchronization of the Speedlamp to the 
camera shutter action may be accomplish- 
ed by the simplest type of contact adjust- 
ment . (A special synchronizing unit for 
use with shutters having a cable release 
socket is available. ) After attaching the 
synchronizer, the shutter is simply held up 
to the lamp, and the release operated. If 
the flash reveals the complete circular aper- 
ture of the lens, synchronization is perfect; 
if the shutter blades are seen partly opened, 
a slight further adjustment is necessary. 
This ease of checking makes it possible to 
test the synchronization at any time, with- 
out the bother or expense of test exposures. 

As many lamps as desired may be flashed 
in synchronism, to cover large areas or to 
obtain better modeling. Two methods are 
practical. One is to use wiring from lamp 
to lamp; the other, to use small accessory 
photoelectric trip units which clip directly 
to the lamp standard. 

Photocell Control is Convenient 
In photo-electric synchronization, a pho- 
tocell unit is used on each lamp except 
one, which is connected by wire to the 
camera shutter. Inter-lamp wiring is elim- 
inated, since the shutter-actuated flash of 
the first lamp fires all the others, through 
the action of the photocell units. This 
method of synchronizing is particularly 
convenient when the set-up is extensive, or 
when lamp-to-lamp wiring would be in 
the way. 

Outdoors, or in a dark-walled studio, 
the photocell units are effective at dis- 
tances up to more than fifty feet, but in 
these locations each photocell must be 
placed so that it can "see" the first lamp. 
In a studio with light walls, the photocell 
units will operate by reflected light, almost 
regardless of their placing. They cannot, 
however, be accidentally actuated by day- 
light or the general studio illumination. 


International Photographer for July, 1941 



(Concluded from June issue) 

Exposure can be determined by the 
measurement of light falling on the subject 
or light reflected from the subject. Either 
can be measured to obtain correct expos- 
ure. Obviously the amount of light falling 
on the subject determines the amount of 
light that will be reflected. Usually, it is 
more convenient to measure reflected light, 
but the meter has to be restricted to see 
the same scene as the camera. In the G-E 
meter, this requirement has been met 
mechanically, by means of a directional 
hood or baffle which limits the field of view 
to that of the average camera. It has a 
horizontal angle of about 50 degrees, and 
a vertical angle of about 30 degrees. The 
vertical angle is made purposely narrow to 
exclude bright sky and foreground which 
tends to cause error in exposure. 

As a rule, exterior scenes are made by 
measuring the scene in the same manner 
that the picture is taken, with the meter 
pointed at the scene. In interior work 
where extremely high contrast exists, a 
more correct reading can be obtained by 
measuring the light falling on the subject, 
rather than the reflected light. These 
incident-light readings are taken with the 
hood removed and the meter pointed at the 
camera from the subject. On a scene well 
illuminated by artificial light with a back- 
ground of no particular interest, only the 

actual light on the subject is measured. 
If a reflection measurement were used it 
would be necessary to average several 
readings to obtain the best possible expos- 
ure for the over-all scene. So in most 
cases best results can be obtained by 
measuring the light falling on the subject 
of interest. 

The calculator on the G-E meter is 
simply a slide rule which enables you to 
convert light reading and film value into 
the proper combination of F stops and 
shutter speed. The proper combination of 
F stops and shutter speeds are lined up 
on the calculator and after it is adjusted 
for a reading any combination then visible 
will produce the correct exposure. Small 
lens openings line up with longer exposure 
time and large lens openings are opposite 
shorter exposure time, but in each case 
there is a definite quantity of light that 
must fall on the film. 

Other calculators can be supplied for the 
movie and sports photographers. In the 
case of the movie camera there is a certain 
fixed shutter speed, such as 16 frames per 
second. For the sports photographer who 
must use a fast shutter such as one one- 
hundredth or one one-thousandth of a 
second to stop the action there is also a 
present calculator with shutter speed set 
with the film value. When the light is 
measured the light value indicates the 

General Electric Company 

proper combination of F stop to use with 
no further adjustment. Hoods with these 
different types of calculators are readily 
interchangeable on the G-E meter. 

Now that we know the characteristics of 
the sensitive emulsions that we are work- 
ing with, the proper approach in determin- 
ing the values of film speeds, and the 
characteristics and design of the instrument 
we are working with, we can intelligently 
use these instruments to their best advan- 
tage. Working outdoors, with flat, side, or 
back lighting, the meter need only be 
pointed at the subject to obtain a usable 
reading. You will notice that sidelight will 
usually call for about twice the exposure 
that a sunlit scene requires, because only 
half as much light is being reflected 
toward the camera. 

To photograph a subject without regard 
for background, take a meter reading 
right on the subject. If your subject is out 
of reach hold your hand in the same 
relative position and take a meter reading 
on the back of your hand. Extensive tests 
indicate that the color of the average 
person's hand is sufficiently neutral to be 
used satisfactorily for most subjects. If 
you are in bright sunlight and your subject 
is in the shade, the light intensity of your 
subject can be duplicated easily by throw- 
ing a shadow across your hand for the 
(Continued on page 26) 






at M 


• Here's a shot of one of the sets in M-G-M's new 
picture, "Blossoms in the Dust," showing how 
M-G-M shoots Technicolor with black-and-white 
techniques for sparkling new effects, 
using G-E MAZDA lamps in inkies. 

This combination provides great 
flexibility and extreme compactness; 
helps them paint with light more 
effectively to create the results they 
want; helps them take advantage of 
Technicolor's full color and bright- 
ness range; makes it easier for 


them to use a multitude of light sources in 

limited space. 

With the many G-E MAZDA lamps for Color 
Photography and proper filters, 
the color temperature of the light 
can be matched right to your needs 
for better pictures. 

These are only a few of the many 
advantages which G-E MAZDA 
lamps offer you. Are you familiar 
with all their possibilities for better 



International Photographer for July, 1941 



What Shouldn't I Do? — III 

Perhaps our article this month could 
have more properly been titled A DIS- 
CUSSION ON FINDERS, but the fact still 

So basically simple in its concept, yet a 
source of trouble to many because it is so 
simple, and often totally ignored because 
it has no direct mechanical connection with 
the actual process of the exposure of the 
film. We have seen pictures that were 
perfect from every technical standpoint, 
beautifully lighted, and interesting in their 
content, yet completely ruined because that 
seemingly unimportant little gadget, the 
finder, was not given its due consideration 
after all the "important" problems had 
been met and solved. Pictures that result 
from this sort of an attitude can be com- 
pared to the appearance a man will pre- 
sent who is most immaculate and impec- 
cable in his dress, has bought the best in 
clothes, is careful about the color match 
of the entire ensemble, and has spent the 
necessary amount of time in their arrange- 
ment; but because a necktie is an acces- 
sory serving no specific purpose will grab 
any old piece of cloth that can be properly 
identified by that name, tie the thing in 
six seconds flat, and breeze out of the 
place with the rear length seven inches 
longer than the front, and with the knot 
two inches below the collar, and over to 
one side at that. Otherwise he is very well 

Specifically, an uncorrected finder will 
result in pictures that are too far over to 
one side — when the scene was viewed di- 
rectly in the center while being photo- 
graphed — or with the desired center too 
high on the screen, if the finder is not in 
the same horizontal plane with the lens; 
or we may find ourselves with a picture 
taking in much more — or much less — than 
we "thought" we were getting, depending 
upon the individual finder and camera, and 
how the camera happened to have been set 
before the "mistake" was made. 

To begin with, every lens used must 
have a finder or finder adjustment that is 
matched to it, and to it alone. Every lens 
of definite focal length has a definite angle 
of view, which in turn determines the exact 
area that will be included in a scene a 
given distance from the camera. To be of 
any value, a finder must have some means 
of varying its angle of view so that it will 
correspond exactly to that of the lens. This 
can be accomplished by any one of sev- 
eral different ways, or by a combination 
of two. In its simplest form, the finder will 
consist of a concave lens, used as an ob- 
jective, ground to have an angle of accept- 

ance to correspond with that of the widest 
angle lens used, and an eyepiece that is 
merely a "peephole" so aligned and spaced 
from the objective as to insure the correct 
distance of the eye to the objective to give 
the correct angle of acceptance. Finders 
of this type generally have markings on 
the objective corresponding to "correct" 
fields for lenses of narrower angles I long- 
er focal lengths ) . 

Another type of finder, such as is used 
on the Bell and Howell 16 mm. cameras 
utilizes lenses for both the objectives and 
eyepieces, with a series of mattes of vary- 
ing sizes built into the assembly. These 
mattes will shut out all but the actual angle 
included by the lens for which it is de- 
signed. Still another type is one having a 
convex objective lens focusing an image 
onto a ground glass, and the image thus 
formed being the picture corresponding to 
the image in the camera. Mattes, calibrated 
to include only the area taken in by the 
photographic lens, are used in front of the 
ground glass. While this is by far the most 
satisfactory, being used on the professional 
cameras, it is the least used in the amateur 
field, due to the cost, and the fact that it 
cannot easilv be incorporated as an integ- 
ral part of the whole camera. 

Because of the impracticality of the lat- 
ter — for general amateur use — we find the 
field limited to the use of the former two. 
The greatest shortcoming of the first type 
— the one using the objective with the 
markings and the "peephole" eyepiece — is 
to be found in the difficulty of placing the 
desired action within the confines of the 
correct markings without confusion; more 
often than not the action or scene, espe- 
cially under stress of time, is placed in 
the wrong area; frequently they are merely 
used as "guides"! Any slight discrepancy 
in the alignment of these units will result 
in grave error of placement. Serious com- 
position becomes a difficult problem be- 
cause of the resulting confusion, and there 
is a tendency toward vagueness. 

Innate in all finders is the problem of 
PARALLAX, and before any serious work 
is contemplated this must be met and 
solved, especially for close-up work, as 
the closer the camera is working to the 
subject, the greater the problem. Parallax 
can best be explained as the inability of 
two lenses — working side by side — to take 
in the same identical view by virtue of 
the fact that because one lens is to one 
side of another it will show a view that is 
a little to one side of the view of the lens 
under consideration. AND BEFORE BOTH 

simply, is the basis for the correction of 
parallax. Speaking specifically, if the lens 
under consideration is the photographic 
lens of the camera, then the lens of the 
finder is the one which will have to be 
turned so as to be pointing to exactly the 
same area which the camera lens is 
focused upon. It is obvious that the closer 
the object is to the camera, the greater will 
be the discrepancy, and the greater will 
be the necessary correction — or turning — 
of the finder to be pointing to the image 
focused upon the film in the camera. It 
is the failure to understand this point that 
is responsible for the many pictures, close- 
ups especially, that result with the object 
either to one side of the screen, or with 
the top of the head cut off, depending upon 
whether the finder is beside the lens or 
above the lens. 

In professional cameras, extensive pro- 
visions have been made for the correction 
of parallax, a system having been devised 
whereby the adjustment is made auto- 
matically as the lens is set for any given 
distance; correction is also introduced for 
different lenses of varying focal lengths. 
However, to the best of our knowledge, the 
serious shortcoming of a finder being 
built into the camera with no adjustable 
compensation is a common practice in the 
manufacture of amateur motion picture 
cameras. And at the present time about 
the only thing one can do with this prob- 
lem is to make tests to determine just how 
much the finder must be corrected for any 
given distance, and then compensate for 
this when shooting. If the finder is to one 
side of the lens, then compensation is 
effected by turning the camera to the left 
by the amount found necessary by experi- 
ment; if it is above the lens, then the cam- 
era must be tilted up by the predetermined 

If it is possible to place a ground glass 
in the photographic aperture I a thin piece 
of ordinary tissue will do) and the image 
viewed in this manner, the camera can be 
placed on a tripod and the scene or ob- 
ject viewed through the finder, noting the 
necessary correction required in the finder 
to bring the image in its proper and de- 
sired position on the screen. It is important 
to remember that the required compensa- 
tion will VARY with the distance of the 
object from the lens of the camera. 

The ideal solution to the finder prob- 
lem, of course, is to employ one adjust- 
able for parallax, but until the time comes 
when provisions have been made for them 
on amateur movie cameras, it will be ne- 
cessary for us to give our present finders 
the attention outlined, if we will have our 
well dressed man appearing with his neck- 
tie carefully chosen, meticulously tied, and 
in place. 



T € L E V I S 

By Duster Evans 

In the eyes of the Television world, the 
month of July can rightfully boast of two 
famous days — July 4, and now, July 1! 

Both days, too, have much in common. 

Just as July 4 marked the real beginning 
of a great and prosperous nation, so should 
July 1 of this year, long be remembered 
as marking the real beginning of a great 
and prosperous new industry. "On this 
day," future records will read, "Commer- 
cial Television made its debut as author- 
ized by the Federal Communicaitons Com- 

The exciting fact, today, is that Tele- 
vision, like its bigger brother, Radio, can 
:now sell programs to sponsors. And those 
iwho should know say that this will really 
'set the Television ball to rolling. It's pret- 
ty hard not to agree, looking back at Ra- 
dio's spectacular history, and the important 
part played in its development by the com- 
mercially sponsored program. 

So an amazing new industry promises 
to get under way, right in the midst of 
today's great industrial activity. And yet, 
| a few generations ago, the idea of being 
able to send a picture invisibly through the 
'air would have been regarded as one of 
the wildest and most fantastic dreams of 
the Jules Verne variety. 

But science today has no respect for the 
"fantastic dreams" of yesterday. Not only 
has it succeeded in sending pictures 
through the air by means of Television, but 
these pictures move! They show life . . . 
action! But this achievement was not 
enough. Successful experiments have been 
carried out, transmitting Television pic- 
tures in natural color. Television's silvery 
'screen is being transformed into all of the 
colorful hues of the rainbow. Before long, 
'Color Television may be available to the 

Yes, one can understand why Television 
has been called twentieth century magic at 
, its best. 

The vast majority of American people, 
however, have yet to witness their first 
Television performance. Certainly, they 
have a treat in store. In fact, let's sit in 
on a program! 

The lights in the room are lowered. A 
test pattern has already appeared on the 
screen of our receiver, enabling us to ad- 
just the controls for proper focusing and 

Strains of martial music suddenly crash 

from the receiver, and on the screen we 

i see the title of a news reel. Quickly we 

lose ourselves in interest as history-in-the- 

making parades before us. It is as though 

our neighborhood theatre has suddenly 
been transported to us, here within the 
comforts of our home. As the last scene 
fades, the announcer appears to tell us 
that a studio play will follow. 

We are agreeably surprised at the many 
clever sight and sound effects used, and 
soon become engrossed in a well-acted 
mystery plot. Lighter entertainment then 
flashes before us in the form of an ani- 
mated cartoon. 

All of the pictures have been clear and 
flickerless, and the accompanying sound 
has amazed us with its startling realistic 
tone. For Television is now profiting from 
Radio's great new development known as 
Frequency Modulation. The Television set 
owner not only enjoys sharp, brilliant pic- 
tures, but he is also scheduled to receive 
the very finest in the way of sound repro- 

Probably the biggest thrill of Television 
is that it enables us to see things as they 
are happening. For instance, owners of 
Television receivers served by the NBC 
station in New York City have partici- 
pated in a wide variety of interesting 
events. Their receivers have brought them 
numerous programs and scenes from the 
former New York World's Fair. They have 
also seen an eclipse of the sun . . . the 
impressive ceremonies of the Court of 
Peace on Pan-American Day ... a parade 
of the new mechanized U. S. Army units 
. . . the annual Fifth Avenue display of 
fashions on Easter Sunday ... a view 
of New York City from a skyliner . . . 
the arrival and take-off of the great trans- 
Atlantic Clipper . . . fire-fighters in ac- 
tion, etc. 

Sport enthusiasts, too, have had plenty 
of thrills via Television. They have wit- 
nessed a track meet where nine world rec- 
ords were broken. They have attended 
numerous colleges and professional base- 
ball games. Football fans have also had 
more than their share of excitement. Ten- 
nis, boxing, the six-day bicycle races, fenc- 
ing, basketball and ice hockey have all con- 
tributed to many interesting Television 

The movie-lover, also, has been thrilled 
at the impressive array of educational tra- 
vel and feature films that have been "tele- 
vised." Then there have been grand opera, 
variety vaudeville shows, drama, regularly- 
scheduled news programs, spelling bees, 
the building and flying of model aero- 
planes, cooking demonstrations, travel lec- 
tures and movies for arm-chair adventur- 
ers, and other interesting events. 

Certainly with all of this having occurred 

International Photographer for July, 1941 

within one brief year of "Experimental 
Television" — what may we look forward to, 
now that Television has become commer- 

It seems certain the American family is 
going to find Television will provide the 
source for a new "high" in home enter- 
tainment and interest. It seems certain, too, 
that Television before very long will start 
exerting a real effect in such fields as mer- 
chandising, education, aviation, military 
defense and law enforcement. 

But most important, to ambitious young 
men today, the growth of Television prom- 
ises to open up a bright new field of op- 
portunity, and in work that is interesting 
to the point of fascination. Any young 
man seeking to make the most of his years 
ahead may well owe it to himself to fully 
investigate the possibilities ahead of this 
amazing new industry. Likewise, he may 
do well to consider how he can prepare 
to be ready for the start he needs. 

Any of our readers who are interested 
in entering the Television, Radio, and 
Sound Motion Picture field may secure ad- 
ditional details by addressing the writer of 
this article, care of International Pho- 

Posthumous Honor to 
Herman A. De Vry 

The innumerable friends of the late Her- 
man A. DeVry, pioneer motion picture 
projector inventor, engineer and founder 
of the DeVry Corporation, will be delight- 
ed to learn that on June 2, 1941, a posthu- 
mous honor in the form of a Doctor of 
Science Degree was conferred upon him by 
Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, 


(Continued from page 11) 

color with the blooms in this paradise of 
abundance. Then the boatman pushed his 
craft silently, smoothly, through an arch 
of high poplars with their branches grasp- 
ing together to form the vaulted arc of a 
cathedral arch with its myriad glints of 
dancing sunspots breaking through flut- 
tering leaves, like the blinking of tiny 
frosted electric lights. On we floated to 
an altar of Nature's grandeur, while the 
slight slow wind played a benediction on 
the low flute reeds as we slowly approached 
an "island" covered with huge red roses. 
Truly, this is Paradise South, where the 
bitter struggle of life and scorching mem- 
ories can be laid aside while the sweetness 
of romance beckons and holds captive. 




Bell & Howell announces that sound films 
now may be run on all new 16 mm. Filmo 
silent projectors. The sound, of course, 
will not be reproduced, but there is now 
open to owners of this popular projector a 
vast new field of entertainment and educa- 
tional films. No longer, says B&H, need 
the owner of silent equipment be prevented 
from enjoying interesting and instructive 
films available only in sound versions. 

New Recreational and Educational Film 
Catalogs, listing and describing both sound 
and silent films, have just been released by 
the Filmosound Library. 

For further particulars on both projec- 
tors and films, write to the Bell & Howell 
Company, 1801 Larchmont Avenue, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. 


The enlarging lens, substitution focus- 
ing, correct exposure time, tone balance, 
photo montage and formulae for enlarg- 
ing, etc., are a few of the interesting topics 
in a new booklet offered by Burke & 
James. Readers of International Photogra- 
pher may secure a free copy by writing S. 
Drucker. Burke & James, Inc., 223 W. Mad- 
ison St., Chicago, Illinois. 


After four years of investigation into the 
problems of fine-grain development, the 
Agfa Ansco Research Laboratories have 
perfected Finex, a new fine-grain devel- 
oper. Designed especially for the critical 
and experienced worker, Agfa Finex offers 
the following advantages: Extreme fine 
grain, no loss in inherent film speed, con- 
venient ready-to-use liquid form, long use- 
ful life with tested replenishment system. 

The exceptional results obtainable with 
Finex Developer are due to the use of an 
entirely new developing agent which ex- 
tends developing action deeper into the 
emulsion layer and reduces the clustering 


Light Testers — Polishers used by all Major 
Studios. We are the sole Manufacturers 
and Distributors. 

Manufacturer of 16mm and 35mm Record- 
ing Heads, Developing Machines, Bipack 
Color and Black and White Printers, Re- 
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of silver particles, thereby resulting in 
smoother, finer grain with no loss of in- 
herent film speed. 

The complete unit containing 16 ounces 
of Finex developer, two eight ounce bottles 
of replenisher, a graduated cup for meas- 
uring and 24 page booklet on fine grain 
processing are available through regular 
dealers at $2.75. 


Agfa Ansco's latest publication — an 80- 
page, illustrated booklet titled "Choosing 
Film for Your Camera" — has just been is- 
sued and is now being distributed by pho- 
tographic dealers throughout the country. 

"Choosing Film for Your Camera" is 
available at regular photographic dealers 
at 25c per copy, or may be obtained direct 
from Agfa Ansco, Binghamton, New York. 


In order to supply photographers in the 
central states with better and more rapid 
service on its products. Agfa Ansco is re- 
organizing the sales territory which has 
been served by its Kansas City branch. 
This move will permit faster delivery of 
Agfa Ansco products to customers in New 
Mexico, Oklahoma and Arkansas by sup- 
plying them through the Agfa Ansco branch 
in Dallas, Texas. Users of Agfa Ansco 
materials living in Colorado, Nebraska, 
Wyoming, Kansas and Missouri will ex- 
perience improved service, as they will be 
supplied through the Agfa Ansco branch 
in Chicago, Illinois. The Agfa Ansco 
branch office in Kansas City is to be dis- 

Concurrent with this shift in distribu- 
tion, Agfa Ansco is raising its sub-branch 
at Dallas to full branch status and moving 
it from the present address at 2025 Com- 
merce Street to new and larger quarters 
at 425 South Field Street. 


The trend to color, so dominant among 
amateur photographers who make their 
own movies, is reflected also in the newer 
offerings of film rental libraries. Especi- 
ally those catering to the growing section 
of movie makers who supplement their 
own films with those rented from profes- 
sional sources, are going in for color. 

A new supplement to the FILMOSOUND 
Library Catalog brings the total of titles 
included under the "OUR COLORFUL 
WORLD" series to thirty-seven single reels, 
for the most part silent, dealing with vari- 
ous geographical regions. The list includes 
a series of five on National Barks, one on 

Indian life today, and one on Porto Rico. 

There is also a series of nine new reels 
on wild life, with several more in prepara- 
tion. These deal mostly with birds, each 
reel covering either a single species, such 
as the Golden Eagle, White Pelican, Hum- 
ming Bird, etc. ... or a habitat group, 
such as the birds grouped respectively, at 
an inland lake, a mountain meadow, and 
the ocean shore. Earlier listings include 
some twenty reels on travels in Mexico, 
Canada, Central America, Africa and the 
South Seas. 

A total of twenty-seven cartoons in nat- 
ural color is also offered, as well as other 
subjects as far apart as agriculture and 
Shakespeare. The new single-reel cinecolor 
version of MACBETH has been very favor- 
ably received at visual instruction confer- 
ences where it has been previewed. Prac- 
tically all color films rent for from $2.50 
to $3.00 a reel. 


Because the combined camera base and 
revolving-tilting tripod head built integ- 
rally with the Graphic View Camera was 
received with such favor by the photogra- 
phic public, the Folmer Graflex Corp. 
is now marketing a similar tripod head for 
use with any camera ordinarily mounted 
on a portable, folding tripod. This new 
product, known as the Graphic Pan-Tilt 
Tripod Head, is light, solid and flexible. 
It tilts 100° forward or 25° backward, 
and rotates a full 360°. 

This new unit will fit into the Speed Gra- 
phic Special Carrying Cases ( which accept 
a tripod ) , the Crown View Camera Case, 
and the new Speed Graphic DeLuxe Cases. 

Both the rotating and tilting movements 
are controlled and locked by a single 
handle with a black, extruded plastic grip. 
The head is so designed that it may be half- 
locked with sufficient looseness to permit 
minor adjustments of the camera angle, 
and a slight further turn completes the J 
locking without any change in the cam- 
era's position. 

The adjustable camera-clamp screw, pio- 
neered by Graflex many years ago, is 
further improved by larger grips and by 
the addition of a spring to keep the clamp- 
screw in the up position so that insertion 
of the screw in the camera's tripod socket 
is greatly facilitated. 

The top of the Graphic Pan-Tilt Tripod 
Head is 2% inches square and the circular 
base has a diameter of 3Y> inches, these 
broad surfaces furnishing great stability 
and solidity when a firm tripod is used. 



It may be a wild goose chase and it may 

At any rate, 20th Century-Fox sent a 
special camera crew of five aloft in a char- 
tered plane to photograph several flocks of 
wild geese flying in their typical wedge for- 
mation. The shots are needed in the picturi- 
zation of Stewart Edward Whites novel, 
"Wild Geese Calling," which has just gone 
before the cameras at the studio with 
Henry Fonda and Joan Bennett in the ma- 
I jor roles. 

The plane is piloted by Marion McKeen, 
a veteran speed, stunt and commercial 
pilot. He will fly the ship first to Oregon 
and if the necessary footage cannot be ob- 
tained there the party will be ferried to 
Utah for a further attempt. 

The major problem, it was pointed out 
by both McKenn and Leon Shamroy, who 
heads the camera crew, will be to approach 
the geese at sufficiently close range to get 
some good shots and yet not frighten the 
birds so that they break formation and 

"But any way you look at it," said 
Shamroy, "it will be a wild goose chase." 

RKO Completes First Bloek-of-Five 

With its first block-of-five for 1941-42 
ready for preview screenings for delegates 
now attending RKO Radio's Tenth Annual 
! Sales Convention in New York City, the 
studio is working well in advance of sche- 
dule in preparation for market showings 
and sales under the terms of the new con- 
sent decree. 

Included in the quintet are some of the 
outstanding attractions of the new Holly- 
wood crop. Among them is "The Devil and 
Daniel Webster," "Father Takes a Wife," 
! "Before the Fact," and "Parachute Battal- 
ion," depicting the newest and most spec- 
tacular arm of Uncle Sam's defense forces, 
the parachute infantry. Public interest in 
this picture has been tremendously stimu- 
lated by the sensational accident at San 
Diego which recently grabbed off the head- 
lines, when a chute's shroud lines became 
entangled in the fuselage of the plane and 
! a breath-taking rescue of the dangling para- 
chutist was effected. An almost identical 
episode was filmed as one of the thrilling 
sequences in "Parachute Battalion," which 
oddly enough was completed long before 
the San Diego episode occurred. 

Director Mayo Offers Services 
to Uncle Sam 

Although he is at the top of his Holly- 
wood career, Director Archie Mayo ex- 
pects to abandon the film town "for the 
duration" as soon as he is finished with 
his current 20th Century-Fox assignment, 
"Charley's Aunt," in which he is directing 
Jack Benny and Kay Francis. 

Mayo has already offered his services 
! to the U. S. Army to head entertainment 
units, a post which he is fully equipped to 

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Patent Attorney, Los Angeles 

No. 2,238,497 — Sound Camera. William 
E. Merriman, assignor to Eastman Kodak 
Company. Appln. Oct. 14, 1939. 15 
A sound camera in which the sound drum 
shaft is first connected to the drive means 
to bring it up to speed, and then discon- 
necting the shaft and drive means, and 
connecting the drive and film feeding 

No. 2,238,547 - - Photographic Devel- 
oper. William H. Wood, assignor to 
Harris-Seybold-Potter Company. Appln. 
June 6, 1939. 3 claims. 
A process of developing photographic im- 
ages and hardening the gelatinous surfaces 
with a silver halide developer in the pres- 
ence of a potassium sale embodying po- 
tassium pyrophosphate. 
No. 2,238,629 -- Method for Stereo- 
scopic Scanning of Pictures. Jacob u. 
Deninson, New York. Appln. April 24, 
1937. 2 claims. 
A method of producing stereoscopic pro- 
jection of motion pictures by the use of a 
single film, the film having side-by-side 
pictures which are alternately projected. 
No. 2,238,733-35 — Recording and Repro- 
ducing Sound. Erik Waldemar Hulle- 
gard, Stockholm, Sweden, assignor to 
Radio Corporation of America. Appln. 
Mar. 17, 1938. In Sweden March 23, 
1937. 4 claims. 
A sound record of the photophonographic 
type including a film having images of 
opposite half cycles of sound waves there- 
on in different colors, and an opaque 
background surrounding said wave images. 
No. 2,238,947 — Sound Recording System. 
Oscar A. Ross, New York, N. Y. Appln. 
July 15, 1937. 8 claims. 
A method of sound recording in which a 
record is made of the frequency and 
amplitude of the sound waves while a 
second record is made of their amplitude 
only, and re-recording the sound while 
varying its amplitude by means of the 
second record. 

No. 2,238,996 — Sound Track. Cleaner 
for Motion Picture Film. Roy J. 
Fisher, assignor to Harold J. Nagle, Roy 
fislicr and Nelson II. Copp, all of 
Mochester, N. Y., as joint trustees. 
Appln. Dec. I. L936. 7 claims. 
A device for (leaning a film while the 
latter is in motion, and comprising a pair 
ol rotatably mounted cleaning members 
bearing against the film. 
\o. 2,239,380 — Slating Device. Daniel 
Hi miii Clark and Grover Laube, assign- 
ors to Twentieth Century box Film 

Corporation. Appln. Jan. 16, 1940. 8 
A slating device for motion picture cam- 
eras and having a housing adapted to be 
inserted between the camera and its maga- 
zine, with a compartment in the housing 
to receive indicia, and means to project 
a moving image of the indicia on the 
moving film. 

No. 2,239,532 -- Film Tempo Punch. 
Royal C. McClay, assignor to Warner 
Brothers Pictures, Inc. Appln. Oct. 24, 
1938. 15 claims. 
A device for intermittently feeding film 
from one reel to another and punching the 
film while it is at rest. 
No. 2,239,698 — Photographic Element. 
Burt H. Carroll, assignor to Eastman 
Kodak Co. Appln. Feb. 20, 1940. In 
Great Britain March 9, 1939. 7 claims. 
A film having a base, an emulsion sensi- 
tized to green light with a sensitizing dye, 
and a blue sensitive emulsion containing a 
dye which adsorbs to the silver halide in 
the layer and imparts substantially no 
extension to the spectral sensitivity of the 

No. 2,239,699 — Prevention of Diffusion 
of Sensitizing Dyes. Burt H. Carroll, 
assignor to Eastman Kodak Company. 
Appln. Feb. 20, 1940. In Great Britain 
March 9, 1939. 10 claims. 
A photographic silver halide emulsion 
sensitized with a quaternary ammonium 
salt sensitizer and containing a perhalo- 
genate salt other than a quarternary 
ammonium perhalogenate. 
No. 2,240,131 — Arrangement for Secur- 
ing Stereoscopic Conematographic 
Projections. Suzzane Carre, nee Ber- 
ment, France, assignor to Societe a 
Responsabilite limitee dite: La Cronos- 
tereoscopic. Paris, France. Appln. March 
18, 1938. In France March 23, 1937. 
1 claim. 
A device for obtaining stereoscopic pic- 
tures by alternately projecting right and 
left images through a screen and simul- 
taneously moving a grid back and forth 
between the screen and the spectators. 
No. 2,240,398 — Cinematography. Lionel 
Hubert Huitt, Rangoon, Burma, British 
India. Appln. April 21, 1939. In Great 
Britain June 28, 1939. 16 claims. 
A movable screen in a motion picture 
camera, the screen permitting a small 
sharp image to be formed, with increasing 
diffusion away from the sharp image, and 
movable by the operator of (he camera. 
No. 2,240,703 — Projector for Stereo- 
scopic Pictures — Fritz Kober. assignor 

to Zeiss Ikon Aktiengesellschaft, Ger- 
many. Application February 16, 1939. 
In Germany, Feb. 22, 1938. 4 claims. 
A projector for stereoscopic pictures hav- 
ing a polarizing filter over each half of ob- 
jective lens, and a pair of prisms to de- 
flect the differently polarized images so 
they are superposed on the screen. 

No. 2,240,844 — Picture Projection. Jere- 
miah F. Goggin. Moline, 111., and Ray E. 
Hall, Davenport, Iowa. Application May 
21, 1938. 3 claims. 
A method of projecting pictures which 
uses phosphorescent screen which glows 
with the image of the preceding picture 
while the next one is being moved into 
projecting position. 

No. 2,240,728— Stereo Camera. Otto 
Vierling, Dresden -Blasewitz, and Fritz 
Kober, Dresden, Germany, assignors to 
Zeiss Ikon Aktiengesellschaft, Dresden, 
Germany. Application Nov. 17, 1938, Se- 
rial No. 241,065. In Germany Nov. 19, 
1937. 3 claims. 
A stereoscopic projector using polarizing 
filters and having prisms which superpose 
the images on the screen without the forma- 
tion of secondary images. 
No. 2,241,104 — Process and Apparatus 
for the Treatment of Photographic 
Coatings. Lodewijk Pieter Frans van 
der Grinten, Venlo, Netherlands, assig- 
nor to Naamlooze Vennootschap Chem- 
ische Fabriek L. van der Grinten, Venlo, 
Netherlands. Application April 22, 1939. 
in the Netherlands, Jan. 19, 1939. 25 
A method of developing or fixing films by 
the "semi-wet" process in which the film is 
subjected to a number of closely spaced 
fine sprays of treating liquid. 
No. 2,241,124 — Printing Method for 
Color Photography. Otto C. Gilmore, 
assignor to Cosmocolor Corporation, Jer- 
sey City, N. J. Original application May 
25, 1939. Divided and this application 
Dec. 7, 1939. 5 claims. 
A method of optically printing a film hav- 
ing two smaller, complete images of differ- 
ent color values in a single frame, the 
method including printing one set of im- 
ages on one side of duplitized film and then 
reversing the images of the other set and 
printing on the other side of the film. 
No. 2,241,239 — Ultraviolet Light Fil- 
ter. Burt H. Carroll and Cyril J. Staud, 
assignors to Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester, N. Y. Application Jan. 19, 
1940. In Great Britain, Jan. 23, 1939. 
10 claims. 
A film affected by ultraviolet light which 
has a colloidal material which acts as a fil- 
ter on the film. 

No. 2,241,413 — Photographic Printing 
Process and Image for Use Therein. 
A method of printing color photographs 
in which there are at least two color value 
images, one of the images being a com- 
posite double-colored image. 
No. 2,241,519 — Photographic Material. 
Louis Pollak, Altrincham. Cheshire, Eng- 


land. Application May 20, 1937. In Great 
Britain, May 23, 1936. 7 claims. 
<\ film having two emulsions sensitive to 
different parts of the spectrum, one of the 
emulsions being hardened so as to be sub- 
stantially insoluble in warm water, and the 
fpther emulsion being soluble in warm 
water and forming only a weak image after 
normal exposure. 

No. 2,241,689 — Cinematographic Appar- 
atus. Lloyed E. Whittaker, assignor to 
Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation. 
Los Angeles, Calif. Application May 31, 
1939. 1 claim. 
A drive for a film take-up reel in which 
the driving force applied to the reel is pro- 
gressively increased as the diameter of the 
roll of film increases. 

No. 2,241,929 — Production of Motion 
Pictures of Three-Dimensional Ani- 
mated Objects. Albert C. Kendig, Jr., 
Los Angeles, Calif., assignor of one- 
third to Fred W. Clampett, Los Angeles, 
Calif., and one-third to Robert E. Clam- 
pett, Manhattan Beach, Calif. Applica- 
tion March 23, 1939. 13 claims. 
A method of producing motion pictures in 
which a series of images of an animated 
object is projected, an object is posed so 
,that its shadow registers with the images, 
,and the object is photographed. 

[No. 2,242,567 — Manufacture of Tran- 
slucent Screens. Bernard M. Bodde, 
Hollywood, Calif. Original application, 
November 22, 1935. Divided and this 
application June 6, 1938. 7 claims. 
;The method of making a sheet of cellu- 
lose ester material which comprises spray- 
ling multiple coats of a solution of cellu- 
lose ester material upon the under surface 
.of a substantially horizontal matrix, al- 
lowing the sheet thus formed to dry and 
stripping said sheet from said matrix. 

!No. 2,242,574 — Producing Apparatus for 
Sound Picture Films. John Eggert and 
Hans Friedrich Nissen, Germany, assig- 
nors to I. G. Farbenindustrie Aktienge- 
sellschaft, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Ger- 
many. Application May 19, 1937. In 
Germany May 23, 1936. 3 claims. 
A reproducer for sound films, having op- 
tional paths, one for a film reproduced by 
the copying method, and the other for a 
film developed by the reversal process. 

No. 2,242,666— Camera. Thomas J. Walsh, 
West Hempstead, N. Y., assignor to Pat- 
rick Nardell, Bronx County, N. Y., and 
Joseph Ladaga and William L. Morris, 
both of New York, N. Y., jointly. Appli- 
cation March 29, 1938. 10 claims. 
' A camera having a stationary long shot 
lens and a stationary close-up lens with 
means for rendering either of them effec- 
tive and the other ineffective, and intercon- 
nected finder lenses which correspond to 
the fields of the objectives and are rend- 
ered effective and ineffective with them. 

j No. 2,242,747— Tripack for Producing 
Photographic Pictures. Walter Frank- 
enburger, Cuba, Max Herbst, and Her- 

International Photographer for July, 1941 

maun Schulz, Germany, assignor to Gen- 
eral Aniline & Film Corporation, New 
York, N. Y. Application Jan. 11, 1939. 
In Germany Jan. 19, 1938. 7 claims. 
A tripack having a top layer sensitive to 
red, a second layer sensitive to green, and 
a bottom layer sensitive to blue, with a fil- 
ter between the second and bottom layers 
which absorbs at least 60% of the light 
having wave length 5000° A and a still 
greater percentage of light of longer wave 

No. 2,243,047 — Control Method and 
Mechanism for Photographic Print- 
ers. Warren Dunham Foster and Earle 
L. Parrnelee. deceased, assignors to Kin- 
atome Patents Corporation, Ridgewood, 
N. J. Application Sept. 24, 1934. 28 
A continuous printer in which both the 
light emitted by a printing light, and the 
capacity of source to emit light may be 
changed to modify the effectiveness of the 

No. 2,243,048 — Control Method and 
Mechanism for Photographic Print- 
ers. Warren Dunham Foster and Earle 
L. Parrnelee, deceased, assignors, to Kin- 
atome Patents Corporation, Ridgewood, 
N. J. Original application Sept. 24, 1934. 
Divided and this application Sept. 24, 
1934. 19 claims. 
A continuous printer in which the light 
emitted from a source may be changed, 
and the speed of film may be changed to 
produce changes in the printed density. 

No. 2,243,212 — Support for Motion Pic- 
ture Projection Machines or the 
like .Albert Kindelmann and Claude A. 
Soehl, assignors to International Pro- 
jector Corporation, New York. Applica- 
tion April 29, 1937. 13 claims. 
A pedestal which has an arm supported for 
vertical tilting movement about a horizon- 
tal axis, and a screw of limited length 
which may be inserted in a plurality of 
positions to provide adjustment of the tilt- 
ing in different stages. 


(Continued from page 10) 

our cartoons we made from the Technicolor 
positive a three successive frame negative 
strip by rephotographing each frame 
through the three color separation filters 
changed by hand from frame to frame. A 
rather laborious and tedious procedure, but 
nevertheless successful. 

Black and white positives have likewise 
been copied in Technicolor by the same 
process, color being added to the black and 
white picture by tinting the light with color 

Many cartoon scenes require special ef- 
fects in the way of double or multiple ex- 
posures, which presents a fascinating prob- 
lem to the cameramen. Inasmuch as each 
frame is accounted for in the timing of a 
cartoon and the camera is equipped with 
a feeder counter and kept in gear at all 
times and can be operated forward or in 
reverse, the cameraman can wind back to 
any particular frame and make what 
double exposure the scene requires. In 
many cases for special effects such as dou- 
ble exposures, light effects, multiple ex- 
posures, or montages the film has been 
through the camera as many as ten or 
twelve times, each time receiving whatever 
exposure is required before the film is fin- 
ally taken out of the camera for develop- 

In this respect animated cartoon pho- 
tography is unique in that all these effects, 
as well as dissolves, wipe offs, fades, split 
screens, etc., are made in the camera at 
the time of photography and not added 
later by optical printing or in the labor- 

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Exposure Meter 

(Continued from page 18) 

reading. Pictures taken without a reading 
of this type expose the scene just about as 
the eye sees it, and many times the result 
is under-exposure of the subject. Hand 
measurement is also a useful device in 
taking sport pictures. For example, if you 
want the detail of a skier coming over an 
extremely bright foreground, take a read- 
ing off the back of your hand held in the 
light the subject will appear in. The 
measurement can be taken, camera ad- 
justed, and proper exposure can be 
obtained when the subject is in position. 
This is a good method to remember for 
all types of candid shots, too. 

For indoor work there are two methods 
of measuring light. The reflected light 
method can be used with brilliantly-lighted 
photoflood scenes. However, the reading 
should be taken close to the subject to 
overcome the tendency to over-expose 
caused bv the dark background. 

The incident light method is very 
accurate and convenient in taking indoor 

pictures. It indicates an average over-all 
exposure and the best results are obtained. 
Under certain specific conditions the inci- 
dent light method will give the better color 
film exposure. Since the photoelectric cell 
is more sensitive to the blue colors than 
the red in the spectral response curve, a 
more accurate exposure can be obtained 
when the color of the subject does not 
influence the meter. In the case of a flower, 
for example, a reflected light measurement 
of the scene would cause an over-exposure 
of the flower portion because the exposure 
meter attempts to balance the exposure for 
the dark green leaves that surround the 
scene plus the flower. In most cases the 
flower is the main part of interest, and the 
leaves of secondary interest. Therefore, an 
exposure obtained from a reflected light 
reading will cause the flower to photo- 
graph lighter than it normally should, and 
will cause the dark green leaves to photo- 
graph a lighter green than they are. 
Therefore, we can obtain a truer photo- 
graph by measuring incident light. 

With the directional hood removed, the 
G-E meter can be used very effectively to 
balance lighting and measure the differ- 
ence between the highlights and the shadow 
reading of the subject and scene. This 
facilitates special effects obtainable by 

Tones in a seme such as this may cover eighl F 
stops, as shown. 

controlling the illumination. For color film 
work it is easy to keep the ratio between 
the high and low-light portions as 4 to 1, 
or at the 2 to 1 ratio for best results. The 
same thing can be done for black and 
white work. For example, a high key 
photograph can be lighted and controlled 
by measuring the light to keep a ratio of 
2 to 1. An average scene will be 4 or 5 to 1 
ratio. Special effects, low key and high 
contrast pictures can be made by making 
the illumination as high as 10 to 1, or 
12 to 1. 

Some outdoor scenes can have a ratio of 
128 to 1 but the average photographic- 
paper can only print a range of 30 to 1, 
so that even though we have a great range 
on our films, it is impossible to reproduce 
this full brightness range in the final print. 
The sensitive curve of the paper of course, 
can be made to somewhat approach that 
of the photographic film by means of 
dodging when an enlargement is made. 
This actually reshapes the H and D curve 
of the paper by stretching and bending it 
around until it more nearly fits the H and 
D curve of the film. On the average scene 
this special work is not necessary; but in 
some conditions a better print will result 
when the two H and D curves are more 
nearly matched by dodging when the 
enlargement is made. 

This is by no means the end of the 
exposure meter's usefulness. With hood 
removed it can be used to measure light 
transmitted through a negative for correct 
exposure in printing or enlarging. Numer- 
ous variables that are encountered in print- 
ing prevent a calculator as simple as is 
used with films being made for paper. 
Photographic paper is inclined to vary 
more than photographic film and secondly, 
paper developer formulas are more varied 
than film formulas. Last but not least, the 
personal element must enter in as to the 
type of print the operator desires. This is 
something that cannot be measured and to 
compensate for this unknown, it is neces- 
sary to take a reading on the first negative 
and make a test print. This gives us com- 
plete allowance for all of these variables. 
For example, if the first negative reads 10 
and the test time is 20 seconds and the 
next negative reads 5 on the meter, the 
required time would be 40 seconds, i.e., 
10 times 20 over 5 equals 40. It is very 
easy to go through an entire row or group 
of negatives and determine quickly the 
correct exposure time. Use the formula — 
first meter reading times test-time over the 
meter reading of unknown equals the new 
printing time. By using this accurately 
and consistently you can produce prints of 
the same quality as determined by the first 
test print. This same method may be used 
when a contact print is made. To determine 
exposure time when contact printing, place 
the meter cell face down on the negative 
in the contact printer. Make two or three 
measurements to determine average dens- 
ity. To follow this procedure when making 


enlargements, the meter should be held 
close to the lens of the enlarger to get an 
over-all average measurement of the nega- 
tives. A meter held on the baseboard of 
the enlarger will not give the correct 
over-all average. 

To use the meter to determine correct 
paper grade for a negative, fit the photo- 
electric cell with a small mask. Take a 
light source such as a gooseneck reading 
lamp, and hold it above the light meter. 
The negative can then be placed on the 
light meter and the darkest and the light- 
est part of the negative measured. Roughly, 
if the negative has a ratio of 10 to 1 a 
contrasting or hard type of paper should 
be used. If the ratio is about 20 to 1 a 
medium-grade paper will give the best 
results. A contrast range of 30 to 1 will 
require a soft grade of paper. Since there 
are certain variations in different makes of 
paper, this ratio may not hold exactly. 
However, a complete range of paper speeds 
are shown in the Photo Data Book which 
comes with each G-E meter, so that each 
make of paper can be measured and fitted 
to the negatives. 

For color printing, the meter can be 
used as a simple densitometer. A smaller 
hole should be made for a photoelectric 
cell mask and a brighter light source used 
to measure the grey scale. In this way all 
three negatives may be quickly compared. 
To determine the exact density of a nega- 
tive, read the meter without a negative 
over the cell. Divide the reading by the 
number obtained when the negative is 
placed over the cell. This gives the opacity. 
Density is the logarithm of opacity. 

Darkroom application of the exposure 
meter does not stop here. Should you wish 
to make negatives of Kodachrome film the 
exposure meter is held up against the 
Kodachrome, and the scene brightness is 
measured by the meter. The calculator can 
then be set the same as for outdoor use 
to determine the proper exposure. For 
Kodachrome use No. 213 enlarging lamps 
or #1 photofloods to obtain correct color 
temperature. This system is of sufficient 
accuracy so that you can use Kodachrome 
film to duplicate a Kodachrome trans- 
parency. The meter should be held against 
the transparency with Type A Kodachrome 
placed in any suitable device for holding 
the film. The original transparency is then 
projected to make the duplicate using the 
calculated exposure. The result will be the 
same quality as the original. Occasionally, 
by slightly modifying the exposure, dupli- 
cates can be improved over the original. 
This method can be used to modify the 
composition on enlargements and will 
give the same effect as a telephoto lens. 

These are some of the ways your expos- 
ure meter can help you get better pictures. 
The more you use it, the more indispens- 
able it will become to you. And as a 
constant companion in all phases of your 
photographic work, it will help you make 
good results a habit. 



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International Photographer for July, 1941 


They SAy" 


• Off to Fort Knox, Kentucky, for pur- 
poses of filming army tank maneuvers in 
color are Bert Glennon, first cameraman; 
Ellsworth Fredericks and Wesley Ander- 
son, second cameraman; Nelson Cordes and 
Duke Callahan, technicians; Eddie Wade 
and Rod Tolmie, assistants; and Fred 
Morgan, still cameraman. 

• The boys in the Newcomb department 
at MGM are now devoting all their time 
to matte shots on the guitar. 

• Bill Eglington. RKO camera depart- 
ment executive, used to shoot stills, was a 
first cameraman and at times directed. 
Thus we can understand Bill's expert judg- 
ment in acting as critic in his berth. 

• Francis J. Burgess, Paramount assistant 
cameraman, now in the United States 
Armv. located at Sixteenth Air Base. Stock- 
ton Field, Stockton, Calif. 

• James V. King. Recording Secretary of 
Local 659, was a banker in his youth. 

• John Burton, of Schlesinger, conceives 
and designs many of the main titles we see 
in pictures. 

• Off to Florida again for background 
shots for the new Tarzan picture are Lloyd 
Knechtel, first cameraman; A. Linslay 
Lane and Herold Baldwin, second camera- 

• Off to Arizona on Wangers new pro- 
duction are Charles Lang, first cameraman; 
Curley Linden, second cameraman ; George 
Belisario, Paul Cable, Charles Russell, as- 
sistants; and Eddie Henderson, still cam- 

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• Irving Ries. of the Ries Department, is 
a master pilot with many wins to his credit 
in boat racing in Southern California. We 
look to see an engagement between him 
and some of the boys of Vern Walker's 
department, who are also skillful in the 
same sport. 

• Cliff Stine now shooting first camera at 
RKO Studios. 

• Joe MacDonald shooting first at 20th 

• Bill Draper in his spare time is super- 
vising a machine shop on defense work. 

• Lee Garmes, who photographed "Illu- 
sion"' for Korda, also is associate producer 
on the same production. 

• Philip W. O'Neil is now a First Lieu- 
tenant in the Corps Area Service Com- 
mand. Signal Corps, Unit 1900, at the Pre- 
sidio, San Francisco. 

• Tod La Clede soon will have to keep 
his constant companion, a beautiful chow, 
off the best chairs at home. He will be 
married to Clara Nibert in the not distant 

• Robert Rhea is under new management, 
having recently married Phyllis Cottrell. 

• It's a close race for first place as best 
dressed assistants, with Mike Doyle, Louis 
DeAngelis and Freddie Anderson as con- 

• Norman Alley and Paul Ivano palling 
around in Buenos Aires, talking over how 
things are going in good old Hollywood. 

• Paul G. Vogel, MGM cameraman, pho- 
tographed and directed a Pete Smith Short 
dealing with armv life, to be released 
shortly. By coincidence Vogel was in the 
Photographic Corps during World War 
No. 1. 

• Off to the Georgia swamps are Lucien 
Ballard and Joe McDonald, first camera- 
men. Twentieth Century Fox. with assist- 
ants Lee Crawford and Jack Epstein. 


"U. S. Naval Air Station, 
Pensacola. Florida. 

"Dear Herb: — I know I'm a little slow 
in getting around to my correspondence, 
but here's a line to let you know that I'm 
still here and flying about a half day and 
six days a week. The rest of the time has 
been spent in ground school with nights 
and Sundays for studying. In fact, the 
schedule is so efficient for taking up all 
our time that some of the boys are think- 
ing of making a break for it over the south 
wall. The local Chamber of Commerce 
calls it the "Annapolis of the Air" and the 
Cadets call it the "Alcatraz of the Air." 

"Anyhow it's all in fun and for our own 
good that we are getting these tough 
courses in navigation, aerodynamics, etc. 
In six or seven months they have to make 
pilots, naval officers and radio operators 
out of us, which after all is a pretty big 

"The flying has been swell. About three- 
fourths of the time is solo work and for 

the past couple of weeks I've been working 
on acrobatics and what I mean, everything 
in the book. 

"In spite of all the work we seem to 
have a prettv swell time of it, especially 
when we get into our white uniforms and 
step out. We have a complete set of offi- 
cers' uniforms and a lot of their privileges 
. . . which makes up for the long hours. 

"All of the old buildings have been torn 
down, with the result that we have prac- 
tically a new station. Blocks of "colossal" 
new buildings have been put up every- 
where. There's a fleet of sailboats for us 
to use and a big riding stable, so as soon 
as I finish school in another month I'm 
going to get in there and pitch. 

"Bill Cline, Will Cline and Freddie Det- 
mers stopped in to see me on their way back 
from "The Yearling" location. It surely 
made me homesick when they pulled out 
on the train for Hollywood. It's good to 
know that things have been going well and 
pictures are still being made. 

"I'll write more, Herb, when I can get 
a little time ahead. Please convey my best 
wishes to the boys. I'll try to get an in- 
teresting article for the magazine in the 
near future. 

"Shall hope to see you in about four 
months if I'm lucky. 

Sincerely yours. 


Irwin Shaw at Warner Bros. 

Irwin Shaw, noted playwright, has ar- 
rived at Warner Bros, to turn his original 
story, "The Hard Way," into a screen play 
for Ida Lupino. Shaw's most recent Broad- 
way success was "The Gentle People," 
which was filmed by Warners as "Out of 
the Fog," with Ida Lupino, John Garfield, 
Thomas Mitchell and John Qualen. 


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grain size. It is ideal for cinematography under adverse lighting 





Vol. XIII 

August, 1941 

No. 7 


When to Use Infra-Red, Sparkuhl — Page 3 
"The Tanks Are Coming," Morgan — Page 6 
South of the Equator, Shackelford — Page 12 
"Sergeant York" — Page 18 


On the Beach, Mortensen — Page 2 

"The Tanks Are Coming", Morgan — Pages 4 and 5 

"Sergeant York," Weisbarlh — Pages 8 and 9 

"Here is a Man," Benninger — Pages 10 and 11 

South of the Equator, Shackelford — Pages 14 and 15 

B-19 Bomber— Page 17 

Lunatic Lensman, W elbourne — Pages 24 and 25 


16 mm Department — Page 
Tradewinds — Page 22 
Patents, Fulwider — Page 26 
They Say, Rella — Page 28 


Editor, Herbert Aller 

Business Manager, Helen Boyce. Art Editor, John Corydon Hill. 
Contributing Editors: D. K. Allison, George Hurrell, J. N. A. Hawkins, Roman 

Freulich, Ernest Bachrach, Alvin Wyckoff, William V. Draper, Fred Gately, 

George Scheibe. 
Copyright, 1941, by Local 659, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 

and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada. 

Entered as Second Class matter, Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

International Photographer, as the monthly official publication of International Pho- 
tographers, Local 659, of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, not only 
represents the entire personnel of photographers engaged in professional produc- 
tion of motion pictures in the United States and Canada, but also serves technicians 
in the studios and theatres, who are members of the International Alliance, as well 
as executives and creative artists of the production community and executives and 
engineers of the manufacturing organizations serving the motion picture industry. 
International Photographer assumes no responsibility for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts or material. 

Subscription Rates: U.S.A., $2.50; Canada-Foreign, $3.00 per year. Single Copy, 25 cents. 
Australian Representative: McGill's News Agency, Melbourne. 

Office of Publication: 6461 Sunset Blvd. (Los Angeles P. 0.), Hollywood, California 

Telephone: Hillside 9189 
Publication Date: 5th of Each Month 


Congratulations, S.M.P.E. 

Twenty-five years ago at the first meeting 
of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers, 
with an attendance of twenty-six persons, 
it was not dreamed that the Society would 
now number close to 1300 members, in all 
parts of the world. 

The motion picture industry has greatly 
benefited through efforts of the S.M.P.E. 
which during all these years has not lost 
sight of its object: 

"Advancement in the theory and prac- 
tice of motion picture engineering and the 
allied arts and sciences, the standardization 
of the mechanisms and practices employed 
therein, and the maintenance of a high pro- 
fessional standing among its members." 

Congratulations, Society of Motion Pic- 
ture Engineers, on your Silver Anniversary. 

A Matter of Identity 

Last month in this space we ran a picture 
of "Shack" and "Jack." With editorial 
courtesy we mentioned "Shack" first, even 
though "Jack" appeared at the left of the 
picture. As a result James B. Shackelford 
( "Shack" ) has been the target of a lot of 
joshing and asks if we will please identify 
him in the picture as "the one with the 
short ears." 

Efficient Courteous 



Professional and Amateur 


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International Photographer for August, 1941 


By William Mortensen 

wllEN TO USE hfRA'REd fillVI 

By Theodore Sparkuhl of Paramount Pictures 

Theodore Sparkuhl was born in 1894 in Han- 
over, Germany. He graduated from Lyceum I at 
Hanover, studied medicine at Heidelberg and 
Bonn, but was compelled to discontinue on ac- 
count of finances. 

He started in the motion picture business with 
Leon Gaumont in Paris in 1912, became a news 
cameraman in 1913. and was sent to Berlin for 
Gaumont Paris. 

Sparkuhl started as first cinematographer in 
studio work with Eikofilm, then Eclair Paris, went 
at the outbreak of war to Berlin, was drafted 
as a cinematographer in Russia, France, Austria, 
Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey. Early in 1918 he 
was transferred to UFA. Berlin, and stayed with 
that firm until 1928, photographing practically 
all of the Lubitsch Pictures. 

He went to England in 1928 for BIP and stayed 
until 1930. In the fall of 1930 he returned to 
Paris and worked for Braunberger-Richebe at 
Billancourt. He applied for the American Quota 
in Paris and sailed for the United States in 
December 1931. He was admitted to Local 659 
in April, 1933, and has worked at Paramount 
ever since, photographing about 45 pictures in 
that time, the more recent being "Hardboiled 
Canary,"' "Rangers of Fortune," "The Light That 
Failed," "Rulers of the Sea," "If I were King," 
"Wells Fargo," etc. 

He became a citizen of the United States in 
1937 and was married on one of his film trips 
to Europe. He has five children, three boys and 
two girls, the oldest being an interne at General 
Hospital, Los Angeles. Sparkuhl has finished his 
medical studies while in pictures and during 
the war was used as news man and surgeon 
simultaneously. — (Editorial Note) . 

This little article is written to help the 
cinematographers and still photographers 
who have not had sufficient experience in 
the application of infra-red film, to help 
them understand its beauty for certain 
effects, its possibilities — and the headaches 
they may get by using it. 

Primarily, infra-red film, as the name 
implies, does not have a panchromatic 
emulsion; in other words it is not sensi- 
tive to all colors of the spectrum. It has 
an emulsion which to a great extent cuts 
out the blue rays, if used with a red filter 
such as F-29 and 25. 

There are several types of infra-red film 
on the market, but the Pan K of Eastman 
and the Infra D of Dupont are the ones 
generally used professionally. The Pan K 
has a tendency to create very eerie effects, 
especially in the rendition of foliage, which 
turns very bright. The Dupont Infra D, 
while having the same general quality, does 
not turn the greens, such as foliage, as 
light, but keeps them more subdued. 

It depends largely upon the individual 
judgment of the cinematographer as to 
which film he should use for the require- 
ments of the scenes to be photographed for 
night effects. In one of my recent pictures 
I was confronted with the necessity of 

creating rather odd and mysterious effects 
in the day time- The action took place 
around a cemetery, under trees, but it had 
to be daytime. After making some tests, I 
decided to use infra-red film with a very 
light filter, No. 21, in addition to which 
I used fog filters and Schiebe Diffusion. 
The effect approached perfection. So you 
see that infra-red may be used for certain 
day effects. One has to be particularly care- 
ful in lighting the actors, because infra- 
red film has a tendency to render your 
picture in much higher contrast than you 
seem to see with your own eyes. The make- 
up of lips, for instance, has to be more on 
the brown side, with no red in it, lest you 
want the lips to appear lighter than the 

The overall sensitivity is practically the 
same with both types of films, about 24 
Weston. By using a 29 F filter I found the 
best density in the developed negative by 
allowing only two to two and a half stops 
from the daylight value. A great deal de- 
pends upon the freshness of the emulsion 
you use and I have always found it safe 
to test emulsion furnished by my company 
before actually shooting it on production. 

While it has great advantages for night 
effects, infra-red film should by no means 
be looked upon as a cure-all! It should 
be used only on outdoor shots where it is 
important to enhance the beauty of the 
landscape and where it would be impos- 
sible to light the scope of your shot arti- 
ficially. In many cases I have found it 
disastrous where some ambitious business 
manager decided to use infra-red film to 
save the artificial lighting of a shot or se- 
quences which would very well have been 
lighted with much better results. I remem- 
ber a few years ago when infra-red film 
came into vogue that the studios wanted 
to take advantage of existing sets on their 
back lots for both day and night effects, 
photographed in the davtime, without re- 
painting the sets. So extensive tests were 
made to determine what color the sets 
should be painted to give the most even 
effect if photographed in daylight with 
the regular panchomatic film and also for 
night effects with infra-red. The color that 
gave the best effect was a gray-blue, but 
several disadvantages popped up in that 
infra-red can be used successfully only 
if photographed under proper light con- 
ditions. As this necessity was too great 
a risk on the budgets, business managers 
have abandoned this way of shooting more 
and more and have come back to the arti- 
ficial lighting of existing street sets to be 

photographed either at night or under dif- 
fusion blacks. 

In using infra-red film the cinematog- 
rapher should be given free hand to pick 
his angles, because he is the one, and the 
only one, to decide whether he can get the 
expected result from such and such an 
angle. The light should always be cross- 
light, favoring the faces of the actors. It 
might be slightly back-cross with enough 
reflected light filled in, but never should 
it be a direct back light, because the haze 
of your back-light overpowers whatever 
blue there is left in the sky- As a result 
you cannot expect your sky to go dark. 

Great care should be taken not to shoot 
infra-red too late in the day, because the 
sunlight goes redder toward late afternoon 
and as a result your film will appear to 
have much more contrast than during the 
morning or early afternoon shots. 

It is very important to work hand-in- 
hand with the laboratory when working on 
infra-red sequences, because in the heat of 
the battle you may be induced to shoot 
longer than you really should or you might 
run into a situation which in itself might 
not be very favorable to infra-red film, but 
which might be corrected, or at least helped 
and improved by shortening or extending 
the developing time. 

Quite frequently one is in a position 
where it is necessary to change from infra- 
red to the regular film, especially in scenes 
where it is necessary to break up your long 
shots and move in for the closer action 
scenes with the actors. Personally I prefer 
to go over to regular film for these shots 
if it is possible to avoid the sky, or at least 
to avoid it to some extent. With a combina- 
tion filter such as 23-56, or 25-56, you 
will find that the quality of the faces of 
your actors will be much more natural 
than with the infra-red film. But extremely 
careful judgment on your part is necessary. 
Furthermore, be on the lookout for dresses 
or costumes which have red in them. Watch 
for this right from the start of the picture, 
or you and your studio are apt to have 
some shocking surprises. I remember one 
dress on an actress. It didn't seem to have 
red in it at all, but when we saw the rushes 
we almost died, for it looked as if she 
were running around in a nightgown. The 
reason? She wore a fiery-red slip under 
her knitted dress, not visible to the eye, 
but the infra-red looked right through it! 
So be careful in using infra-red film and 
exercise good and cool judgment. Results 
obtained in "The Light That Failed" are 
due only to fair breaks, planning and good 

International Photographer for August, 1941 

"The Tanks Are Coming* 

Warner Bros. Production 


Stills by Fred Morgan 


* f! 

International Photographer for August, 1941 

"tIie tanLs are cominq" 

By Fred Morgan, 

Warner Bros. Still Photographer 

And if you don't believe it, hie yourself 
to Fort Knox and see for yourself. It will 
be an education you won't soon forget. 

Warner Bros, decided that Mr. and Mrs. 
Citizen should know all about what our 
army is doing and, in order to "put it 
over," figured a moving picture made in 
color on the spot would tell the story as 
it should be told. Consequently, the var- 
ious studio departments were set into mo- 
tion and, shortly, Warners' camera chief, 
Mike McGreal, had two Technicolor crews 
rounded up and on the way to Fort Knox. 

Breezy Eason, assigned to direct, and 
Bert Glennon, chief cinematographer, had 
to fly down so they could line up the shoot- 
ing schedule in such a way that it would 
not slow up the training of mechanized 
troops. The rest of the gang went by train 
from here to Louisville, Kentucky, and 
then thirty miles out to where Fort Knox 
is located. It amounted to three days of a 
hot, boresome ride through ten states, then 
off the train at eleven P. M. in a pouring 
rain and no familiar faces to guide us to 
a place to sleep. 

It wasn't long, though, until out of the 
darkness strode a little fellow in a Col- 
onel's uniform and behind him was a Ser- 
geant, the biggest man I've ever seen. He 
took one look at the huddled bunch of 
lonesome, wet movie-makers and bellowed, 


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"Fall in, you guys." Andy Anderson, cam- 
era operator, being an ex-war vet, finally 
figured he meant us, so we fell in and down 
and everything else that could be anything 
but military. 

"Forward march!" bellowed our friend. 
So we started with suitcases, portable ra- 
dios, hat boxes and what-not, a sorry-look- 
ing sight, all out of step and loaded down. 

We went the length of a box car where 
there was a light, and the order came to 
halt. Well, the guys up front halted, but 
some of the forty-odd others didn't, and 
arms, legs and suitcases were a pile to be- 
hold. Out from behind the box car came 
Breezy Eason, Bert Glennon and Col. 
"Jimmy" Jaynes, and then we knew we 
had been framed. Needless to say, thev 
were in hysterics. However, we were soon 
housed in very comfortable barracks and 
sound asleep. 

Next morning we were out with the sun 
and on the playground of the tanks. Acres 
of rolling hills covered with brush and 
trees — and dust. Oh, boy, that dust! The 
camera crews took the beating. Dust was 
so thick on the lenses it meant stopping 
shooting until the equipment was cleaned 
time and again. 

Have you ever seen a tank coming at 
you? Well, you won't forget it in a long 
time when you do. Twenty-eight tons of 
massive steel bristling with guns and bear- 
ing down on you at 30 or 40 m.p.h. 

Glennon assigned Eli Fredericks, opera- 
tive cameraman, a low set-up in the path 
of a group of tanks, some to turn out just 
a few feet in front of the camera. I figured 
that would be the spot for a real action 
still picture, so I squatted with Eli and 
his crew. I stuck it out and got my picture, 
but that tank was about the biggest mon- 
ster I have ever seen in dreams or out. 

There were tanks everywhere, going in 
all directions and stopping at nothing. 
Old barns, trees, canyons, mud holes, 
fences, hedges, rocks — nothing seemed to 




No. 22184 
4516 Sunset Boulevard Night, SUnset 2-1271 

worry them. If they couldn't knock down 
and trample the obstacles, they would just 
go over the top and down the other side 
and on. Always they go on. 

During the course of the story, it was 
very necessary to show, head on, what a 
tank does when meeting these objects. As 
far as I know, a tank was made into a 
Hollywood "camera car" for the first time. 
To Bill Classen, head grip, go the honors 
for "tying down" a Technicolor camera 
on a tank, which has nothing but flat, 
smooth armor plate all over it. He did it 
and with the camera pointed over the snout 
of a tank we took off down through the 
woods and swamps. 

I can tell you — but you'd better see the 
picture — with her nose pointed down into 
a hole deep enough to bury a house she 
goes, to the bottom and up out the other 
side, across a knoll at 30 m.p.h. and head- 
on into a rock maple tree, twelve inches 
thick, which explodes into a million bits, 
flying all over the landscape. After that 
one, I noticed all the boys feeling the 
knots in the ropes that tied them on. There 
is no such thing as roads and as it rained 
every day there were plenty of mudholes 
to play in for the youngsters who are learn- 
ing to handle tanks — and can they handle 
those monsters of steel! 

As to Fort Knox, last November there 
were a few buildings, housing some fif- 
teen hundred men and officers. Today, 
there are barracks housing forty thousand 
men and thousands of pieces of rolling 
stock — cars, trucks, scout cars, motorized 
guns and tanks. Schools, schools for ev- 

And the men must be fed. Just as an 
eye-opener, I'll pass on the figures the offi- 
cer in charge of feeding gave me. The 
men decided they wanted hot dogs for din- 
ner one night, so he scouted all the big 
cities around — Louisville, even Chicago — 
and finally found enough. 30,800 pounds 
of bow-wows for one meal, along with 40,- 
000 loaves of bread and 17,000 quarts of 

Yes, sir, mister, the tanks are coming — 
and am I glad I saw it all and now realize 
what our Uncle can do when he sets his 
mind to it! 

Orson Welles' New Picture 

Orson Welles is producing, writing, di- 
recting and starring in his second picture 
for RKO Radio. Plans are still shrouded 
in the secrecy which characterizes Orson 
Welles' technique. Promises to be even 
more arresting than "Citizen Kane," which 
will be one of the early season attractions. 

\ i m:i: hami 

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negative films encourages directors 
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of everv dramatic situation. Eastman 
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Fort Lee Chicaso Hollvwood 

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International Photographer tor August. 1941 " 

'Sergeant York" 

Warner Bros. Production 

Left to right: Joan delVal and Gary Cooper; Yanks advanee through 
smoke of battle; more yanks coming up; Gary Cooper and George 
Tobias on firing line; fighting over a mountain; Joe Sawyer, George 
Tobias, Jaek Rennick and Carl Esmond. 


Camera Set-ups 

Stills by Ted Weisbarth 

Jesse L. Lasky gets grandstand view of a battle scene; camera crew 
ready to shoot an advance; close to the enemy lines; cameras "take" 
a German machine gun nest; "Breezy" Eason shows Producer Lasky 
and Cameraman Edeson where he expects an artillery barrage to 
burst; Al Smalley, assistant; Eddie Fitzgerald, second; George Bourne, 
assistant and Arthur Edeson, first eameraman (second unit). 

International Photocrapher for August, 1941 

"Here Is a Man" 

RKO Radio Pictures 

Left to right: James Craig and Jane Darwell as seen in the roles of mother and son; 
Jane Darwell and juvenile Lindy Wade; Craig plays the role of a modern Faust in 
this scene with Walter Huston; Edward Arnold as Daniel Wehster, shown delivering his 
eloquent oration before u jury of long dead rogues. 


Stills by Otto Benninger 


Mere is a 


"Here is a Man," RKO-Radio release, is 
the final title for "The Devil and Daniel 
Webster," which first made its appearance 
as a short story in the Saturday Evening 

The farm of Jabez Stone in New Hamp- 
shire near the fictitious village of Cross 

James Craig and Anne Shirley, as 
the young farmer and his wife. 

Corners, is the background for much of 
the story, which transpires during the 
years 1840 to 1847. Other settings include 
the village, the tavern, the public square, 
the surrounding countryside, a New Eng- 
land church, Webster's famous farm at 
"Marshfield," the pretentious new house 
that the wealthy Jabez builds and the 
Stone's old barn, where Jabez signs his 
pact with Mr. Scratch and where, the stalls 
converted into a jury box, Daniel Webster 
pits his own soul and his oratory against 
the devil to save the soul of Jabez Stone. 
The story is about a debt-ridden New 
England farmer, dogged by hard luck, 
who sells his soul to the devil for seven 
years of prosperity. Even though his sud- 
den wealth changes him into a grasping, 

H. B. Warner, as the judge, in this 
makeshift courtroom scene in which 
the young farmer is on trial for his 

domineering character, his devoted wife 
remains loyal to him, despite his neglect 
and his attentions to a beautiful stranger 
sent by the devil to live in their home. 
Belatedly, the farmer, confronted with the 
consequences of his pact, relents his bar- 
gain and enlists the aid of Daniel Webster. 
The matchless orator in an eloquent speech 
before a jury of long dead, notorious 
American rogues, out-talks the devil him- 
self and saves the farmer's soul at the risk 
of his own. 

With "Here is a Man," William Dieterle, 
long recognized as one of the industry's 
foremost producers, strikes out on his own 
as Producer-Director and as head of his 
own company, William Dieterle Produc- 

Reconciliation between Jabez Stone 
(James Craig) and his wife (Anne 
Shirley) is brought about by Daniel 
Webster (Edward Arnold). 

International Photographer for August, 1941 


The City of Suva, cross-roads of the South Seas. 


Some of these days when you are wan- 
dering around down in the vicinity of 
the International date line and just a little 
south of the equator, I'd like to have you 
drop in on me for a few days' visit — or 
make it a week or a few months, just as 
you wish, but anyhow, I think you will like 
this little island paradise of mine. 

The upper picture on pages 14 and 15 
I Exhibit "A") will give you an idea of 
your first glimpse of it as you arrive after 
a 50-mile boat trip from Suva, a trip that 
will hold you spellbound every foot of the 
way. Casting off at high tide from the 
rock wall that holds back the sea from the 
Grand Pacific Hotel on three sides, you 
can practically step from your room into 
the boat. Slipping out to the inter-island 
boat channel that runs just inside the bar- 
rier reef you may see the surf breaking 
mountain high with a terrifying roar on 
the outside as you glide safely along on 
glassy smooth water. For a few miles you 
circle the mainland past heavy mangrove 
jungles and seemingly endless native fish 
traps, finally swinging up the Rewa River. 

Here is one of the places where the 
Colonials as well as the natives catch their 
famed food delicacy, "white bait," the tiny 
spawn of the white fish, which in season 
may be seen in teeming billions along the 
banks of the Rewa. Their countless num- 
bers literally turn the water white along the 
shore and they can be dipped up by buck- 
etsful. The tiny fish are about one-quarter 
of an inch long and are cooked just as 
they come from the water, except for pos- 
sibl) a slight rinsing, and when mixed 
with the proper batter and baked or fried 
are just about the best sea food you ever 


tasted, excepting a half a dozen or more 
others I might mention later. 

After a few miles you turn into the 
Wainabocassi (wine a bo cassi ) a river, 
the likes of which they have attempted in 
many a jungle film, but which I have yet 
to see faithfully reproduced. Winding 
right angle turns, U turns, S turns and 
after miles of travel you find you are 
passing on the opposite side of the same 
village you passed hours before. In fact, 
you had better keep pretty close to the 
middle of the stream, for if you go off 
exploring through the tangled maze of 
mangrove roots and vines under which 
your boat will easily pass, you may find 
yourself hopelessly lost. Sliding past na- 
tive villages — a studio art director's dream 
come true; — you round a turn to see a mass 
of vines swinging from overhanging cocoa- 
nut trees actually loaded down with beans 
six feet long — wow! and on opening a pod 
you find the beans are square — now ain't 
that sumpin! Just think of the years they 
have been trying to develop square peas! 

Just about the time the stream gets so 
narrow you fear you have lost it, you pop 
around a bend and into a canal dug ages 
ago by the cannibals under King Thack- 
ambau, the fiercest and most bloodthirsty 
cannibal of them all. Old King Thack 
used to send his men out to hide in the 
coral heads along the reef and at low tide 
when women from the neighboring villages 
came out to gather crabs and such, the 
men would jump out and bop the gals on 
the head, which meant a feast and lots of 
bicarbonate for the King. 

The neighbors got sore eventually and 
laid for the King's men, disguising them- 

selves as women. They made it so hot for 
the King and his gang that they couldn't 
get out to the reef any more, so he had to 
dig the canal, for military reasons, you 
might say, and as an outlet to new hunt- 
ing grounds. 

The canal opens out to sea over about 
two miles of mud flats and it is here among 
the scattered mangroves you may see that 
marvel of marvels: the tree climbing fish! 
In fact, on my last trip to Bali and the 
South Seas, I stopped off here on the way 
back and took a party of our scientists out 
to this spot and gathered a few of these 
fish for the edification of our fellow pass- 
engers on the S.S. Monterey who had 
scoffed at this and other fantastic tales I 
had told them. Needless to say, during 
the next few days our bath tub became a 
Mecca for nearly everyone aboard ship, 
including the passengers and crew. 

After leaving Thackambau's canal you 
will head out to sea over twelve miles of 
coral lagoon which I would advise you to 
traverse during the daylight hours, other- 
wise you may find your boat impaled on a 
coral spearhead which will snap off when 
the tide goes, leaving you stranded in fif- 
teen or twenty fathoms of nothing under 
you but nice clear water and razor sharp 
coral. Of course, if you are traversing this 
stretch in an out-rigger canoe with a na- 
tive pilot, you are perfectly safe at any 

Anyhow, Exhibit A is the view of this 
little paradise as you approach it from 
the mainland, and you can either beach 
your boat on the quarter-mile white strand 
or drop anchor in deep water where you 
(Continued on page 26) 

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International Photographer for August, 1941 



In the lagoon approaching the island *t« 

Looking in on the seaward sidd 
dressed up for a photograph, 
around him, is the chief, who! 
Thackambau. (Exhihit B). 


fity mile trip from Suva. (ExhibitA). 

I island, with the native boys all 
! left, facing the circle of boys 
|i way, is the grandson of King 

International Photographer for August, 1941 


It isn 't just luck 
that a Cameraman 
prefers a . . . 


It's because he's 
sure of the results 
he'll get... 



Cable Address "MITCAMCO" Phone CR. 6-1051 

Bell & Howell, Ltd., London, England 
Claud C. Carter, Sydney, Australia 

Motion Picture Camera Supply Co., 
New York City 
Fazalbhoy, Ltd., Bombay, India 
D. Nagase & Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan H. Nassibian, Cairo, Egypt 


"Douglas Airview" calls the B-19 "A 
Flying Laboratory of Aeronautical Sci- 
ence." Elaborate equipment is installed to 
make readings at literally thousands of 
pickup points, show these readings on in- 
struments assembled on special panel- 
boards, and automatically record the data 
by means of still photographs taken at 
regular intervals and movie cameras oper- 
ating continuously and automatically in 
front of the panel-boards. 

"To check temperatures and pressures of 
the power plants and their accessories, ther- 
mocouples at various locations will send 
impulses along miles of wire and tubing to 
indicators assembled in special test quar- 
ters. Through an individual network of 
wires, gauges scattered through the air- 
plane will provide impulses to form lines 
on graphs, instantaneously recording even 
the slightest stress or strain." 

The figures below will convey an idea of 
the magnitude of the B-19 bomber: 

Designing and Building 

9000 drawings required, which would 
cover an area of four acres; 500 engineers, 
technicians and mechanics employed on 
craft; 700,000 hours engineering time; 42,- 
500 hours research and testing time; 
1,200,000 hours shop time; 4 years from 
start of design to first flight. 

Construction Detail 

212 ft. wing spread; 132 ft. fuselage 
length; 42 ft. 9 in. overall height to top of 
rudder; 61 ft. span of horizontal stabilizer; 
8 ft. diameter of main landing gear wheels 
(4 ft. 6 in. diameter of nose wheel) ; 2 
miles of control cable; 10 miles of elec- 
trical wiring (enclosed in conduits) ; 
3,000,000 rivets; 4 Wright Duplex-Cyclone 
engines, each generating 2000 horsepower; 
17 ft. Hamilton-Standard propellers; 140,- 
000 pounds — normal gross weight; 164,- 
000 pounds — alternate gross weight. 


Speed — in excess of 200 m.p.h.; landing 
speed — 69 m.p.h.; range — 7750 miles.; 
fuel capacity — 11,000 gallons; flight crew 
— 10 men (sleeping accommodations for 
8); bomb capacity — 18 tons; total load 
capacity — 28 tons. 

Spanish Sound Tracks 
for Latin America 

The first constructive step toward satis- 
faction of Latin American demands on 
Hollywood has been taken by Warner Bros, 
with the announcement of a new policy on 
films shipped to other nations of this 

The policy to be followed on features 
for release in Central and South America 
involves recording of an extra set of sound 
track in Spanish for music numbers used 
in pictures. The players will learn pho- 
netic Spanish in order to render songs in 
comprehensible fashion south of the bor- 


Uncle Sam's B-19 Bomber 

JOB: Left to right: Officer (un- 
known) ; Carl Jones, sound, 
News of the Day; Arthur de 
Titta, Pacific Coast Supervisor, 
Fox Movietone News; Dexter 
Alley, assistant cameraman, 

Universal News; S. E. Green- 
wald, cameraman, News of the 
Day; Jack McHenry, camera- 
man, Universal News, San Fran- 
cisco; Charles Lehman, sound, 
Fox Movietone News; C. J. 
Hubbell, Pacific Coast Super- 
visor, News of the Day. 


"Sergeant York" was filmed on 123 
studio sets, and on eight outdoor locations 
one of which was an 80-acre battlefield. 
Some background shots also were made in 

Largest of the studio sets duplicated a 
section of the Valley of the Three Forks 
on the Wolf. This set included a moun- 
tain built on a revolving base, (see May 
issue of International Photographer) , a 
stream 200 feet long, a stationery peak 
and a large expanse of wood and farm 
land. It was dressed with 121 real trees, 
75 of them cedars, the remainder pines 
and oaks 

Weight of the moving mountain, so built 
in order to provide a variety of camera 
angles with a minimum of set-shifting time, 
was 60 tons. The circular base of the 
mountain was 35 feet in diameter. The 
peak itself rose to a height of 40 feet above 
stage floor level. 

At various times, three different cabin 
homes, including farm out-buildings, were 
accommodated on this stage setting. Unit 
Art Director John Hughes and Cameraman 
Sol Polito so shifted the background as to 
give each its individual set. 

A turkey shoot, staged according to 
Cumberland mountain rules, with contest- 
ants firing muzzle-loading long rifles, and 
a fox hunt also were filmed on this setting 
after the background had been revamped. 
A tame raccoon was led over the woodland 
trails to provide live scent for the hounds 
which participated in the hunt. 

With the exception of Cooper, the pic- 
ture has two casts — one the Tennessee 
mountain characters, the other the army 
and public life characters. 

A practical target range, identical with 
those used in army cantonments, was built 
at Warner Bros.' ranch for rifle practice 
scenes. Thirty-one targets were constructed. 

The 80-acre battlefield, largest ever pre- 
pared for a motion picture war, was located 
in a ridge-flanked valley in the Simi hills, 
some 40 miles from Hollywood. A wreck- 
ing crew of 300 men worked three weeks 
transforming a barley field into a war- 
Masted waste. The studio paid the farmer 
the price of a bumper crop for his barley, 
added a flat location rental and the pro- 
viso that the field would be restored to its 
original condition. 

Five tons of dynamite were used to blast 
out shell craters. Two miles of sand- 
bagged zig-zagging trench lines were cut 
through the field. Four hundred denuded 
tree trunks and blasted tree stumps were 
planted in the scarred ground. Five thous- 
and two hundred gallons of paint were 
sprayed on ground and tree stumps to 
hlacken ihem to wai -scorched hue. Three 

big tractors ripped and tore the earth be- 
tween shell craters. 

Each day, for three full weeks and most 
of a fourth, from 200 to 500 extras were 
used as soldiers in the battle scenes. Three 
thousand four hundred powder mines, and 
380 aerial bombs were exploded. As many 
as 139 mines were exploded for single 
camera shots. 

Three thousand two hundred pounds of 
black powder went into the ground mines, 
cascaded a total of four tons of dry color — 
bone black and burnt umber — as high as 
80 feet into the air. Never before in the 
history of movie warfare was there such a 
series of spectacular barrages, according 
to Carl Voss, the veteran ex-army regular 
and professional drill sergeant who trained 
the film troops. 

An average crew of seventeen powder 
men worked on the war scenes. On the day 
of the biggest barrage there were 36 men 
in the powder crew. Six miles of wire con- 
nected the powder charges with electric 
control firing boards. 

Four tons of smoke composition was 
used to create the murky battle haze. 
Thirty-seven thousands rounds of rifle am- 

munition and 32,000 rounds of machine 
gun ammunition (blank cartridges) were 
fired, upwards of 5,000 machine gun ef- 
fects were exploded. 

Six thousands seven hundred and thirty- 
two hot lunches were served to the "troops" 
on the battlefield. 

Sergeant York's exploit of killing 25 
German machine gunners and capturing 
132 prisoners almost single-handedly was 
filmed in detail as the climaxing event of 
the battle action. During filming of these 
scenes some 2500 machine gun effects were 
exploded around Cooper. 

Of the many medals awarded York for 
heroism, three were conferred upon Cooper 
in decoration scenes. They were the French 
Medaille Militaire, the American Distin- 
guished Service Cross and the United States 
Congressional Medal of Honor, presented 
by actors representing Marshall Foch, 
Major General George B Duncan and 
General Pershing, respectively. 

The Medal of Honor, loaned to the studio 
for the picture by the United States govern- 
ment, was sent out from Washington, D. C, 
and returned immediately after the decora- 
tion scenes were shot. Some day a future 
hero will wear it as his own. 

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This dramatic still from the RKO-Radio Picture, "They Met In Argen- 
tina" is reason enough why Fred Hendrickson, RKO-Radio pho- 
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Pictures like this demand quick focusing, accurate framing, high shut- 
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Because Speed Graphic cameras are specially designed for "freezing" the 
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Graflex line and discuss your equipment problems with factory-trained 

Here are two reference books that any photographer will 
find invaluable: Graphic Graflex Photography by Wil- 
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and Photographic Enlarging by Franklin /. Jordan, 
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International Photographer for August, 1941 



"It's Not WHAT, But HOW . . ." 

Shakespeare struck the keynote for the 
amateur movie maker — and camera fans 
in general — when he once said that all the 
world's a stage, and that its men and 
women are merely players. And anyone 
who owns a camera and doesn't realize 
the full scope and import of this statement 
is blind to a wealth of material and merely 
groping in the dark when he looks around 
in vain in a semi-bored condition for 
"something worthwhile to shoot." 

Generally speaking, many people reach 
this stage of looking for something they 
never seem to be able to find after they 
have satisfied their justifiable but never- 
theless childish desire to just run film 
through the camera, if it is a movie cam- 
era, or to click the shutter, if it is a still 
camera, just for the sake of running the 
film or clicking the shutter. To the neo- 
phyte there is a singular thrill in taking 
pictures just for the fun of operating the 
camera and knowing that a picture is being 
recorded on the film. What he shoots, or 
how he shoots it matters little while he 
is still in this state, and he will continue 
on with his spree, shooting high, wide and 
handsome, until the sobering influence of 
his misdeeds begins staring him in the face 
on the screen ! For a while even these have 
only the effect of whetting his appetite for 
promiscuous shooting, but it isn't very long 
before the monotony of the results obtained 
takes hold; the thrill of "just shooting" 
has worn off, and he begins to take stock 
of himself and his camera. 

For many of the unimaginative, their 
careers as amateur cinematographers or 
photographers, end here; others enter that 
adolescent stage of sophistication and ar- 
rive at the conclusion that they are above 
shooting such mundane things as everyday 
life. In this photographically blase manner 
they are constantly looking for something 
they never seem to be able to find. Occa- 
sionally some bit of subject matter will pre- 
sent itself to them as being "unusual," and 
if they have managed to acquire some de- 
gree of technical proficiency by this time 
and get an interesting picture they become 
tremendously satisfied with themselves and 
progress to the stage of "intellectuals," 
which is, in fact, an advanced state of 
adolescence characterized by a smugness 
and narrow-mindedness which prevents any 
real progress because it tends to blind the 
individual to any viewpoint other than his 
own. And in this manner they continue 
groping in the dark, still looking for 
"something worthwhile to shoot." 

Those who have not been bogged down 
by "intellect" and have grown normally 
lli rough the adolescent stage eventually be- 
come aware of the fact that there is a 
wealth of material with which to work all 
about them. Material that can be of intense 
interest, if they will but make it that way. 
It is the material that the other fellow 

would pass up because it isn't "unusual," 
"interesting," or "photogenic"! 

The point we are trying to stress is that 
it doesn't matter so much what the story 
of a motion picture happens to be as how 
it's told. Since in the art of the motion 
picture it is the camera that tells the story, 
it resolves itself down to how you use the 
camera — a fact neither new nor startling, 
but a premise in direct opposition to that 
held by so many who are looking for 
"something worthwhile to shoot." 

To begin with, the amateur making a 
motion picture must recognize one basic 
fact: he must think of the entire picture 
as a whole, instead of individual scenes by 
themselves. A "scene" can be said to bear 
the same relationship to the entire picture 
that a sentence does to a written story. 
While either a scene or a sentence in itself 
may be something of great beauty or in- 
terest, unless it says something which ties 
in with the other scenes or sentences to- 
ward the development of the story as a 
whole, it is meaningless. It stands to reason, 
now, that some scenes (or sentences) must 
serve as a "build-up" for those which will 
convey the main point, or the climax, of 
the story. All too many films are guilty of 
an impatience to reach a climax (if indeed 
they can be said to have such singleness 
of purpose! ) that they really are dull and 
uninteresting. It is these scenes that de- 
velop the theme that are important and 
must be handled as carefully as the climax 

The greatest interest a picture can have 
is human interest, and the same subject 
matter can be treated so that it will or 
will not have human interest. We may 
have a sequence of Johnny out playing 
baseball with the rest of the kids after 
school. He had been specifically told that 
he was to come right home, that there 
were things to be done for mother. But 
Johnny played baseball and mother had to 
do her own chores. She was overburdened, 
cross and irritable. Does this sound pro- 
saic? It is — in fact it's something that 
happens every day to many mothers and 
kids! Hardly a subject for an interesting 
picture to many because they would first 
photograph mother instructing Johnny to 
come right home after school because 
there was work to be done; then Johnny 
leaving school, becoming interested in the 
baseball game, and finally an irate mother 
reprimanding Johnny. But — 

Picture the same sequence in this 

After establishing a long shot of the 
baseball team in action, we cut to a close 
up of little Johnny with a catcher's mask 
much too large for his small head, with 
an intent, eager, absorbed look on his dirty 
face. We see him trying to keep the mask 
from falling completely off in between the 
times that the ball is coming his way. The 
"man" at bat I in another close-up) is 

swinging a bat almost his own size. Cutting 
to a medium shot, we see him make a hit 
and go running toward first base, with his 
dog running after him. He stumbles over 
the dog, is tagged out, and the game is 
over. I Using a coaster wagon for a dolly, 
we get a "trucking shot" of the gang on 
their way home.) We cut to a close-up of 
Johnny in motion, animatedly discussing 
the game with the rest of the fellows. An 
insert of the dog tagging behind them will 
add interest. Once in the house (the "gang" 
has followed Johnny inside) he gets his 
scolding for not coming directly home. We 
cut to a close-up of mother while she is 
scolding Johnny, and we see her stop 
short; then we cut to a close-up, or short 
scenes of close-ups of the gang with all 
their paraphernalia, presenting a sight so 
ludicrous that even mother, tired though 
she is, see the humorous side of it. We 
cut to a medium shot of mother as she 
breaks into a tired laugh and gives Johnny 
a kiss, which leaves her with a big splotch 
of dirt where Johnny touched her. The 
scene fades out as the kids run outside 

The people you live and work with, the 
places you pass by daily with no more than 
a casual glance, can be made very interest- 
ing. But it is up to you to make them so. 


By George H. Scheibe 

The past year has seen quite a change 
in filter sizes, due to changes in filter 
holders and the distance from the lens. The 
filters must clear the magazines and in this 
case the filters must be several inches from 
the lens which makes the filters wider and 
longer. A number of studios have made 
this change in filter sizes. 

During the past few months I have filled 
orders for filters in the following sizes: 5V-> 
by 12 inches; 5% by 14 inches; 2-11/16 
by 10 or 12 inches and 3 by 10 or 12 
inches. I have made filters 22 inches long 
in varying densities. Some start with clear 
glass and end up with a heavy density; 
others start with slight diffusion and end 
up heavy or mild. These are made in 
Diffusion or Fog. 

Another filter which I turned out re- 
cently was 3 by 18 inches; heavy fog in 
the center, fading out to clear at the edges. 

Some filters are made to fit a filter holder 
which rotates and has three openings for 
filters, using three filters at a time and each 
at a different angle. In some cases I have 
made a filter to fit a filter holder which 
swings from horizontal to vertical and 
this holder carries the larger sizes, as men- 
tioned in the beginning. 

All filters are made in varying lengths, 
with seemingly no limit in size required. 
Also I have made graduated filters in one, 
two and three graduations and in different 
colors. There are many graduated filters 
that can be made to suit vour work. 


ri »'o2? **o 

cnt " °* «o >,, 



• « from which 
. The P-neer -gagatp ^ h 
National Cat bo» ^ Throughout 
grown, was ^d m , , 

fhe intervemng 60 ye and deV elop 

bonS ' *? Theen Readily improved and 



Unit of Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation 

Carbon Sales Division, Cleveland, Ohio 

30 East 42nd Street, New York, N. Y. 

New York, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Si. Louis, San Francisco 

International Photographer for August, 1941 



The Kodak Medalist, 2M by 31/j camera combining in one compact, 
integrated assembly, the convenience of roll him, with easy adapt- 
ability to the use of cut sheet film, film packs and plates, and the 
accuracy and operating refinements of a precision miniature. 

Eastman Announces New 
2/4 by 3/4 Camera 

Eastman announces the new Kodak Med- 
alist, 2 1 /4 by ?>y± camera combining in one 
compact, integrated assembly, the conveni- 
ence of roll film, with easy adaptability to 
the use of cut sheet film, film packs and 
plates, and the operating refinements of a 
precision miniature. 

The Medalist is designed for exceptional 
flexibility of performance and fast, easy 
operation. It is intended to appeal to news, 
commercial, and scientific photographers 
who must produce consistently good results 
— advanced amateurs and pictorialists who 
compete on the basis of quality and camera 
enthusiasts in general, who want fine equip- 

This precision, all-American-built cam- 
era, produces 2 1 / 4 by 3Y± images on 620 
roll film; and with accessory back on 520 
lil in packs and 6.5 by 9 cm. films and 

Its 100 mm. f/3.5 Kodak Ektar Lens 
more than meets the present-day needs for 
a fast, highly corrected lens. It consists of 
five elements, and like all Ektar lenses, it 
i- focused as a unit. All interior glass-air 
surfaces are treated which, together with 
its special mount and shutter surfaces, re- 
duces inter surface reflections to a mini- 
mum and produces negatives with more 
hiilliant contrast, and full color Koda- 


chrome transparencies with greater color 
purity. Its technical characteristics in- 
clude an angle of coverage of 54° — flat 
field — greatly improved color correction 
longitudinally and exact register laterally 
— no measurable coma or linear distortion 
— exceptional light transmission, and su- 
perior definition. 

The shutter is a special model of Kodak 
Supermatic No. 2. It is of the gear-train 
retard, presetting type, with blades of spec- 
ial thin, low-inertia spring steel; base plate 
and all gears are of nickel silver or stain- 
less steel. It has eight apertures from f/32 
to f/3.5, and nine speeds ranging from 1 
to 1/400 second, plus bulb. It also has 
built-in, delayed-exposure mechanism, cable 
release socket for remote control, and 
Photoflash synchronization. Aperture and 
shutter scales are easily visible from the 
operating position with shutter speed scale 
divided with separate indicators for high 
and low speeds. 

The plunger-type shutter release, located 
for convenient operation by the forefinger 
of the right hand, trips the shutter with a 
smooth positive action. 

Time exposures are easily made by 
swinging to the user's right the small lever 
connected to a collar encircling the release 
plunger. With the lever in this position, 
and the shutter set on "bulb," the plunger 
release remains down when depressed, and 

the shutter is held open until the lever is 
returned to its normal position. After each 
exposure a red warning signal appears in 
a small circular window located just back 
of the Depth of Field Scale, indicating that 
the shutter is not cocked. On winding the 
film to the next exposure or by cocking 
the shutter manually with the lever pro- 
jecting from the base of the viewfinder 
housing, the red signal disappears. 

The Kodak Medalist's radically new lens 
support meets all exacting requirements 
for critical focusing and is an important 
advance in precision camera design. 

Built into the top of Kodak Medalist is 
another new feature. Coupled to operate 
with the focusing tube after it is extended 
to picture-taking position, a distance scale 
turns to show the focus at which the lens 
is set. The depth of field at any distance 
can then be read for any lens aperture 

Kodak Medalist has a split-field, military 
type range finder system coupled to oper- 
ate automatically with the lens. 

The view finder is designed to give paral- 
lax correction automatically while the 
range finder eyepiece shows the central 
portion of the subject field covered by the 
view finder. 

When Kodak Medalist is loaded with 
Kodak Infra-Red Film, the range finder is 
used to measure accurately the subject dis- 
tance. Then, however, because infra-red 
light focuses at a different plane from other 
light rays, correction is made by manually 
setting the distance found by the range 
finder to coincide with the red mark ap- 
pearing on the dial. 

The back of Kodak Medalist is designed 
with an ingenious combined hinge and 
latch at each end. Hence the back can be 
opened either to the right or to the left or 
it can be removed entirely. 

Loading is made extremely easy by an- 
other new feature. There are no spool 
centers in the supply spool chamber. The 
roll of film is merely pressed into the 
spool chamber, the two flanges of the spool 
riding against small separate rollers at each 
end of a film guide. 

An automatic measuring device working 
in conjunction with the film winding knob 
permits only sufficient film to be advanced 
for each exposure. Turning the winding 
knob to advance the film sets the shutter 

Double exposures cannot be made unin- 
tentionally, for once the shutter has been 
released it will not operate again until the 
film has been wound into position for the 
next exposure, simultaneously setting the 

The Kodak Medalist, without accessories 
is priced at $165.00. 

(Continued on page 27) 

/ win a bet from Billie 
the Script Girl! 

"Cut," says the Director, and then he turns to me. 
"How do you like it?" 

"I'll buy it," I say. 

"Okay, print it." 

Then Billie looks up and says, "I've been a script girl 
for five years and I've never seen anybody shoot into 
a weak light like that and come out with anything 
worth printing." 

"Want to bet?" I ask her. 

"One steak dinner," she says. 

"It's a bet." 

Next afternoon we see the rushes. Billie gasps. The 
Director gasps. Even I gasp . . . and everyone wants 
to know how we ever did it. 

"I shot it on Agfa Supreme," I tell them. 

And I win the bet with Billie! 

• • • • 

Far be it from us to tell you how and when to use 
Agfa Supreme. Or Agfa Ultra-Speed. Or Agfa Infra- 
Red. This is just a reminder that these Agfa Films 
have many great possibilities — with the help of your 
own expert touch! Agfa Ansco Products. Made in 
Binghamton, New York, U. S. A. 


6424 Santa Monica Blvd., Tel. Hollywood 2918 

International Photographer for August, 1941 




245 West 55th Street, Tel. Circle 7-6270 


Introducing Buddy Longworth of 
Warner Bros', crack staff of still- 
men. Long reputed to be one of the 
dafnest of Hollywood bulb-squeez- 
ers, Buddy is crazy like a fox. His 
mirth-provoking antics are all in 
the way of breaking down his sub- 
jects' resistance and getting them to 
relax. His long career of unusual 
angle and action shots stand as a 
proof of his fine abilities. Here he 
is seen in a series of pictures taken 
by his comrade-in-arts, Scotty Wel- 
bourne. Buddy is set to lens the 
INavy Blues Sextet from Warner's 
production "Navy Blues." Included 
in the cast are Ann Sheridan, Jack 
Oakie, Martha Raye, Jack Haley, 
Jackie C. Gleason and Herbert 

Lunatic Iensman 

In the Bag — Buddy's got the shot he wants, 
yells his customary "Thirty Dollars," which 
signifies the subject's on the negative. Off he 
starts, while a stream of black smoke eman- 
ates from his antiquated view-finder camera. 

Removing the lens-board in search of the 
trouble, Longworth succeeds only in becom- 
ing more perplexed. While he pretends not 
to know what might have caused the combus- 
tion, it's quite possible that it is one of his 
daffy experiments, this time probably an at- 
tempt to get more light on his negative. 




The Cause of the Smoke, 
The Navy Blues Sextet: 
Peggy Diggins, 
Margarette Chapman, 
Georgia Carrol, 
Kay Aldrieh, 
Loraine Gettman, 
Claire James. 

Ai\d The eFFect 

Throw in the View Cloth — Longworth is now 
convinced that he's over-exposed his negative. 
That's one of the pleasant things about work- 
ing with Buddy, take it from a publicity man. 
He's quick to admit his mistakes — especially 
when confronted with overwhelming proof. 

Ah There! He's Done It Again — No wonder 
Buddy couldn't keep his camera under con- 
trol. Next time he'll know enough to shoot 
this sort of thing under water. With a line-up 
like Buddy had to shoot it's hard to blame a 
poor, mechanical camera. We feel a bit hot 
under the collar ourselves. 

International Photographer for August, 1941 


P fl T £ n T s 

By ROBERT W. FULWIDER, Patent Attorney, Los Angeles 

No. 2,243,892 — Camera Supporting Ped- 
estal. Alda V. Bedford and Knut J. 
Magnusson, assignors to Radio Corpora- 
tion of America. Original application 
November 5, 1936. Divided and this 
applicaton September 30, 1937. 3 claims. 
A camera dolly mounted on wheels which 
are connected together with a sprocket 
chain, and which has a foot operated cast- 
or adapted to lift one of the wheels off 
the floor. 

No. 2,244,170 — Developing Machine. 
Casimir A. Miketta and Anthony G. 
Wise, assignors to Loew's Inc. Applica- 
tion June 15, 1938. 3 claims. 
A developing machine in which the film is 
frictionally driven by rollers of different 
sizes but intermittently rotating at the same 
rate so as to impart impulses to the film. 
No. 2,244,313 — Cinematographic Film 
Registration. Wadsworth E. Pohl. as- 
signor to Technicolor Motion Picture 
Corp., Los Angeles. Application April 
17, 1940. 4 claims. 
The method of registering films in which 
the sprocket teeth are smaller than the 
sprocket holes, by feeding several films 
onto the teeth and seating corresponding 
edges of the holes against the sides of the 

No. 2,244,589 — Photographic Color 
Process. Louis Yanket, Long Island 
City, N. Y. Application Oct. 31, 1938. 
2 claims. 
A color process in which an emulsion con- 
taining silver chloride and silver bromide 
is developed and colored and resensitized 
in a bath containing soluble chloride and 
soluble bromide in ratio to give the re- 
sensitized portions of the emulsion the same 
contrast characteristics as it originally had. 
No. 2,244,905 — Method oe Producing 
Multicolored Relief Pictures. Jack 
Crawford, New York, N. Y. Application 
August 24, 1938. 5 claims. 
The method of producing a multi-colored 
picture within a single colloid relief im- 
age which comprises treating said image 
throughout with a dark eye adapted to sub- 
tract all colors from white light and which 
i- removable from said relief, applying to 
local areas of said relief, respectively, dif- 
ferent dyes adapted to give different selec- 
tive subtractions of color from white light 
and adapted gradually to replace the first- 
named dye in said image. 
No. 2,244,965 High Speed Film Print- 
er. Frederick William Roberts, assign- 
or to Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc. Ap- 
plication May I, L939. 23 claims. 
A printer which has a pair of printing 
lamps and means for alternately directing 

the light from the lamps to the film gate, 
with film operated means for varying the 
intensity of illumination of one of the 
lamps when the light beam of the other 
of the lamps is directed onto the film gate. 
No. 2,245,218— Water-Soluble Photo- 
graphic Coating. Thomas F. Murray, 
Jr., and William 0. Kenyon, assignors 
to Eastman Kodak Company. Applica- 
tion July 27, 1938. 8 claims. 
A method of protecting a film having a 
gelatine layer which can be softened by hot 
water and not by cold water, by coating 
the film with a transparent layer of a 
polyvinal acetal resin soluble in water at 
a temperature of about 0° C. 
No. 2,245,896 — Picture Projection 
Screen and Method of Making the 
Same. Bernard M. Bodde, Hollywood, 
Calif. Application February 12, 1938. 
5 claims. 
A method of making a projection screen 
having a number of apertures for trans- 
mission of sound waves, by spraying a 
solution of a transparent plastic on a ma- 
trix having holes therein, and stripping the 
aperture sheet from the matrix. 
No. 2,246,013 — Color Sound Film. Karl 
Schinzel, Rochester, N. Y., and Ludwig 
Schinzel, Troppau, Silesia; said Karl 
Schinzel assignor to Eastman Kodak 
Company. Application June 18, 1938. 
In Austria June 25, 1937. 2 claims. 
A method of printing a sound track on a 
multilayer color film having an upper layer 
of soft gelatine containing silver chloride 
and a lower layer of harder gelatine con- 
taining silver bromide, a picture being 
printed, developed, and fixed in the soft 
emulsion, and a sound track then being 
printed in the harder emulsion. 
No. 2,246,093 — Projection of Pictures 
in Colors. Otto C. Gilmore, assignor to 
Cosmocolor Corporation. Application 
October 27, 1937. 20 claims. 
A device for projecting two pictures in 
superposition from a film having the pic- 
tures in side-by-side relation, the device 
having two completely separate objective 
systems, erecting prisms for turning both 
images into upright positions, and baffles 
to prevent the passage of stray light. 
No. 2,246,997 — Color Photography. 
Hans Kudar, Germany. Application Oc- 
tober 27, 1939. In Germany July 18, 
1935. 7 claims. 
A method of producing color pictures by 
exposing through a two color filter, a len- 
ticular film having two superposed emul- 
sions sensitized for complementary colors 
and developing and converting the images 
into colored positives. 

So. of Equator 

(Continued from page 12) 

see our two boats in the foreground. Don't 
expect to see the beach alive with naked 
natives as the picture shows, for these were 
just some of the two hundred we imported 
from the mainland to act in our film. And 
you will not see the miracle of a village of 
thirty huts arise out of the virgin jungle 
as we saw it the day we brought our boys 
over, for within two hours after we ar- 
rived, the boys had set up and completed 
this village, using only their bare hands 
and the materials provided by nature on 
the island, the only tools being a small ax 
or two. 

Exhibit "B" shows the village from the 

When it comes to food, here is a spot 
where you can practically get your living 
out of the sea and jungle. Fruits, nuts 
and even potatoes grow wild here, and the 
waters teem with fish. I have seen a dozen 
of our boys go out around where our two 
boats are anchored and catch a quarter of 
a ton of fish, none weighing over twelve 
pounds, in less than three hours' time. 

Two miles out to seaward lies the barrier 
reef, and at low tide you can safely walk 
out and back, gathering along the way 
a gunny sack full of crabs, lobsters, parrot 
fish and shell fish of every kind. One day 
some of our boys came in carrying a 
giant sea turtle that easily weighed over a 
thousand pounds. They had caught him 
on the reef at low tide, where he had be- 
come stranded. 

Out around the barrier reef you will 
see the really big fish, from whales down 
to thousand pound sharks, manta or devil 
fish, octopus, five foot sting rays and 
swordfish; and speaking of swordfish — 
that country down there with its fifty thou- 
sand islands, islets and reefs, is a natural 
for swordfish, and somebody, some day, 
with proper tackle, is going to snag the 
record swordy out of those parts. To say 
nothing of color pictures. And that little 
wisp of smoke you see curling up out of 
the cocoanut trees on our paradise isle 
means that Willie Lum, the Chinese cook, 
is working on another dinner of baked 
king fish, lobster, taro and yams with 
some nice cool cocoanut milk and chilled 
papaya for a chaser. 

Activity at Warner Bros. 

Coincident with the scheduling of thir- 
teen features to be before the cameras on 
July 1, in itself a record, J. L. Warner and 
Hal B. Wallis, production chiefs, have as- 
signed 54 writers to the shaping of 38 
screen plays, a new record at the studio for 
simultaneous scripting activity. 



(Continued from page 22) 
Ed Seymour Publishes 
"Western Family" 

Across our desk this morning passed the 
fourth advance copy of "Western Family," 
a magazine being given away by eight hun- 
dred independent grocers in Southern Cali- 
fornia, ft is well worth an extra walk or 
drive to secure a copy. Within its twenty- 
two pages are tips on home marketing, 
gardening, some excellent recipes and other 
hints for the homemaker, as well as one 
or two good short stories. 

Of particular interest to us was the name 
of the publisher on the masthead — Edgar 
Seymour, formerly advertising manager of 
Bardwell & McAlister. 

"Western Family" is a grand little maga- 
zine, Ed, and we here at International 
Photographer extend greetings to you and 
your staff. 

Flat Light Screen Moves 
to New Building 

Plas-Tex Corporation announces the 
opening of its new plant at 653 North 
Robertson Boulevard, Los Angeles. The 
new telephone number is BRadshaw 2-2757. 

Plas-Tex is one of the largest and most 
modern plants specializing in the custom 
molding of plastics. It has its own com- 
pletely equipped machine and die shop. 

The Flat Light Screen division of Plas- 
Tex Corporation manufactures all-plastic 
screens for process photography for motion 
picture studios, and for commercial photog- 
raphers. This division is also engaged in 
the manufacture of front and rear projec- 
tion screens for motion picture theatres 
and the amateur photographer. 

"Soundies" Form Distributing 

Recognizing the need for good pictures 
and varied programs for motion picture 
coin machines, three far-sighted producers 
have consolidated their efforts and formed 
Associated Producers Distributing, Inc. 
This company is distributing the produc- 
tions of Techni-Process, Song-O-Graph and 
Featurettes. The officers are Harold N. Ray- 
mond, President ; Mario Castegnaro, First 
Vice President; Peter Ratoff, Second Vice 
President: Louis Herscher. Third Vice 
President; Gladys Leavitt, Secretary and 
Mrs. Mario Castegnaro, Treasurer. 

Realizing that the programs must have 
varied entertainment and knowing that each 
producer has his own style, which is easily 
recognized, it was decided to combine the 
productions of the three producers thereby 
assuring the operators of a well-balanced, 
entertaining program. This is particularly 
important as long as the machines do not 
have selectivity. 

In forming this combine of producers, 
the distributors and operators are assured 
of more product. 

Three programs have already been re- 

leased. Featurettes, of which Mr. Raymond 
is President, is preparing to shoot ten num- 
bers at the end of the month. Technipro- 
cess, of which Mr. Castegnaro is President 
will follow these productions with ten more. 
To date the Associated Producers Dis- 
tributing, Inc., has been in contact with 
and sold prints to the box manufacturers 
over the country. Mr. Castenaro and Mr. 
Ratoff are now on an extended trip visit- 
ing distributors and operators in different 
states. It is their intention to find out what 
the public wants and to make pictures that 
will be entertaining to the customers and 
profitable to the operators. 

New G. E. Photoflash Lamp 

General Electric's lamp department at 
Nela Park has just announced a new 
synchro-press lamp called G-E Mazda 
photoflash lamp No. 11 to replace its pres- 
ent No. 11 A lamp. The new No. 11 flash 
bulb, employing shredded foil, is designed 
to have approximately 50 per cent greater 
light output than that of the foil-filled No. 
11 A lamp. Lumen seconds of the present 
lamp are 18,000 to 22,000, of the new No. 
11 are 28,000 to 32,000. Peak lumens of 
the No. 11 are two million, of the No. 11 A 
lamp are 2.4 million. 

Changes in the ratings of other units in 
the G-E Mazda Photolamp line are as fol- 
lows : 

Old Values 
Type Peak hum. Lumen Seconds 

SM 500,000 2.500- 3,000 

No. 5 1,200,000 16,000- 18.000 
No. 50 5,500,000 100,000-120,000 

New Values 
Peak Lumens Lumen Seconds 
700,000 4,500- 5,000 
1,200,000 17,000- 19,000 
6,000.000 110,000-125,000 
The Nela Park photolamp experts point 
out that these changes should lead to even 
clearer pictures and easier synchronization, 
in the cases of lamps affected, than here- 

S.M.P.E. Honors Albert S. Howell 

In electing Albert S. Howell to Honorary 
Membership, the Society of Motion Picture 
Engineers has given signal honor to one of 
the outstanding pioneers of the industry. 
Mr. Howell is one of the founders of the 
Bell & Howell Company, a name known to 
the professional and amateur industries 
alike, since their very inceptions, and this 
recognition by the S. M. P. E. crowns a 
long career of invention and research. 



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Adaptable to lenses 3" and up. Also useful as 
extension tube for shorter focus lenses for 
close-ups. Extensively used in shooting surgical 
operations, small animal life, etc. 

GOERZ Parallax-Free FOCUSER I 


for Filmo 121 and Simplex-Pockette, no more 
off-center pictures, magnifies 4 and 8x. 
For Detailed Information Address 

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American Lens Makers Since 1899 

Landers Camera Rentals 


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8333 Near Ivar Street 1311 


International Photographer for August. 1941 


ThEy SAy" 


Captain Guy Newhard, United States Army Air Corps, 
bidding good-bye to Vern Walker at RKO. Guy will 
be stationed at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. 

• Eric Mayell, Fox Movietone newsreel 
cameraman, who spent over three years in 
China photographing an endless war, 
visited Hollywood last week. Speaking 
through International Photographer for his 
first informal interview, Mayell says that 
the people of a nation banded together, 
determined to protect the flag and the 
country for which it stands, can never lose. 
With this slogan Mayell seems convinced 
that democracies will prevail and right fly 
when might has been destroyed. 

• Off to Canada and parts thereof to film 
"Captain of the Clouds." First Camera- 
men: Sol Polito, Will Cline, Elmer Dyer, 
Charles Marshall, Winton Hoch. Second 
Cameraman: Al Greene. Technicians: A. 
J. Callahan, Paul Uhl and George Dye. 
Assistants: Eddie Wade, Rod Tolmie, Kay 
Norton, and Alfred Baalas. Loader: Gene 
Polito. Still Cameraman: Mac Julian. 

• On "Reap The Wild Wind," extrava- 
gant Paramount production, talk seems to 
be going around that men working on the 
boom shots ought to get mileage, consider- 
ing all the travelling they do. 

• Members of 659 extend their deepest 
sympathy to the family of Al Roberts. 

• Members of 659 likewise extend their 
deepest sympathy to Mildred Hinehart in 
the loss of her dear mother. 

• Ray Rennahan is a native son, birth- 
place being San Bernardino. 

• Stanley Cortez, cameraman on Univer- 
sal's "Badlands of Dakota" has added a 
device to the production company's camera 
car which, in the first day of its use, saved 
an estimated $500 in time. 

The device consists of a microphone and 
loudspeaker (and earphones) through 
which the cameraman can give instructions 
as to speed to the driver of the camera 
car. This enables the cameras to hold the 
subjects within their range while the car 
is proceeding at rapid speed, hitherto very 
difficult to achieve in scenes where the cam- 
era car is ahead of the players, as the driver 
cannot see the action. 

Cortez's device enables him to give the 
driver precise instructions, in a whisper 
when sound is being recorded, or loud 
enough to be heard over the noise when a 
"chase" scene is being filmed. Heretofore 
what orders were given either interfered 
with the dialogue, or were unheard because 
of the din of the scene. 

© Bob Connel in town, using Bud Hooper 
and Van Runkel on 16 mm work for 
Denver & Rio Grande Railroad. 

• Archie Stout and Eddie Garvin on loca- 
tion in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, for Sam- 
uel Goldwyn productions. 

• Guy Newhard now Captain in the 
United States Army Air Corps stationed 
at Wrigbt Field, Dayton, Ohio. 

9 John Mescall enjoying a splendid suc- 
cess at Paramount Studios. His picture, 
"The Night of January 16th," should be 
watched for some excellent photography. 

© Sol Halprin, first cameraman at Fox 
Studio, can really boast of permanency on 
a job. With Fox for over 22 years and 
going stronger than ever. 

© Members of Local 659 extend their 
deepest sympathy to the family and friends 
of Otto Kanturek, who was shot down in 
England recently during the filming of an 
actual dog fight, scenes of which were to 
be used in the Fox production, "A Yank 
in the R. A. F." 

• Everyone is glad to see Eddie Adams 
back on the job. 

® Here's hoping that Milton Brown like- 
wise gets back shortly. 

© Frank Lowery, of San Francisco, is 
down here and happv to be working with 
the boys of Los Angeles. 

® Charles Van Enger shooting the W. C. 
Fields' picture at Universal. 

• Harry Hallenberger, black and white 
cameraman on "Louisiana Purchase," Par- 
amount Production. 

• Willard Vanderveer driving a new 
Pathe News camera car. 

Motion Picture Equipment 
Goes to Russia 

Among other large shipments of motion 
picture equipment to Russia, George 
Scheibe reports filling an order for sev- 
eral hundred Scheibe Filters. 


CAMERA. Box L-64, International Photo- 
grapher, 6461 Sunset Blvd., Hollywood. 

Mitchell N. C. or Standard camera. In like new 
condition, complete ; reasonable. Write or wire for 


lfiOO Broadway. New York City 

Telephone: Circle 5-6080 Cable: Cinequip 

1600 Broadway, New York City 
Telephone: Circle 5-6080 Cable: Cinequip 







1600 Broadway New York City 

Tel. Circle 6-5080— Cable : CINEQUIP 

FOR SALE: BELL & HOWELL standard 35mm 
camera, silenced I type shuttle, 35mm, 50mm and 
75mm F 2 Cooke lenses, Mitchell upright finder, 
Mitchell free head tripod, two 1000 ft. magazines, 
six 400 ft. magazines. Matt box. Camera equipped 
with complete single system sound operating from 
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SepTEivibER, 1941 





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Vol. XIII 


September, 1941 

No. 8 

George Hurrell, An Interview — Page 3 

On Location in Havana, Imus — Page 6 

Hollywood to Chungking — Page 13 

Sweet Selling, Riddel — Page 18 

Cameraman in National Defense Work, Draper — Page 27 


"Daughter of the Sun," Mortensen — Page 2 

Rita Hayworth and Joan Crawford, Hurrell — Pages 4 and 5 

Carmen Miranda, Schoenbaum — Page 9 

Charlie McCarthy as Cameraman, Kahle — Pages 10 and 11 

"Under Fiesta Stars," Hommel — Page 12 

"Harmon of Michigan," Paul — Pages 14 and 15 


Television, Lubcke — Page 17 
16 mm Department — Page 20 
Tradewinds — Page 22 
Patents, Fulwider — Page 24 
Books, Bachrach — Page 26 
They Say, Rella — Page 28 

Editor, Herbert Aller 

Business Manager, Helen Boyce. Art Editor, John Corydon Hill. 

Contributing Editors: D. K. Allison, George Hurrell, J. N. A. Hawkins, Roman 
Freulich, Ernest Bachrach, Alvin Wyckoff, William V. Draper, Fred Gately, 
George Scheibe. 

Copyright, 1941, by Local 659, International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada. 

Entered as Second Class matter, Sept. 30, 1930, at the Post Office at Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

International Photographer, as the monthly official publication of International Pho- 
tographers, Local 659, of the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees 
and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada, not only 
represents the entire personnel of photographers engaged in professional produc- 
tion of motion pictures in the United States and Canada, but also serves technicians 
in the studios and theatres, who are members of the International Alliance, as well 
as executives and creative artists of the production community and executives and 
engineers of the manufacturing organizations serving the motion picture industry. 
International Photographer assumes no responsibility for the return of un- 
solicited manuscripts or material. 

Subscription Rates: U.S.A., $2.50; Canada-Foreign, $3.00 per year. Single Copy, 25 cents. 
Australian Representative: McGill's News Agency, Melbourne. 

Office of Publication: 6461 Sunset Blvd. (Los Angeles P. 0.), Hollywood, California 

Telephone: Hillside 9189 
Publication Date: 5th of Each Month 


On the Cover 

Tom Harmon, who earned millions of 
fans while winning All- American honors, 
goes skyward as he "boots a long one" 
during filming of Columbia's "Harmon of 

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International Photographer for Septem ber, 1941 

'Daughter of the Sun" 

By William Mortensen 

qEORQE htRRcli 

An interview with one of the motion pic- 
ture's foremost portrait photographers 

Perhaps the unusual effects in HurrelVs 
photographs may be attributed to the fact 
that he started as an artist, having studied 
painting and drawing at Chicago Art Insti- 
tute and Academy of Fine Arts. 

In 1925 he came to California with Edgar 
Alwyn Payne, the landscape painter, and 
established a studio at Laguna Beach, where 
his contact with the many artists in that 
colony proved to be a fine influence. 

He became interested in photography, 
and as he delved further into it he began 
to find it more exciting than painting. He 
started devoting more and more time to it 
by putting in some actual groundwork at 
different studios. At last, satisfied that he 
had the ability to go ahead as a photogra- 
pher, Hurrell opened a small studio in Los 
Angeles and soon after many a motion pic- 
ture star followed the lead of Ramon Na- 
varro, who had been his first subject. 

MGM Studios became interested in his 
ivork and persuaded him to close his studio 
and move over to their gallery. He re- 
mained there three years. 

About this time Hurrell decided that he 
would again like an establishment of his 
own, so he opened a studio in Hollywood, 
where he has since been photographing for 
the studios on special assignment. His effi- 
ciency in emphasizing in his photographs 
the dramatic ability of his subjects is well 

The other day when Hurrell dropped 
into the office we stopped him for a few 
minute's interview, which is included in the 
text that follows. Hurrell is a practical 
sort of fellow and does not lay claim to 
''having a rabbit up his sleeve.'" He can't 
give any rules and regulations about ob- 
taining good portraits, because he feels 
rules are a handicap. 

Hurrell is almost ready to open his new 
studios at 333 No. Rodeo Drive, Beverly 
Hills, California. He invites any of the 
members of 659 to call and says they will 
find a cordial welcome. 

In this business too little consideration is 
given to the making of prints and printing 
is treated too lightly. It should be given the 
most serious consideration. Take the two 
photographs being used in this issue (see 
pages 4 and 5 ) , if they had been sent to 
any laboratory they would not have had 
the roundness we see in these prints. The 
men in these laboratories understand their 
business and are skilled craftsmen, but 
they don't have the time to use their im- 
agination and visualize just what the pho- 

tographer tries to convey. It is too bad 
that the photographer cannot carry straight 
through and make the prints, but from a 
production point of view this would be im- 
possible. If it could be done the photogra- 
pher would be able to accomplish what he 
started out to do. 

Tone quality is produced by balance in 
lighting and exposing the negative to get 
that balance. A photograph technically 
may be over or under-exposed. That of Rita 
Hayworth, for instance, is under-exposed, 
or would be considered so if coming out of 
a lab. Then it is largely in the printing 
that we get the half-tones. To get these it 
is necessary to think of them and work for 

In the studio lab the idea is to send out 
prints as light as possible for reproduction 
in newspapers, with little or no thought 
being given to their production in maga- 
zines. Therefore, the quality is not right 
for the magazines. Unfortunately prints 
cannot be made for the particular place 
where they are to be used. If this could 
be done much better results would be ob- 

I do not have any rules for making pic- 
tures and have never stopped to consider 
them. I just like certain kinds of lighting 
effects and go about getting them as I go 
along. I have always been fond of black 
areas because they seem to give composition 
and design in the print and, while blacks 
are taboo in newspaper work, there are 
still many cases where black areas will pro- 
duce brilliant effects, so I use black back- 
grounds and shadows and I think of design 
and composition more than anything else 
as I work. 

I never try to pose a person, but let the 
subject act normal. If a photographer 
starts posing his subjects he is apt to get 
them in position they are not familiar with, 
as everyone has a different way of standing, 
sitting, leaning, etc., and cannot be told to 
do it differently without an awkward effect. 
I try to get a person to do whatever he or 
she would do to suit the mood of the 
clothes being worn, clothes having as much 
to do as anything else with the mood of 
the sitter. In sport clothes the mood might 
be to recline, while in formal dress such 
a thing would not be thought of. Here 
again I avoid rules. If I started to analyze 
too much what I do and why I do it, it 
would handicap me and might result in pic- 
tures being too much alike, which I try 
to avoid. By depending entirely upon my 
mood and my reaction at the time and a 
few gags to get me started I get more per- 

sonality into the picture and composition 
and technique seem to be automatic. 

After a long period you instinctively do 
form some ideas as to certain lighting ef- 
fects for certain results and try to have 
these ready when the sitter arrives, because 
in the picture business we have to work so 
speedily. Where it is a question of speed, 
everything else must be subjected to it, but 
I find by careful planning beforehand we 
get some pretty good pictures. 

It is unfortunate that so much haste is 
necessary in our particular work. We are 
expected to shoot half a dozen pictures in 
about three seconds and then if they are not 
good, or as good as the sitter expected, we 
are to blame for not doing a good job, 
where in reality the pictures would have 
been what the sitter expected if he or she 
could have given us a second or two more. 
But working fast is part of the requirements 
of our job. The shot of Rita Hayworth was 
made very hastily at the end of a com- 
mercial job for Auto-Lite Spark Plugs. 
I made half a dozen shots, one of which 
I sent to Esquire. The photograph of Joan 
Crawford is just one picked at random 
from her latest sitting. Rita Hayworth and 
John Crawford are two entirely different 
personalities, which is the reason the pho- 
tographs are so different. Joan Crawford, 
to me, always has been the most decorative 
subject I have ever photographed. There 
is a strength and vitality about her that 
gets across and prevails even in the fin- 
ished print. If I were a sculptor I would 
be satisfied with just doing Joan Crawford 
all the time. 

Everyone has something that lends itself 
to a good photograph, whether it be charm, 
features or personality. It is the photogra- 
pher's job to emphasize the fine points to 
the camera's eye. 


As many of our readers have asked for 
some data on William Mortensens studies 
which have been appearing in the maga- 
zine. Mr. Mortensen has kindly supplied 
the following information pertaining to the 
photograph on page 2, which we are in- 
cluding here rather than mar the beauty of 
the photograph with any text: 

Camera 4x5 Graf lex, series D; Dagor 7- 
inch lens; film, Eastman Super-ortho X; 
exposure one- fifth second at F16; devel- 
oped in Defender 6D for 50 minutes; light- 
ing, modified basic; printed on Kodalure 
G; print developer D-72; finished by Abra- 

International Photographer for September, 1941 

Rita Havworth 

Joan Crawford 

Portraits by George Hurrell 

International Photographer for September, 1941 

on Location in Havana 

►v Henry O. Imus 

"Weekend in Havana," an original story, George Barbier, Chris Pin Martin, Sheldon of a New York-Havana steamship company 
places Alice Faye, Cesar Romero, Carmen Leonard and Billy Gilbert in a glamorous owned by Barbier, and is engaged to Miss 
Miranda. John Payne, Cobina Wright. Jr., environment. Payne is the vice-president Wright, who plays Barbier's daughter. But 

Left to right: Cabana Fortress; ramrra set-up along the bank; overlooking Havana; 
starting to lay the 600 feet of dolly traek ; Leo MeOeary in renter standing on top of 
wall; set-up at the rare traek. 

in the course of making the company's 
peace with passengers discommoded when 
one of the line's ships runs aground on a 
Florida reef, Payne meets Alice Faye, who 
is a New York shopgirl on a long saved- 
for vacation. 

The story is built around what happens 
when Payne attempts to compensate Miss 
Faye for the holiday which had been ruined 

by the shipwreck, and the complications 
which ensue when the two become involved 
with Leonid Kinskey, a bellboy with a 
penchant for furthering other people's ro- 
mances, and Miss Miranda, a singer, and 
her boy friend manager, Romero, who has 
an insatiable taste for roulette — on the 
losing side. 

The crew that went to Cuba included 

James Havens, director; Harry Jackson, 
first cameraman ; Aaron Rosenberg, assist- 
ant director; "Del" Delavigne, location 
manager; Leo McCreary, grip (construc- 
tion engineer) ; Henry Kruse, Technicolor 
assistant; and myself as Technicolor tech- 
nician. All were from the Fox lot except 
Kruse and I. In addition we had five Cuban 
grips to help Leo. By the time we left the 

m* 3fr 1 ***iPift8i?l*##- ** 

■ .- 

Left to right: Scene in the bow of a boat; another view of the 600 feet of track; (left) 
Harry Jackson, Henry Kruse and Henry Imus; the ox team that rescued us the day of 
the deluge; (left) Harry Jackson, Leo McCreary and Cuban grips; another view of the 
good old oxen and their drivers. 

International Photographer for September, 1941 

island they had become quite good grips 
and we were sorry to say goodbye to them. 
Pepi, the local "contact" man, knew every- 
body and could get everything — at a dis- 
count. Harry got to know Pepi quite well. 
Then there were the Cuban policemen. 
Rodriquez and Julio, and the tourist com- 
missioner, Fernando Fernandez, who went 
everywhere with us. guarding us from 
harm and other things. We made quite a 

The flight to Jacksonville was quite un- 
eventful. At this point we had to quit the 
plane and continue by rail, due to adverse 
flying conditions. In fact, a northbound 
plane from Miami had crashed in the 
swamps and this accident caused much 
commotion among our families back home 
until our reassuring wires were received. 

Due to the customary wrangle over film 
and equipment, Kruse and I had to stay 
in Miami over the weekend. The season 
being over, our short stay was rather dull. 
However, we did get to see the actual house 
that Al Capone lives in, so you might say 
our time wasn't wasted. 

The City of Havana was a new experi- 
ence for all of us. The sidewalk cafes, 
promenades and two-hour lunch periods 
were distinctly continental in character and 
the people semed to have a Parisian air of 

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Dept. 1-9 




detachment. Good humor and politeness 
seemed to be the rule with the Cubans, and 
we came away feeling that they were grand 

The city is very old and its recorded 
history antedates most of the rest of the 
new world. We got a few good shots of 
Morro Castle and Cabana Fortress. 

Sloppy Joe's (going to the other ex- 
treme ) is the classic bar and meeting place 
in Havana. One of our tougher assign- 
ments was to photograph the neon-lighted 
exterior of all the important night spots. 
Needless to say, in view of our early calls 
and night maintenance, we limited our par- 
ticipation in Havana's night life to a 
couple of drinks in Sloppy Joe's. 

Our breakfast table at the Hotel Nacional 
de Cuba was situated in front of a window 
full of bullet holes, relics of the last revo- 
lution when the non-coms took over. This 
hotel was one of the largest I have ever 
stayed in; in fact, I believe it is considered 
one of the world's largest in point of floor 
space and ground area. Our onlv com- 
plaint was that our servicing and loading 
rooms were at least half a mile from our 
rooms and slowed us up when packing. We 
could have used a portable short wave 

Sea food was good all over Havana and 
in Miami, too. Grouper, red snapper and 
other kinds. Other than this the food was 
ordinary to downright plain. And the ser- 
vice — it seemed that nothing less than two 
hours was normal for dinner, which didn't 
fit in with our program. Box lunches were 
about on par with those we get in Holly- 

All of the drinks were good, rum being 
especially plentiful. Cuba libres cost in 
some places the same as a coke does here 
at home. The beer was variable. 

Sometimes the weather became a little 
hot, but the almost constant trade wind 
kept the humidity down. The nights were 
cool. We had several days of intermittent 
showers and overcast skies. In one rain- 
storm we were caught two miles from the 
highway and had to pull all the cars out 
with oxen. That was the day old demon 
rum saved our lives. 

We had to go off the highway to a bank 
overlooking the beach, parking the camera 
truck and carrying all the equipment over 
a ravine and up again to the camera set-up. 
There had been much joshing about the 
weather and finally one little cloud came 
up. Within ten minutes that cloud became 
so black that we called for the umbrella, 
believing it might rain — and did it! Fight 
of us huddled under the umbrella while 
the rain came down in sheets, with the 
wind doing tricks to accompany it. It blew 
the cloud one way, then reversed and sent 
il back again, until finally the cloud seem- 
ed to be doing a Havana rhumba. It was 
an hour and fifteen minutes before the sun 
came out again, and there we were off the 

highway, with a steep climb to get back, 
but we had the answer as shown by the 
team of oxen in the accompanying pictures. 

Leo McCreary had to lay 600 feet of con- 
tinuous dolly track for one very difficult 
walking plate. It was the love sequence 
and had to be a night effect. So the lumber 
truck formed an important part of our pa- 
rade. We lugged that lumber the length 
and breadth of the island looking for a 
suitable place to lay it. Success came just 
as we were about to leave Cuba. Leo was 
set on mahogany track but had to be satis- 
fied with long leaf pine due to the extra 
weight of the mahogany. 

The camera crew had to join the local 
union in order to work on the island. We 
got our pictures taken and received regular 
union cards and permits. While the officials 
were most friendly, the difference in lan- 
guage made conversation difficult. 

And then there were the cigars. Mention 
of this brings back pleasant memories of 
an act which Harry and Pepi would go 
into every morning about 10:30. First 
they would discuss sizes and shapes of 
cigars — perfectos, fancy tales, club per- 
fectos, etc. Then the quality — claro, claro- 
claro, and finally the prices, and Harry and 
I always brought up the time that Pepi out- 
smarted him on a cigar deal. I never did 
quite get the rights of it, but they seemed 
good friends in spite of their harsh words. 

All business in Havana is conducted on 
a 10 per cent basis. If a guide brings you 
into a store, he gets 10 per cent of the pur- 
chase price as a credit from the dealer 
and the clerk gets 10 per cent, too. If a 
chauffeur drives you there, he also gets 10 
per cent, so it behooves the buyer to be- 
ware of too many helping hands. 

We were so busy servicing equipment 
and loading film that we didn't see any of 
Havana's famous night life until our last 
night in town. That night our Cuban grips 
chose to throw a party for Leo and invited 
me along. So the four grips, Leo and I 
got into a taxi and started off on a tour 
of Havana. Leo had to have a personal 
orchestra, so we picked up a couple of 
street singers, a little fat guitar player and 
a long thin maraca man, and they serenad- 
ed us all over town. At each cafe we would 
bring in our own orchestra. Of course 
there always was competition and I might 
say even interference from the home or- 
chestra. We saw all sorts of things that 
night, including the famous "Shoeing the 

One unexpected taboo was the prohibi- 
tion of rhumba dancing by Cuban women; 
another is that no unmarried Cuban girl 
is allowed to go anywhere in public with- 
out a chaperon. And — these rules are rig- 
idly enforced. 

We covered over 3,000 miles by car 
during our four weeks stays and ran 96,- 
000 linear feet of film through the cam- 
era. The trip was enjoyable, so much so 
that I hope some day to be able to visit 
Havana and relax. 


Carmen Miranda 

Stills by Emmet Schoenbaum 

'Week-End in Havana' 

Twentieth Century Fox Production 

International Photographer for September, 1941 

Charlie McCarthy Tries His Skill as a Cameraman 

Charlie "punches in" to do his stuff. 

He proceeds to thread up a camera. 

'Hm — no flies on this lens." 

Diffusion seems all right. 

"Hey, what's all the delay?" 

"How did I get all balled up in this'^ 


Stills bv Alex Kahle 

Tired, he lies down to read directions. 

'Nine for the report."' 

Distance to camera, "Perfect 34, I'd say.' 

On the camera boom. 

Holding the slate. 
nternational Photographer for Septem ber, 1941 

"Now for the film report. Wow. what a day." 


"Under Fiesta Stars," Republic Picture 

Still by George Hommel 

Gene Autrv and Carol Hughes 


"hARMON Of MichiqAIN""" aincJ coluivibiA 

Tom Harmon won his letter at Columbia 
in sixty days. 

It took him longer than that to win his 
letter at Michigan, but Michigan is a Uni- 
versity and Columbia is a studio. Students 
have a faculty (no pun intended ) of matri- 
culating at motion picture studios faster 
than at higher educational institutions. 

"Harmon of Michigan" may not be one 
of the most important pictures of the year, 
but it is just one more evidence of Colum- 
bia Pictures ingenuity in producing pic- 
tures of popular appeal. Few there are who 
could possibly dispute the popularity of 
Tom Harmon who broke practically all 
existing gridiron records during his three 
years of Varsity Football at the University 
of Michigan. 

Morrison Bloomfield Paul, member of 
Local 659, was assigned by Whitey Schafer 
to handle the stills on "Harmon of Michi- 
gan." The company under Director Charles 
Barton went to the Los Angeles Memorial 
Coliseum for the football material and 
during the first day's shooting Paul 
"wrapped up" some of the best football 
action that has ever been made. 

The kicking shot of Harmon was said by 
the football star himself, to be one of the 
best pictures of football action he had ever 
seen. In talking to your correspondent 
about the shot "Galloping" Tom said: 
"During my entire football career expert 

football photographers have been trying 
for that shot and then the first day I am 
playing "make-believe" football, this Paul 
who never covered football in his life gets, 
not only the best shot ever made of me, 
but the best kicking shot I have ever seen." 

The action is stopped at the absolute 
peak. Both arms are at full extension, the 
kicking leg is at the top and the body has 
not yet begun to descend. It is the perfect 
example of arrested motion made with an 
ordinary 4x5 Speed Graphic. 

For those interested in detail the picture 
was made on Super XX film at 350th of a 
second with an 8 stop. An Aero No. 1 Fil- 
ter was employed and the light was morn- 
ing and good. 

"Harmon of Michigan" is scheduled for 
release in the middle of September, but 
may be delayed until the opening of the 
football season for obvious reasons. A 
pre-release showing of the picture, how- 
ever, is set for the week in which the Chi- 
cago Bears - All-Stars game is to be played. 
One of Chicago's better picture houses will 
hold the run. Tom Harmon will no doubt 
make an appearance during the showing 
since he is to display his wares with the 
All Star team. 

"Harmon of Michigan" was produced by 
Irving Briskin under the supervision of 
Wally MacDonald. The cast includes Anita 
Louise, Forest Evashevski, "without whom," 

By Gene O'Brien 

to quote Harmon, "I would never have 
been heard of," Oscar O'Shea, Warren 
Ashe and the popular "By the Way" Bill 
Henry of the Los Angeles Times and the 
Columbia Broadcasting system. John Stu- 
mar was Chief Cinematographer and his 
crew ncluded Operating Cameraman Dave 
Ragin and Assistants Sam Rosen and Roy 

Description of Pictures 
Pages 14 and 15 

Top, left to right: Tom Harmon climbs 
into the air to shoot a fast pass during 
scenes of Columbia's football picture, 
"Harmon of Michigan' ; minus helmet, 
Harmon rips away in familiar touchdown 
style as his Michigan team-mate Forest 
Evashevski blocks out the tackier, Ambrose 
Schindler of Unversity of Southern Cali- 
fornia; Harmon and Evashevski leap into 
action during practice for the picture. 
Lower: Off the Ground; Harmon, whose 
familiar number "98" is known to millions 
of grid fans, leaps off the ground as he 
throws a pass during rehearsal of football 
scenes. Greased Lightning! Harmon claws 
the earth for a fast start as he gets away 
for a run; kicking ability which helped 
Harmon win games at Michigan was in 
good form for the picture. Evanschevski. 
left, is the ball holder for the goal try. 

hollywood to chuNqkiNQ 

For the first time in the history of Holly- 
wood the sets of a war film have "stood 
in" for the terrible reality. 

Maurice Liu, Chancellor of the Los An- 
geles Chinese Consulate, has just finished 
an intensive three weeks' course in war 
photography with Chief Cameraman Leon 
Shamroy on the set of 20th Century-Fox' 
"Confirm or Deny." 

Liu left last week to film a documentary, 
on 35 mm., and lecture illustrations in 16 
mm. Kodachrome, of bomb-wracked 
Chungking and the other war-torn parts of 

On "Confirm or Deny" he was particu- 
larly fortunate in being able to practice 
set-ups and lighting problems on sets which 
in most respects reproduce the reality of 
the war conditions he will face in his home- 
land. The 20th Century-Fox picture tells 
the story of an American war correspond- 
ent in London during an asserted invasion 
attempt last year, and the sets include 
bombed streets, shelters, cellar refuges, 
etc., all of which Liu will shoot in China. 

Although Liu has had extensive expe- 

rience in black-and-white and color pho- 
tography, he thought it desirable to study 
with Shamroy before making the difficult 
trip. Shamroy and Liu have been friends 
for many years, and the studio, as well as 
Shamroy, gave Liu carte blanche in using 
its facilities for study. 

Since Shamroy spent 1930 in photo- 
graphing for the Huntington Ethnographic 
Expedition much of the Chinese terrain 
which Liu will cover, he was able to give 

the young diplomat valuable tips concern- 
ing what and what not to do under the 

Liu's primary interest on the expedition 
will be in photographing in detail the vast 
underground industries of Chungking, 
which are carried on in catacombs hewn 
out of the rock beneath the Chinese capital. 
In addition, however, he wll survey the 
Burma Road, parts of Western Szechwan 
(Continued on p<age 16) 




No. 22184 
4516 Sunset Boulevard Night, SUnset 2-1271 

International Photographer for September, 1941 


"Harmon of Michigan' 

Columbia Production 

I I 

(Shot with 4 by 5 Speed Graphic) 

Stills by M. B. Paul 

International Photographer for September, 1941 

(See page 13 for description of pictures.) 


Joan Bennett, co-star of "Confirm or Deny," says good-bye 
and good luck to Maurice Liu, Chancellor of the Los An- 
geles Chinese Consulate, who leaves this week to make a 
film survey of his country for the Chinese government. Liu 
has just finished a three weeks' course in cinematography 
on the set of the film, with Chief Cameraman Leon Sham- 
roy (left) as instructor. 

mm. and 10,000 feet of 16 mm. Koda- 
chrome. He uses a GE exposure meter. 

Negative shot in China will be returned 
to Hollywood for processing. Test strips 
of the Plus X will be developed in China, 
while tests strips of the Kodachrome will 
be Clippered back to Hollywood for a 
cabled report. 

The 35 mm. negative will be cut and 
edited by Liu, when he returns here in six 
months, into a documentary film for gen- 
eral distribution, while the Kodachrome 
will be used to illustrate an American lec- 
ture tour which Liu will make subse- 

"My sole purpose in making this trip," 
Liu said, "is educational. The film shot 
will not be a travelogue nor a newsreel, but 
will be along the documentary lines out- 
lined by Flaherty and the others who have 
achieved success in this medium." 

The entire company of "Confirm or 
Deny" cooperated with Liu during the 
three weeks he spent at 20th Century-Fox. 
Even Don Ameche and Joan Bennett, co- 
stars of the film, cooperated by serving as 
Liu's models between "takes" and during 
the lunch hour. 

Just before saying goodbye to Shamroy, 
Liu summed up the problems of such a job 
by saying: 

"There's only one trouble — you can't 
have retakes!" 

holly wood to chuNqkiNq 

(Continued from page 13) 
and much of the Chinese northwest country. 
Part of his stay in Chungking, where 
his father is an important official in the 
Chinese Nationalist government, will be 
devoted to laying out an underground film 
processing laboratory. If plans develop as 

expected, Liu will purchase equipment for 
this on his return to Hollywood at the end 
of six months. 

With him Liu took the following equip- 
ment, in addition to the usual auxiliary 
lighting and other apparatus: Bell and 
Howell studio camera, Eyemo, two Filmos 
and two Leicas, 20,000 feet of Plus X 35 

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Since Easter Sunday of this year tele- 
vision receiver oAvners in Southern Califor- 
nia have viewed Don Lee telecasts several 
times weekly. Charles Correll, the "Amos" 
of "Amos and Andy" writes in that he has 
had as many as thirty guests at his home 
in the Hollywood hills to witness the box- 
ing bouts telecast from the American 
Legion Stadium. The television service in 
Hollywood is second only to that avail- 
able in New \ork City; thus, information 
thereon should be of interest. 

To all these who have visited greater 
Los Angeles or the San Fernando Valley 
the new location of the Don Lee Television 
transmitter W6XAO is immediately appar- 
ent atop Mt. Lee in "Hollywoodland." The 
hundred foot square three-story building, 
flood-lighted at night, and the three-hun- 
dred foot television tower command atten- 
tion from below except when wreathed in 
clouds. The top of the tower, being two 
thousand feet above sea level is the high- 
est point in the city limits of Los Angeles. 

Telecasts are made on the following 
schedule: Friday evening, 8:30 to 10:45 
P.M. Professional boxing bouts from the 
Hollywood American Legion Stadium, 
Hollywood Blvd., at El Centre Reid Kil- 
patrick, television commentator. Music by 
the American Legion Post 43 Band, Silvio 
Savant, Director. Monday evening, 8:30 
to 10:45 P.M. Professional wrestling bouts 
from Hollywood American Legion Stad- 
ium. Reid Kilpatrick and guest sports 
commentators. Professional Coast League 
baseball from the "Hollywood Stars" Gil- 
more Field, Beverly and Fairfax Blvds., 
each Sundav throughout the baseball sea- 
son, 1:30 to 6:00 P.M. Mike Frankovitch 
television-radio commentator. 

Southern California television lookers 
are fortunate in witnessing perhaps the 
best sporting events which take place in 
the area. In other areas such events are 
not always available to television. The 
vision of Pacific Coast sporting executives 
in becoming associated with this newest 
form of mass entertainment and education 
is to be commended. 

On-the-spot television pickups as sched- 
uled above are viewed by two television 
cameras at the scene. Portable control 
equipment and Don Lee transmitter 
W6XDU beam the television waves back 
to the home transmitter atop Mt. Lee for 
retransmission to the many homes and pub- 
lic places having television receivers in 
Southern California. Instantaneous change 
of scene from long shots to close-ups is 
possible by electric switching. At baseball 
games, telephoto shots of interesting plays 
on the bases may be televised as well as of 

International Photographer for September, 1941 

Don Lee Television Building and antenna 
tower atop Mt. Lee in Hollywood. 

By Harry R. Lubcke, 

Director of Television, 

Don Lee Broadcasting System 

the pitcher-batter-catcher combination by a 
camera behind home plate. 

The Don Lee Television transmissions 
may be received in the greater portion of 
the populated area of Southern California. 
Television receivers are already in opera- 
tion in the cities of Pomona, El Monte, 
Whittier, Santa Anita, Arcadia, Santa Ana, 
Long Beach, San Gabriel, Pasadena, Playa 
del Rey, Santa Monica, Beverly Hills, San 
Fernando, Van Nuys, North Hollywood, 
Burbank and all other cities less distant 
than those named from Mt. Lee, Holly- 
wood. Reception up to 60 miles from Mt. 
Lee is expected, but has not yet been 
proven by installation of television receiv- 
ers in homes by the public. 

The Don Lee television station operates 
on new channel number 1 on a visual 
frequency of 51.25 megacycles and on an 
aural frequency of 55.75 megacycles. 525 
line 30-60 frame interlaced Federal Com- 
munications Commission commercial stand- 
ard television images are broadcast. 

An additional service, personally pro- 
vided by President Thomas S. Lee of the 
(Continued on page 25) 

The Don Lee portable television transmitter W6XDU shown in the 
upper audience section of the Hollywood Bowl, televising the Easter 
Sunrise Service, 1941. The "Hayrake" beam antenna is in the top fore- 
ground pointed to "beam" the message to the maintransmitter atop 
ground pointed to "beam" the message to the main transmitter atop 
cable shown on the poles, the cable running down to the cameras posi- 
tioned in front of the stage. The image monitor equipment is located 
in the bowl lighting control booth. 

(Pictures Courtesy Don Lee Broadcasting.) 


"Washington First in Apples" — from a 16mm Film Produced by J. Walter Thompson Co. 

"sweet seIUnq" 

"Sweet" is the word for it! This matter 
of the Business Film and the "sweet" job 
it does for sales. Unlike any other form 
of advertising, an attractively produced 
commercial movie is capable of building, 
maintaining and increasing the sales of 
American products and goodwill. Sight and 
sound, color and motion, plus entertain- 
ment — all these are blended into a power- 
ful medium, one that is scoring a remark- 
able record of achievement in every city 
and town in these United States. 

The experience of the J. Walter Thomp- 
son Advertising Agency is a case in point. 
About three years ago, after careful con- 
sideration and research, this nationally- 
known firm established its own motion pic- 
ture department and entered the subtle but 
fertile field of business film production. 
To the advertising concern, it appeared 
that a separate motion picture department 
within its own organization, devoted solely 
to the movie medium and geared to pro- 
fessional advertising standards, could very 
well lead to better merchandising movies 
for its clients. With such thought in mind, 
the motion picture department of J. Waller 
Thompson was founded. It is said to be 

the only national advertising agency hav- 
ing a department primarily concerned with 
business film production. Subsequent re- 
sults have demonstrated clearly the sound 
reasoning of the original premise of this 

Activity of the company's picture de- 
partment calls for close teamwork, in the 
smooth working of the unit, between the 
New York City and Hollywood offices. In 
the east, executive Fred H. Fidler starts a 
film rolling. Here in the west, Norman 
Blackburn, long identified with studio work 
in the movie colony, sees to it that all 
details of actual production are carried on 
to successful conclusion. 

In the spacious audition studio of the 
J. Walter Thompson Hollywood office, Mr. 
Blackburn showed two business films which 
the organization has recently produced. To 
be sure, the two subjects were vastly differ- 
ent types ... a film on the savoury Apple; 
the other, on Petroleum Research . . . yet 
each was an instructive, lively advertising 
presentation that blended shrewd sales ap- 
peal with pure photogenic entertainment, 
comparable to the best theatrical screen- 
ings. Here, indeed, was convincing proof 

By Hamilton Riddel 

of the universal appeal of the Business 
Film and its inherent ability to make for 
"sweet" selling. 

The first subject viewed was an 800-foot 
16 millimeter film, "Washington First In 
Apples," photographed entirely in Koda- 
chrome. Produced under the personal di- 
rection of Norman Blackburn, with photo- 
graphy by Joe Yolo, and commentary by 
Don Wilson of the radio networks, the 
story of the prosperous Apple Industry was 
told in beautiful sequences of natural color 
photography. Scenic highlights of the 
State of Washington and of its famed apple 
crop, photographed throughout the differ- 
ent seasons of its growth, as well as the 
great activity during the picking season, 
were depicted in eye-arresting shots. Thence 
on to the packing houses, where the apples 
are graded, boxed and shipped to the mar- 
kets of the country. There were human 
interest touches, too, of youngsters enjoy- 
ing the rich red fruit, and of colorful apple 
festivals. Presented in big close-ups of nat- 
ural color, an instructive sequence was in- 
corporated in the film which showed the 
many varieties of apples produced in the 
(Continued on page 26) 


Convenient To Use- 



.ODAK Prepared Developer Powders are convenient to use 
—need only to be dissolved in the required volume of water to 
be ready for use. 

They are economical — one saves time in preparing developers 
—can dispense with stocks of individual chemicals, avoiding 
waste and deterioration. 

They are dependable — are made from pure Kodak Tested 
Chemicals, are accurately weighed, compounded, packed in tin 
or glass, and are always fresh. Use Kodak Prepared Developer 
Powders for the best possible processing results. Eastman Kodak 
Co., Rochester, N. Y. 




International Photographer for September, 1941 


l6fttM. dEpARTMEINT 

On the Subject of Camera Speeds 

Probably one of the most useful, but 
most neglected, controls on an amateur 
motion picture camera is the variable speed 
control. Many of the amateurs to whom 
we have spoken considered the adjusting 
knob a gadget that might just as well have 
been omitted; others who understood its 
diversification were frankly stymied by the 
many problems which its use might poise; 
and still others "rushed in where angels 
feared to tread" — and failed. But it can 
be used very successfully. 

Let us look first at the underlying facts. 
The standard silent camera speed is 16 
frames per second, and the standard sound 
speed 24 frames per second. But we'll as- 
sume that you are the average amateur who 
does not intend to add sound on the film. 
(It is important here to distinguish between 
supplementary background music, such as 
phonograph recordings, with which the 
standard speed is retained, and actual sound 
recording on the film rack, which of course 
will require the 24-frame per second sound 

The shutter consists of a metal disc, ap- 
proximately half of which is open at the 
exact instant at which the film remains 
stationery to permit exposure, synchronized 
with the intermittent movement of the film 
gate so that that open portion remains be- 
tween the lens and the film only for the 
duration of the exposure. Then, as the 
metal portion of the disc moves in between 
the lens and film, shutting out the light and 
closing the shutter, the claws of the inter- 
mittent movement engage the sprocket holes 
of the film and pull it down the length of 
one frame. The next frame is then in posi- 
tion for an exposure. The shutter, of course, 
is rotating, and as the claws of the move- 
ment leave the sprocket holes to repeat 
their part of the process, the open sector 
of the shutter is once again at the photo- 
graphic aperture behind the lens, ready for 
another exposure. 

The shutter sector (the amount of open- 
ing built into the disc) varies with the 
make of the camera, and depends largely 


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Cable Addremi: "CINEBARSAM" 

upon the construction of the individual in- 
termittent movement. In the Eastman cam- 
era the open sector is exactly one-half of 
the entire disc ( 180 degrees). And while it 
may frequently be less, it is never greater. 
Running at the standard speed of 16 frames 
per second, therefore, a complete revolu- 
tion of the shutter will be made in 1/16 of 
a second. The time allotment for each in- 
dividual frame, from the moment at which 
the intermittent movement starts the cycle 
and the claws engage the sprocket holes, 
through the time it is brought into place 
behind the photographic aperture, and until 
it comes to rest immediately below it, is 
1/16 of a second. But we are interested 
only in one-half of this time — the 1/32 of 
a second interval during which the expo- 
sure is being made. 

The exposure, then, becomes directly de- 
pendent upon the speed with which the 
shutter is rotating, which, in turn, is de- 
pendent upon the speed of the camera; the 
greater the speed of the camera, the faster 
is the rotation of the shutter and the small- 
er the time interval during which the open 
sector remains in front of the photographic 
aperture permitting light to pass from the 
lens. Briefly stated, the greater the camera 
speed, the shorter the exposure, and the 
slower the camera speed, the longer the ex- 

In order for action to appear at a na- 
tural pace on the screen, the projector and 
the camera must be run at the identical 
speed. We feel, therefore, that those ama- 
teur projectors which have been built with 
a rheostat control to permit an undefined 
speed of from five or six to 32 or 40 frames 
per second, constitute a hazard to the 
average amateur. 

Let's assume, however, that we are run- 
ning at the silent standard. This is the 
speed for best results generally, because a 
speed greater than 16 frames per second 
is an unnecessary waste of raw film, and a 
speed of less than 16 frames per second 
will give an unsatisfactory flicker when it 
is projected at the slower speed. Now, 
operating the projector at the standard 
speed, any action that has been photo- 
graphed at less than the standard speed 
will appear jumpy; and any action that 
has been photographed at greater than 
standard speed will be slowed down. For 
example, action consuming one second and 
photographed on eight frames of film in 
that one second, and then projected in one- 
half second (at 16 frames per second) will 
appear abnormally fast; and conversely, if 
action is photographed on 64 frames dur- 
ing that one second, and then projected at 
standard speed, four seconds will be re- 
quired for projection and the result will be 
slow motion. 

Now to put these basic facts to work. 

Perhaps the most frequent use the amateur 
will find for his variable speed control is 
the eight-frame speed when lighting con- 
ditions are such that the usual 1/32 of a 
second exposure will be too short. This is 
especially true of Kodachrome film when 
photographing sunsets, sunrises, etc. By 
slowing the camera down to eight frames, 
the exposure will consequently be length- 
ened to 1/16 of a second. It must be em- 
phasized, however, that only scenes in 
which there is no action of any proportion, 
should be photographed in this manner. 

Occasionally it is desired to speed the 
action up, (the camera speed, of course, is 
slowed down) especially when photograph- 
ing trains that are moving slowly, or horse 
races, or some athletic events, etc., particu- 
larly when a lens of long focal length is 
used and the angle is such that the action 
is coming directly ( or nearly so ) toward 
the camera. Long focal length lenses have 
a perspective that minimizes the effect of 
action coming toward the camera, and 
speeding camera action up will provide a 
more natural appearance under normal 
projection. But remember when using the 
eight-frames-per-second camera speed, that 
the exposure becomes 1/16 of a second, 
and be sure to use the next smaller stop 
when shooting in normal light. 

The result of shooting a normal scene 
at a speed greater than 16 frames per sec- 
ond is slow motion, when the film is pro- 
jected at a normal rate of speed. If you 
are shooting a scene at, let us say, four 
times the normal speed, or 64 frames per 
second, to slow the action down to one- 
fourth normal, be sure to bear in mind that 
the exposure now becomes one-fourth of 
1/32 of a second, or 1/128 of a second, 
and the lens aperture will have to be opened 
up two stops, since each stop represents an 
increase of 100 % in exposure. 

For those interested in miniatures, etc., 
this control will be found to be a necessity. 
The swaying of trees, the ripples on the 
water, or any type of movement which 
would appear normal to the eye in the 
scene itself, will require faster camera 
speed so that the action will be slowed 
down to the point where the perspective of 
the movements in the minature matches 
those in the scene as it appears to the 
eye. Look closely at ripples appearing on 
water at some distance from you — do you 
notice how slowly they appear to be mov- 
ing? And so, in all action from the sway- 
ing of leaves to mammoth explosions, you 
can give that distance to the scene by slow- 
ing the action down by means of an abnor- 
mal camera speed and normal projection. 

With judicious and intelligent handling, 
variable speed control will go a long way 
toward making your pictures more interest- 


In this scene from ffie new M-G-M feature "A Woman's Face," you see 


with G-E MAZDA lamps in "inkies" 

• When we asked John Arnold, head of 
the Camera Department at Metro-Gold- 
wyn-Mayer for some pictures showing the 
use of lighting in black-and-white photog- 
raphy, he gave us this shot from the pro- 
duction "A Woman's Face." 

Few pictures could show more clearly the 
application of the latest technique in mod- 
elling lights. See what flexibility you have 
with G-E MAZDA lamps in inkie equip- 
ment ... all the lights you want, to create 
the effect you need, even in limited space. 

Thanks to today's equipment, you can 
control G-E MAZDA lamps beautifully to 
hit just the spots you want to emphasize. 
They're good for process work, for special 
effects, and for color. They go into action 
fast, to help you speed shooting schedules. 
And among the 9,000 different types and 
sizes of G-E MAZDA lamps are many that 
help to produce almost any effect you 
want. Are you using them to help you? 
General Electric Company, Nela Park, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 



International Photographer for September, 1941 



Graflex Announces Flash 

The Graflex Flash Synchronizer has just been 
announced by the Folmer Graflex Corporation 
of Rochester. Engineered to new high standards 
from the ground up, it has been established dur- 
ing extensive use by the U. S. Army that it will 
maintain synchronism with Supermatic and Com- 
pur shutters long after the point at which mo- 
mentary exhaustion or aging of the batteries, or 
low temperature, would have thrown many other 
outfits totally out of adjustment. It can be used 
on all cameras with between-the-lens-shutters 
capable of being synchronized (such as Super- 
matic and Compurl that have lensboards large 
enough to accommodate the solenoid release. 

This synchronizer is supplied in two models — 
a compact 2-cell unit that will probably be pre- 
ferred by users of the Miniature Speed Graphic, 

and a 3-cell unit offering a somewhat greater 
battery life. The battery cases differ in length, 
and the solenoid releases have certain internal 
differences to assure the most efficient possible 
operation with the current available. Since the 
two units are identical in their performance char- 
acteristics, aside from the matter of battery life, 
both synchronizers are covered by the following 

The solenoid release is a cylindrical unit, so 
compact that it can be permanently mounted on 
the lensboards of the QAtA^A and 4x5 Anniver- 
sary Speed Graphics and remain in position with 
the camera closed. Quickly-detachable mounts 
are provided for the Miniature Speed Graphic, 
and for previous models of the larger sizes. The 
battery case may be attached to a suitable bracket 
on either side of the camera, and the new cam- 
clamp provides instant and firm attachment by 
the push of a lever. The case separates easily 

The new Graflex Speed Synchronizer 

for the occasional change of dry cells, and can 
be both adjusted vertically and rotated. There 
are two parallel outlets for multiple-flash work 
with the connecting cord and another for standard 
household plugs, as well as a series outlet for 
focal-plane synchronization and remote control. 
The switch is associated with the series outlet in 
such a way that accidental ignition of the lamp 
through the switch cannot occur when this out- 
let is in use. Silver points in all important con- 
nections assure positive contact. 

A built-in focusing spot-light, controlled by a 
convenient slide-switch, directs a beam of light 
on the subject to assure accurate sighting and 
focusing even in total darkness and to serve as 
an indicator of approximate battery condition. 

Two types of highly efficient reflectors are avail- 
able: a 7-inch reflector for medium-base lamps, 
adjustable vertically for various sizes; and a 5- 
inch reflector (approved by lighting engineers) 
for concentrated illumination with miniature bay- 
onet-base lamps, distributing the light evenly over 
the field of normal focal-length lenses. Both have 
self-locking and self-centering attaching brackets, 
which permit instant removal and attachment in 
the correct position. Used lamps are automatic- 
ally released by ejectors, thus permitting quick 
changes without burnt fingers. 

The major basic principle of the Graflex Syn- 
chronizer is the balance between the mechanical 
and electrical elements of its inertia-type sole- 
noid release: it is designed to work on a battery 
having an output as low as 3 amperes, yet its 
accuracy is not noticeably affected by even the 
full 10-amp output of a 3-cell unit when the 
batteries are new. As a result any standard dry 
cell that fits in the battery case is completely 
satisfactory, and there is an ample reserve of 
current for accurate lamp ignition. Low tempera- 
tures causing a sharp drop in the output of even 
the freshest dry cell, or momentary exhaustion 
following a rapid series of flashes, or the loss of 
power that accompanies old age — none of these 
is likely to throw it "out of sync" until battery 
output drops to the point where lamp-ignition 
failure is to be expected. 

Due to the low current consumption of this 
new inertia-type solenoid release, three cells de- 
liver enough current under most conditions to 
permit firing several lamps on suitable extension 
cords without readjustment of the synchronizer. 
A remote-control with a 25-foot cord, regular 
connecting-cords 17 inches and 36 inches long, 
and a focal-plane connecting-cord are available. 

Announcements from Bell & Howell 
New Exposure Calculator on Filmo Cameras 

From Bell & Howell comes word of an inter- 
esting new exposure calculator which is now be- 
ing built into the B & H 16mm. magazine-loading 
line — the Filmo Auto Load, Speedster, and Auto 
Master Cameras. 

The new guide compensates for film emulsion 
speed, filter factor, and camera operating speed, 
in addition to the important external factors gov- 
erning exposure — brilliance of sunlight, type of 
scene, season, and time of day. 

Despite its complete coverage of all details, 
says B & H. the new calculator is amazingly easy 
to use. With a single turn of the dial, it gives 
direct readings for Kodachrome film at normal 
camera speed, which, after all, is what thou- 
sands of owners will want. Then, any additional 
compensating adjustments are made one at a 
time, and the proper F stop is clearly indicated 
at each move. 

The new guide is of the familiar convex metal 
dial design, with an outer disk rotating to effect 


the adjustments. Finished in maroon and chro- 
mium, the new calculator is said to present a 
smart appearance. 

B & H Reels Given Severe Test 

From Filmo headquarters come the details of 
a rigid test just given to B & H steel reels. 

For more than four and one-half days a 1600- 
foot Bell & Howell steel reel was drenched con- 
tinuously with a salt spray bath. At the end of 
that time, says B & H, the reel was found to be 
in perfect condition. The original luster was 
slightly dulled, but the finish was not basically 
affected in the least. No peeling, no chipping 
or cracking. No chance for corrosion or rust. 

Bell & Howell states that this test is conclu- 
sive proof of the rust-resisting properties of the 
Bonderizing process and of the fine lacquer fin- 
ish, both of which are applied to all B & H steel 

With the recent introduction of the 400-foot 
8mm. reel, and the 400- and 2.000-foot 16mm. 
reels, the B & H line of rustproof steel reels is 
now complete — from 200-foot 8mm. to 2.000-foot 

Filmo Slide Master for Still Projection 

Of interest to many people is the new Filmo 
Slide Master for the projection of glass or paper 
mounted 2x2-inch Kodachrome or black and 
white transparencies. 

Filmo Slide Master is said to be light and 
extremely portable, and will produce brighter, 
more uniformly illuminated, and more sharply 
defined still pictures than heretofore have been 
considered possible. The new unit is claimed to 
offer a list of features hitherto not to be found 
in any slide projector. 

Perhaps the most interesting feature of the 
Slide Master is the new "base-up" lamp, which 
slides easily into the lamphouse from the top 
and which burns with its base upward. 

The new lamp retains the familiar B & H 
pre-focusing, pre-aligning ring, which this com- 
pany has always used on its motion picture pro- 
jector lamps to assure positioning the lamp for 
maximum illumination. The top of the Slide 
Master lamphouse is a hinged snap-cover, which 
automatically breaks the electrical circuit as it 
is opened — thus lamps may be interchanged with 
perfect safety. And since it is the cool base that 
is upward, gloves are not needed to remove a 
hot lamp. 

Filmo Slide Master is designed to take 500-, 
750-, or 1.000-watt baseup lamps, providing what- 
ever degree of illumination is required. B & H 
states that there is no light spill from the Slide 
Master, and that the darkened room stays dark, 
except for the brilliant picture on the screen. 

A powerful, motor-driven fan circulates a forced 
draft of cool air throughout the projector, with 
special attention given to cooling the slide. The 
motor automatically increases speed, and there- 
fore the blast of cool air, when a 1,000-watt lamp 
is used, and decreases speed when lamps gener- 
ating less heat are used. Motor and fan bearings 
are sealed in, lubricated for life. 

Two convenient, clearly marked switches are 
provided, one releasing current to the entire pro- 
jector, the other operating only the lamp. The 
lamp cannot be turned on unless the fan motor is 
running, thus avoiding all possibility of over- 

Filmo Slide Master is offered with a choice of 
3%-, 5-, or 7%-inch F4.5 lenses, and B & H 
states that all lenses are anastigmatic, and are 
interchangeable. Lenses are focused by a rack- 
and-pinion assembly, which operates by turning 
a large, conveniently placed knurled knob. The 
lens may be locked in focus. 

Self-locking tilt controls, one at each end of 
the projector, provide up or down tilt through 
an extremely wide range. 

The condenser includes two heat absorbing 
glass filters, for maximum slide protection. 

The slide carrier is of die-cast metal, with spe- 
cial air passages providing for circulation of free, 

The new Bell & Howell Filmo Slide Master 
for the projection of 2 by 2 inch slides. 

cool air around the slide. The carrier is of the 
conventional two-slide type, shifting horizontally 
to permit change of slides while one slide is 
being projected. Slides are held filmly in the 
focal plane by springs. 

Filmo Slide Master has a brilliant, all-metal, 
Rhodium-surfaced reflector which is factory ad- 
justed. Although easily removable for cleaning, 
it can be reseated only in the one correct posi- 
tion. In fact, B & H states that all parts of Slide 
.Master's high efficiency optical system are easily 
removed for occasional cleaning. 

Filmo Slide Master operates on 100- to 125- 
volt AC or DC. 

Kodascope Eight-33 Projector 

The new Kodascope Eight-33 Projector, manu- 
factured by the Eastman Kodak Company, con- 
tains a number of features appealing to home 
movie fans interested in large, brilliant, and uni- 
formly lighted screen pictures. The optical sys- 
tem includes a one-inch f/2 Kodak Anastigmat 
projection lens, highly corrected to give excel- 
lent definition at all recommended projection dis- 
tances, and easily focused by means of a small 
arm on the lens barrel. Directly behind the pro- 
jector lamp is a polished metal mirror, and in 
front of the lamp is a condenser lens that can 
be easily removed for cleaning. 

Affording finger tip control of major projec- 
tion functions, the motor switch, speed control, 
and lamp switch are located on a single panel. 
The lamp and motor circuits are so arranged that 
the lamp will not light until the motor switch is 
closed, and the lamp can be turned off for rewind- 
ing. An automatic safety shutter drops into place 
between the film and the condenser if the speed 
of the projector becomes too low. Of high qual- 
ity, the powerful 100- to 125-volt, D.C., or 25- to 
60-cycle A.C. motor assures smooth projection, 
and an efficient ventilating fan, mounted on the 
end of the motor shaft, blows air directly on the 
lamp and then through louvers in the top of the 

Projector head, reel arms, fan house, lamp- 
house, and base of the Kodascope Eight-33 are of 
die cast metal construction, finished in gray 
wrinkle enamel. A convenient carrying handle is 
cast as part of the housing. The lamphouse is 
readily removeable, providing easy accessibility 
to lamp and condensing lens. 

Located on top of the projector, a positive 
framing device moves the film with respect to the 
gate, which makes it unnecessary to alter the 
projector tilt following the framing operation. 
Both the gate and pressure pad are finished in 

highly polished chromium plate. A simple catch 
holds the hinged film gate open for easy threading 
and cleaning. On the front of the projector i^ ;i 
threading knob which permits checking threading 
operations before the projector motor is started. 

This new Kodascope is regularly furnished with 
the standard 500-watt, line voltage, T-10, biplane 
filament lamp, however, it may also be used with 
either 300- or 400-watt lamps. The reel arms 
accommodate 200-foot reels. To rewind the film 
after projection, the upper spring belt is attached 
to the supply pulley, and the take-up belt is 
removed from the power pulley. A screw-type 
tilting adjustment is located on the base of the 

Covered with airplane luggage fabric and of 
sturdy construction, a carrying case for the Koda- 
scope Eight-33 is available as an accessory. It 
is sufficiently roomy to accommodate the projec- 
tor, a spare lamp, two 200-foot reels, splicing and 
lubricating outfits. 

Kalart Automatic Speed Flash 

A new Automatic Speed Flash has just been 
announced by the Kalart Company. Fully auto- 
matic in that it requires no winding or cocking 
before use, this synchronizer is of the mechani- 
cal type. It is also a universal Speed Flash, fit- 
ting practically any type of camera having a 
cable release socket. It can also be used with 
miniature focal plane cameras by the addition 
of a simple adapter. 

Extremely compact in size, measuring only 1% 
inches in length and '-j-inch in width, the Auto- 
matic synchronizer unit itself snaps into the jack 
terminals of the battery case, requires no cable 
release and eliminates all wires. An armored, 
flexible coupling connects the synchronizer to the 
shutter. The coupling is adjustable for variations 
in shutters. 

In operation you simply press the cushioned 
release button, setting in motion the inertia rotor 
which controls the timing cycle, the same basic 
principle of the famous Kalart Micromatic Speed 
Flash. Synchronization is unaffected by varying 
finger release pressure. The Automatic unit may 
be used with either the Kalart Master or Compak 
battery cases. With the Kalart Master Battery 
case and reflector, the Automatic will retail at 
$18.50 complete. With Compak battery case- 
reflector combination the price is $14.95. The 
synchronizing unit only is $10. 

New Kalart Range Finder 

The Kalart Company announces its new model 
"E" Lens-Coupled Range Finder which will sup- 
plant the present Model "F". The new model 
range finder embodies the experience gained in 
the manufacture of more than 50,000 range 

This new synchronized range finder will fit all 
Speed Graphic cameras. Watson Press Cameras 
and most film pack cameras. 

Streamlined in appearance, the new model has 
a bigger and brighter image which will enable 
photographers to focus accurately even under un- 
favorable light conditions. The range finder is 
of the superimposed image type. 

Close working distance has been increased from 
3% feet to 2VL> feet on the new shorter focal 
length lenses which will be of prime importance 
to those doing close-up work and portraits. Me- 
chanically the new range finder will have all 
adjustments internally, simplifying installation 
and adjustment. The range finder is adjustable 
for all lenses from 10.5 to 16.5 cm. Adjustment 
permits owners to compensate for tolerances in 
focal length inherent in every lens. 

The new range finder is said to be practically 
shock proof by ingenious suspension of the syn- 
chronizing mechanism. 

Price of the new range finder remains at $24, 
plus nominal installation charge. 

(Continued on page 24) 

International Photographer for September, 1941 



By ROBERT W. FULWIDER, Patent Attorney, Los Angeles 

No. 2,248,056 — Film Processing System. 
Jesse M. Blaney, Springdale, Conn., as- 
signor to the Gov't of the U.S.A., as 
represented by the Secy of War. Appli- 
cation May 19, 1939. 3 claims. 
A film treating device in which the film is 
passed through a solution while jets of 
liquid are directed onto the film to scrub 
it and overcome frictional drag. 

No. 2,248,904 — Process of Copying Len- 
ticular Films. John Eggert and Gerd 
Heymer, Germany, assignors to I. G. 
Farbenin dust rie Aktiengesel lschaf t, 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. Appli- 
cation June 18, 1937. Germany June 25, 
1936. 2 claims. 
A method of copying lenticular film in 
which the central rays of the copying light 
are partially absorbed by a filter to com- 
pensate for the darkening of the edge of 
the field which occurred when the picture 
was taken. 

No. 2,249,033 — Apparatus for Printing 
Motion Picture Films. Frederick T. 
O'Grady, Flushing, N. Y. Original appli- 
cation November 1, 1937, now Patent 
No. 2,207,103, dated July 9, 1940. Di- 
vided and this application June 8, 1940. 
2 claims. 
A projection printer for motion picture 
films in which the negative may be moved 
along the optical axis a distance equal to 
the thickness of the film to compensate for 
the emulsion being on the front face or the 
rear face of the film. 

No. 2,249,061 - - Projection Device. 
Harry H. Styll, Southbridge, Mass. Ap- 
plication Sept. 20, 1937. 2 claims. 
A projection filter which has a light polar- 
izing filter which is damaged by heat, and 
an infra-red retarding filter spaced from 
the polarizing filter and between the latter 
and the light source. 

No. 2,249,541 — Production of Natural 
Color Photographs by Intermediate 
Dye Coupling. Karl Schinzel, Czecho- 
slovakia, assignor to Eastman Kodak 
Company. Application Dec. 2, 1937, in 
Austria Dec. 3, 1936. 9 claims. 
A method of forming a colored photograph 
by incorporating a coupling derivative in 
an emulsion, forming a dye by the action 
of the developer removing the undeveloped 
coupling derivative, and regenerating the 
original vat dye in the emulsion. 

No. 2,249,542 — Reiialogenation Process 
of Color Photography. Karl Schinzel, 
Switzerland, assignor to Eastman Kodak 
Company. Original application July 3, 

1937. Divided and this application Dec. 

5, 1940. In Austria July 7, 1936. 5 

A method of producing color photographs 
by developing the latent image in a de- 
veloper which does not affect the color 
formers, removing the undeveloped silver 
halide, converting the silver images into 
silver salt images capable of re-develop- 
ment, and developing them with a color 
forming developer. 

No. 2,249,606 — Stereophonic Sound Re- 
cording System. Reginald T. Friebus, 
assignor to Electrical Research Prod- 
ucts, Inc. Application March 22, 1938. 
8 claims. 
A method of making stereophonic sound 
records by picking up sound close to the 
source, picking up sound at a distance from 
the source, mixing the sounds in different 
proportions, and separately recording the 
different proportions of the mixed sounds. 

No. 2,249,975 — Apparatus for Indicat- 
ing the Amplitude of the Sound Rec- 
ord Made by a Sound-Film Cinemato- 
graph Camera. Hans Friedrich Nissen, 
Germany, assignor to General Aniline 
& Film Corporation. Application Octo- 
ber 14, 1938. In Germany October 25, 
1937. I claim. 
A device in which a portion of the sound 
recording light of a variable area sound 
and picture recording camera is reflected 
into the view finder, the amplitude of the 
sound determining its color in the view 

No. 2,251,177 — Optical System for Pho- 
tography and Projection. Richard 
Thomas, assignor to Thomascolor Cor- 
poration. Application July 25, 1939. 6 
A beam splitter making use of two glass 
half-cylinders, each of whose ends are par- 
allel but oblique to the axis of the half- 
cylinder, the half-cylinders being placed so 
that their axes coincide and their ends 
form angles less than 180 degrees. 

No. 2,251,232— Method and Apparatus 
for Developing Film. Herbert W. 
Houston, assignor to The Houston Cor- 
poration, Los Angeles, California. Ap- 
plication Nov. 7, 1938. 9 claims. 
Apparatus for developing film comprising, 
in combination: a tank containing develop- 
ing solution; a developing chamber filled 
with gas inert to said developing solution; 
and means for moving said film first 
through said developing solution and then 
through said developing chamber. 


(Continued from \mge 23) 

Full Color Prints from 
Kodachrome Transparencies 

In 1936 Kodak first announced Kodachrome for 
miniature cameras in 35 mm. and Bantam sizes. 
Since then inexpensive color prints from these 
Kodachrome transparencies have been the dream 
of thousands of camera addicts. 

With the announcement of Kodak Minicolor 
Prints from miniature Kodachrome transparencies 
hy the Eastman Kodak Company, at the National 
Photographic Convention in Chicago, the camera 
fans' dream has been realized. 

Kodak Minicolor Prints are enlarged from 
either 35 mm. or Bantam size Kodachrome trans- 
parencies by a standardized process in the Kodak 
Laboratories in Rochester. They are made only 
from Kodachromes in 2 x 2-inch mounts with 
the standard central openings. Enlargements are 
available in two sizes. The "2X" size is about 
2% x 3 J /4 inches. On these the corners are 
rounded and there are no margins. The larger 
size "5X" affords a print 5% x 7-4/5 inches, and 
prints are returned in mounts — for horizontals 
8% x WA inches and for verticals 8% x 10-9/16 
inches; the picture opening, or area, measuring 5 
x 7V> inches. 

The quality of the Minicolor print naturally de- 
pends on the quality of the Kodachrome trans- 
parency from which it is made. A good, properly 
exposed transparency which will project well, 
should yield a good color print. Kodak Mini- 
color Prints contain dyes which, in common with 
those used in printers' inks and artists' paints, 
and other similar materials may, in time, accord- 
ing to the Eastman Kodak Company, change. 
These prints, therefore, will not be replaced or 
otherwise warranted against any change in color. 
The dyes used in Kodak Minicolor Prints are 
stated by Eastman Kodak Company to be as stable 
as possible consistent with their other require- 
ments. It is important that the prints should not 
be exposed for long to direct sunlight. When 
they are used for display they should be shielded 
from the direct rays of the sun. 

The "feel" of a Kodak Minicolor Print, parti- 
cularly in the smaller size, is that of an unusually 
fine playing card, strong, attractive, and resilient. 
The print support, or base, however, is not paper 
or card, but pigmented cellulose acetate. 

It cannot be expected that Minicolor Prints 
will supplant the projected Kodachrome trans- 
parencies, but this new offering of Kodak bridges 
a gap that will be well traveled in the future 
because there are endless uses for these color 

The "2X," 2% x 3% inch Minicolor prints are 
seventy-five cents each, and the larger "5X, $3.50, 
including mounts. 

Kodak Minicolor Prints will be available 
through dealers in September. 

New Color Process 
Announced by Eastman 

For decades photographers, scientists, and re- 
search men have sought a simplified, direct method 
of full-color photography. 

With the introduction in 1935 of Kodachrome 
Film for amateur movies, there was one step for- 
ward in simplified color photography. This was 
followed in 1936 by Kodachrome for miniature 
cameras in 35 mm. and Bantam sizes, and in 1938 
Kodachrome Professional Film ranging in size 
from 2% x 3% up to 11 x 14. 

These materials popularized color reproduction, 
and the public became color conscious in all its 
forms. Only one thing was lacking — a simple 
and practical method of making color prints, but 
today that gap has been bridged. 

With the introduction of a new color print 
process — Kotavachrome Professional Prints at the 
National Photographic- Convention in Chicago — 
Kodak steps still further in the lead in photo- 
graphic and color research and development. 

Kotavachrome Professional Prints are repro- 
duced from Kodachrome Professional Film Trans- 


parencies and must be made by the Eastman 
Kodak Company Rochester Laboratories. Kotava- 
chrome Professional Prints will appeal to adver- 
tisers, commercial and industrial concerns who 
seek the high quality full-color prints for en- 
gravings, displays, convention exhibits, etc. They 
lend themselves admirably to the story-telling, 
product-in-use type of presentations for sales port- 
folios, and architects, interior decorators, land- 
scape gardeners will be able as never before to 
present full-color illustrations of their work. 

Kotavachrome Professional Prints contain dyes 
which, in common with those used in printers" 
inks, artists' paints, and other similar materials, 
may, in time, according to the Eastman Kodak 
Company, change. These prints, therefore, will 
not be replaced or otherwise warranted against 
any change in color. The dyes used in Kotava- 
chrome Professional Prints are stated by the East- 
man Kodak Company to be as stable as possible 
consistent with their other requirements. It is 
important that the prints should not be exposed 
for long to direct sunlight. When they are used 
for display they should be shielded from the 
direct rays of the sun. 

Kotavachrome Professional Prints can be made 
up to 30 x 40 1 inches, a size never before success- 
fully obtained in full color prints. 

For personal, or private use. Kotavachrome 
prints of landscapes, seascapes, and general views 
on walls or tables, will add much to the beauty 
of home interiors. 

Kotavachrome prints will be made by Eastman 
by the Kodavachrome process in the sizes listed 
below. They will be made from all sizes of 
Kodachrome Professional Film Transparencies ex- 
cept 45 x 107 mm., 6 x 13 cm., and 11 x 14 
inches. The maximum enlargement from any 
transparency is limited to six diameters. Trans- 
parencies may be cropped. If this is desired, it 
is only necessary to indicate clearly by an overlay 
accompanying the transparency. 

Prices for Kotavachrome Professional Prints 

Size 8x10 11x14 14x17 16x20 

Price per print. .$12.00 $17.50 $25.00 $33.00 

* 6.00 9.50 14.00 18.50 

Size 18x22 20x24 24x30 30x40 

Price per print. .$39.00 $45.00 $66.00 $90.00 

* 22.50 27.00 40.00 60.00 

'Additional prints from same transparencies 
when ordered at same time. 

Kotavachrome Professional Prints will be avail- 
able through dealers in September. 

New B & J 4x5 Press Camera 

Burke & James, Inc.. are now placing on the 
market a new Press Camera in the popular 4x5- 
inch size. 

The camera features a durable, double exten- 
sion bellows with heavy self-aligning V groove 
focusing track. A large size removable lensboard 
permits instant interchange of lenses. The lens 
standard is fitted with adjustments for lateral 
side shift, extreme rise and fall as well as swing 
and tilt. In addition, the beds of the camera may 
be dropped, providing an extra valuable adjust- 
ment for unusual angle work. 

The Camera back is fitted with an all around, 
folding type focusing hood. The ground glass 
focusing panel is a full 4x5 inches in size — per- 
mitting accurate examination of the image to the 
very corners of the plate. A unique system of 
ventilation eliminates the need for cutting the 
corners of the ground glass. The camera back is 
of the revolving type, permanenty attached to the 
camera body. It may be rotated from horizontal 
to vertical position instantly. A telescopic type 
view finder, mounted on the top of the camera, 
is fitted with a compensating adjustment for 

The camera body and bed are of light weight 
aeroplane metal construction — leather covered — 
no wood parts being used. All standard press ac- 
cessories such as range finder and flash equipment 

Motion Picture Equipment 

Studio and Laboratory Tested Since 1929 


Immediate Delivery 





• SENSITESTER— For Light Tests and Sensitometric 



Cable address: ARTREEVES 

1515 Cahuenga Blvd. 

Hollywood. California, U. S. A. 

may be added — and as this equipment mounts 
directly to the metal body, it may be securely 
anchored in position. The tripod socket is of 
extra heavy design, centered in a large metal plate 
that is securely riveted to the camera body. 

This nw B & J 4x5 Press Camera will sell for 
$49.50, less lens and press accessories. Full in- 
formation and descriptive literature may be ob- 
tained from Burke & James, Inc., 223 W. Madi- 
son Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

"No Relation to Persons . . . '" 

The old saw about "this has no relation 
to persons living or dead" is definitely con- 
tradicted by the majority of character and 
business names in most films. 

In many 20th Century-Fox films sets, 
signs carry the name "Weinberger Clothing 
Co." or "Weinberger Brewery." Assistant 
Director Henry Weinberger is the donor of 
the name in this case. 

In another recent film, a very nasty 
character was named "Charley Hall." The 
owner of this name is an assistant director 
at the same studio. 

The reason for this is that in any case 
where someone might offer a possible ob- 
jection to the use of a name, a name for 
the purpose is "borrowed" from someone 
on the studio lot. 

In one recent picture, the names on tomb- 
stones in a gangster section of a graveyard 
read practically as a roster of the studio's 
assistant directors. But they don't seem 
to mind. 


(Continued from page 17) 

Don Lee Broadcasting System, is the oper- 
ation of a number of television receivers 
in public places in Los Angeles, Holly- 
wood and Santa Monca. These receivers 
are located in the lobbies, bars or grills of 
outstanding hotels and restaurants. A 
score of persons are usually found around 
each of these receivers during the telecasts. 
The locations in Los Angeles and Holly- 
wood follow: Wilshire Brown Derby, 3377 
Wilshire Blvd.; Kiefer's Pine Knot Drive- 
in, 8505 Santa Monica Blvd.; Vine Brown 
Derby, 1268 Vine St.; Griffith Planetarium, 
East Hall, Griffith Park; Hollywood Roose- 
velt Hotel, 7000 Hollywood Blvd.; Town 
House, 639 So. Commonwealth; William 
Penn Hotel, 2208 West 8th St.; and in 
Santa Monica at the Miramar Hotel. 

Production Rush Starts at RKO 

Under the new regime headed by Joseph 
I. Breen, vice-president in charge of pro- 
duction. RKO Radio will put more pic- 
tures before the cameras from August 1st 
to October 1st than ever have been started 
in any similar period in the studio's history. 

Breen and his executive producers, Sol 
Lesser and J. R. McDonough, have lined up 
a program of ten pictures that will tax the 
Gower Street studio stage space to the ut- 
most and carry over to the RKO Pathe lot 
and the RKO Ranch. 

International Photographer for September, 1941 



Reviewed by Ernest Baehraeh 

Phew! Five books this month and tough 
chewin'. But all for the shelf with one ex- 

In their "How to do it" series The 
Studio Publications offers for $3.50 a 
102-page book, "Designing for Motion 
Pictures," by Edward Carrick. 
An excellent piece of work, especially 
for the 8 and 16 mm amateur fans, also for 
those who wish a reference book on their 
shelves. The title is quite misleading, for 
anyone reading this book will have gleaned 
from its pages information concerning al- 
most every phase of the business of making 
a successful and artistic picture. 

Fortunately the author confesses in his 
acknowledgments that the compilation is 
largely due to aid given him by ranking 
technicians of the film world, carpenters, 
scenic artists, drape men, effects, decora- 
tors, art directors, cameramen, etc. 

Briefly, the book instructs or imparts ap- 
proach, plotting, materials, angles, short 
cuts and many other requisites in the mak- 
ing of a successful picture, short or other- 
wise. Well illustrated, approximately sev- 
enty, and loaded with recipes ( long con- 
sidered studio secrets ) , this volume may be 
considered a MUST for the shelf. 

"The Amateur Photographer's 
Handbook," by A. Frederick Collins. 
Price $2.50. 392 pages. Thomas Y. 
Crowell Company, publishers. 
To the beginner an encyclopedia, to the 
initiated a swell reference book. Checked 
the worth of this book by the quiz contest 
method with friends of mine in the pro- 
fession. Not only was there an answer 
contained therein, but it was given with 
detail and simplicity. 

Space is lacking to impart the contents, 
but will say that profusely diagrammed 
and illustrated, this book is well worth 
having, especially if you "haven't kept 
up." I know that the author has done con- 
siderable research in the field and his find- 
ings are based on the practice and expe- 
rience of men best qualified to supply him 
with the information. 

"The Art of Retouching and Im- 
proving Negatives and Prints," 14th 
edition revised, by Johnson and Ham- 
mond, price $2.50, published by Amer- 
ican Photographic Publishing Company. 
A very fine book embracing practically 
every angle of an art I or craft ) that is so 
little understood. Kvery usable method is 
explained in detail; in fact, so much so 
that I could sit right down now and do a 
first class job on the toughest! 

Some of the contents that may interest 
the prospective purchaser deal with: Use 

of make-up; other applications and meth- 
ods of retouching; use of the airbrush 
( much abused usually ) , and last, but not 
least, the book abounds with so-called 

A word of caution in conclusion : The 
author, having given the reader this knowl- 
edge, implies that the subject is one of in- 
telligent approach rather than of down- 
right hard work. 

"Kodachrome," a data book on pho- 
tography in color, published by the 
Eastman Kodak Company, price 25 cents. 
52 pages. 

A revised edition of their handbook, 
Eastman here has given us the answers to 
many of our difficulties with Kodachrome, 
or let us say to some extent color pho- 

New film speeds, revised tables, prices 
and approach for the various types of this 
film. Don't remember the last booklet well, 
but it seems to me this one is more com- 
prehensive in its entirety. 

After careful reading I can safely say to 
anyone using or intending to use Koda- 
chrome, get out your two-bits, buy the 
booklet and save yourself many dollars. 
Your color will be much better! 

"Chemistry for Photographers," 
by Allen R. Greenleaf, 172 pages, pub- 
lished by American Publishing Com- 
pany, price $2.00. 

Here is a book for one that is truly 
lazy. Almost every bit of information con- 
tained therein can be found in your film 
and sensitized paper packages. Photo pe- 
riodicals, Eastman Kodak's "Elementary 
Chemistry for Photographers" take care of 
the rest. 

The arm chair "photog" undoubtedly 
will say this book is necessary to our 
shelf; it deals with photochemistry. Then 
I will say — let us find a nobler work or — 
for the layman, a simpler one. There are 
too many books of this type, unpurchased, 
at your dealers. "Not for our shelf." 


"sweet sclliNq 

(Continued from page 18) 

state, so that consumers may easily identify 
them. An unusually fine musical back- 
ground accompanied the picture. "Wash- 
ington First In Apples" has received im- 
mediate response in all audiences who have 
seen it, Mr. Blackburn reports, and in addi- 
tion tlie film is enjoying wide distribution 
in schools because its scenic and educa- 

tional value is only slightly less than its 
ability to merchandise the Washington 
apple crop. 

Mr. Blackburn next projected the petro- 
leum research movie, "Oil For Aladdin's 
Lamp." This subject is one of the latest 
releases made for the Shell Oil Company, 
and is one of a series known as "Shell 
Progress In Pictures." For this production, 
35 millimeter standard theatrical size nega- 
tive was used from which black-and-white 
16 millimeter reduction prints were made. 
Its length is 1200 feet. With script by Nor- 
man Blackburn and John Eugene Hasty, the 
production was directed by Joris Ivens, 
with Floyd Crosby at the camera. Harlow 
Wilcox does the commentary. An excellent, 
interpretative musical score heightens the 
effect of the picture. 

Assuredly, "Oil For Aladdin's Lamp" 
was an ambitious undertaking in business 
film production for, while covering a diffi- 
cult scientific subject, it had to be made 
so it would appeal to oil dealers and lay- 
men alike. That the assignment was well 
done is evidenced by the completed pic- 
ture. It's an intriguing film, told in easily 
understood sequences, of the scientific dis- 
coveries and experiments which are being 
made at the great $3,500,000 laboratory of 
the Shell Development Company, located 
at Emeryville, in northern California. The 
sizeable task of transferring to the screen 
the progress of science, and of scientific 
experiments affecting everyday life, was 
accomplished in only nine days of actual 
shooting, although advance work on the 
script required weeks of research. 

Right before one's very eyes parade such 
a skillful array of startling experiments 
that you feel like looking around for the 
magic wand that produced them. You ex- 
pected to witness technical abstractions a 
laymen wouldn't understand — but — instead, 
you see synthetic clothing and milady's 
jewelry produced from petroleum! Amaz- 
ed you are by various forms of plastic 
materials that come from oil, and lucite 
plastic that causes a beam of light to bend 
around a corner! You see a laboratory 
"weather-maker" that reproduces the var- 
ious climatic conditions of the universe, at 
the touch of a button! But you are sure 
you're "se